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Doctoral school of energy- and geo-technology January 1520, 2007.

Kuressaare, Estonia

Control methodology of the rolling stock auxiliary power supply


Indrek Roasto, Dmitri Vinnikov
Tallinn University of Technology indrek.roasto@ttu.ee

Abstract
This paper presents the control methodology of the rolling stock auxiliary power supply (APS). Different operation modes such as input voltage regulation, load regulation and combined regulation are considered. Finally a computer model is proposed with simulation results.

CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY (APS)

APS inverter control


Voltage regulator

Switch control

Protections

Supervision and diagnostics


Testing of control circuits

Control of the Soft-Start system

Input side over- and undervoltage protection Processing of driver error signals Under- and over voltage protection on the DC output

Current regulator

Error log

Keywords
DC-DC power converter, half-bridge, voltage mode control, current mode control, auxiliary power supply

Indication to a vehicle driver

Overload protection
Overtemperature protection

Temperature monitoring

Introduction
Up to today half-bridge isolated DC-DC converters were only used in low or middle power applications. The reason was lack of adequate transistors on the market to switch to higher currents and voltages. Now, however, new generation HV (High Voltage) IGBTs allow switching voltages up to 6.5 kV. These IGBTs open up a whole new area of possibilities in power electronics. [1] It was the first effort at Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics of the Tallinn University of Technology to build a 40 kW halfbridge isolated DC-DC converter using HV 6.5 kV IGBTs. The converter will be used in the rolling stock as auxiliary power supply (APS). Old power supplies are based on full-bridge topology and many in series connected IGBTs to achieve the input voltage blocking capability. Using half-bridge topology and new HV IGBTs should make the converter much smaller, more viable and effective.

Fig. 1. Classification of functions of the control system In Fig. 1 classification of functions of the control system of the APS is presented. The topic of the current paper is related to the first block in the first column (Voltage regulator). [2] The voltage regulation is the base of the whole control system. Without the voltage regulation no output voltage stabilization will be possible. If the voltage regulation is working well, then all the other functionalities can be developed step by step. Current regulator is needed to avoid overload and short circuits. The switching control is responsible for the soft start and steadily charging of the DC link capacitors. The APS has various integrated protections against over- and undervoltage, overheating, overload and IGBT driver errors. In addition supervision and diagnostic tools must be included.
4,0 3,8 3,6 3,4 3,2 3,0 2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,0
1 141 281 421 561 701 841 981 1121 1261 1401 1541 1681 1821 1961 2101 2241 2381 2521 2661 2801 2941 3081 3221 3361 3501 3641

1 Control system structure


The major tasks of the converter control system are as follows: 1. 2. generation of the IGBT gate impulses according to the controlled reference values supervision of the states of main functional blocks of the APS, determination and avoidance of emergency situations continuous measurement of operation parameters, such as voltages, currents, etc. If some value exceeds the normal range, the warning, error or failure signal will be given and stored in the error log.

Catenary voltage profile, kV

3.

t,s

Fig. 2. Supply line voltage profile

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L1

D5 R1 IGBT1
tY

C1

R2 D1 TFR1P2W 1 D2 L2
3.5m

tY

C3
280u

E1

+
V

Vout +
V

Rload

Vin

D4 D6 IGBT2 C2 R3 D3

pwm1

PWM
LIMIT

Coupling
G(s)

SUM2

KP := 13.8
GAIN

SUM1
NEG

pwm2

PWM
I

Uset
CONST

KI := 90

350

Fig. 3. Voltage mode control principle of the APS

2 Converter dynamic performance requirements


Voltage regulation is one of the major tasks of the APS inverter. The nominal area of the input voltage reaches from 2200 till 4000 V. Exceeding these limits results in immediate switch-off of the APS. Within these values the input voltage is continuously changing as presented in Fig. 2 (supply line voltage measurements). In contrast, demands on the output voltage are quite high. The nominal value is 350 V. The maximal allowed regulation overshoot is only 2.5 % (i.e. 8.75 V). Therefore the regulator parameters have to be chosen very carefully.

The output voltage is constantly monitored by the voltage transducer Vout. A regulation error will be created by subtracting the output voltage from the set point voltage (Uset). PI regulator consists of two blocks, proportional (GAIN) and integration (I). Between regulator and PWM block a coupling link is situated. The purpose for that is to adjust the regulator output with the PWM input (i.e. with the duty cycle). Since the transistors are working in the hard switching mode, the maximum allowed pulse width is 80% from the half period. To make sure, the duty cycle never exceeds the maximal value a limit block between coupling and PWM blocks will be placed.

3 Development of the control algorithms


There are generally two control strategies for a halfbridge: current mode control and voltage mode control. Current mode control is suitable in high frequency converters. Since the switching frequency of the IGBTs in the current project is low (1 kHz), the voltage control mode was chosen. To avoid the saturation of the transformer, the transistors are working in the hard switching mode. [3] [4] The output voltage regulation is achieved by changing the duty cycle (D) of the IGBT-s as shown in Fig. 3. To adjust the duty cycle a PI regulator was used. The duty cycle is calculated after well known formula (1) of the PI regulator.
t

4 Choosing the regulator parameters


The most difficult problem by the whole simulation process is choosing the right regulator parameters. The parameters should be chosen so, that the regulator was able to keep the output voltage within allowed limits regardless of the input voltage or load changes. There are numerous methods for choosing the regulator parameters but they all have one thing in common, none of them could actually tell you the exact parameters. They always give a region where to look at. After that you just have to experiment with different parameters within the given region, to find out the most appropriate one. In the current work CHS (Chien, Hrones and Reswick) method was used. The preliminary parameters where calculated using following formulas: [5]

D = K P U ERR + K I U ERR d
0

(1)

where D is IGBT duty cycle, KP is proportional gain constant, KI is integral gain constant, UERR is the voltage error in the regulator input, is the integration constant.

KP =
where

0.35 TA K S TH
TA - is the time constant KS - is the amplifier factor TH - is the delay

(2)

123

KI =

KP 1.2 TA
KP - is proportional factor TA - is the time constant

(3)

350 300 250 200 150 100

Vout[V]

where

Three parameters (TA, TU, KS) can not be calculated, they must be measured from a step response (Fig. 4):

Iload[A]
50 0
0,495 0,500 0,505 0,510 0,515 0,519 0,524 t[s] 0,529 0,535 0,539 0,545 0,550 0,555

TH+TA

Fig. 6. Load regulation


within 2800 and 3800 V. The regulation overshoot of the output voltage is smaller than 2.5 %. Therefore the result is positive. According to that regulator parameters were chosen well.

6 Load regulation
TH

Fig. 4 Step response of the system TA= 2.11 ms, TH = 1.33 ms, KS = 2.51.
Using those values preliminary regulator parameter could be calculated:

In case of load regulation the input voltage remains constant and load will be changed. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 6. Load current varies between 35 A and 130 A. Each transient lasts 10 ms. The output voltage remains stable until to the point, where the load starts to decrease. The current drop down causes a little voltage peak in the output. However the regulator was able to keep the voltage within allowed limits.

0.35 2.11 = 0.22 2.51 1.33 0.22 KI = = 86.96 1.2 2.1110 3 KP =


As it was pointed out before those parameters were just a starting point where to look at. After many simulations the final parameters were found out KP = 13.8 and KI = 90.

7 Combined regulation
Combined regulation is the combination of both, input voltage and load regulation. Combined regulation is most close to the real situation in the APS. In this case input voltage as well as load is changing simultaneously. Simulation results are presented in Fig. 7. As it can be seen in the simulation result, the output voltage varies a little. Apparently the worse situation is the case, where input voltage is growing and in the same time the load is decreasing. At that point the voltage flickers at most. However the voltage remains inside allowed limits.
400

5 Input voltage regulation


In this case the input voltage of the APS is changed by constant load. The simulation results are presented in Fig. 5. As it can be seen the output voltage remains stable, where input voltage varies
390 370 350 330 310 290 270
0,495 0,5 0,504 0,509 0,514 0,519 0,523 0,528 0,533 0,538 0,543 0,548 0,553 0,558 0,563 0,568 t[s]

Vout[V]
350 300

Vout[V]

0.1*V in [V]
250 200

0.1*V in [V]

150 100 50 0
0,495 0,499 0,504 0,509 0,514 0,518 0,523 0,527 0,532 0,537 0,542 0,547 0,551 0,557 0,562 0,567

Iload[A]

Fig. 5. Input voltage regulation

Fig. 7. Combined regulation

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8 Conclusion
The simulation gave desired results. The output voltage of the APS was kept within allowed limits. However there were two cases (load and combined regulation), where little voltage peaks occurred in the output. In both cases the voltage peak appeared in the point, where the load started to decrease. Those occasions can be looked as the worst situations of all possible load and voltage changes. Building a test prototype, these situations must be paid a special attention. However there is a possibility that the voltage peak problem will not occur in the real converter, if the load transients are slower than in the simulation. Since the real speed of the load changes was not known, the speed in the simulation was chosen as high as possible. Apparently the lower the changing speed, the more stable is the output voltage.

As it was cleared before voltage regulation is just one part of the whole control system. As next step other control blocks must be added step by step until the control system is complete.

References
[1] [2]

www.eupec.com D. Vinnikov, Research, Design and Implementation of Auxiliary Power Supplies for the Light Rail Vehicles, PhD Thesis. Tallinn 2005 K. H. Billings, Switchmode Power Supply Handbook, Mcgraw-Hill, inc. Abraham I. Pressman, Switching Power Supply Design, 2nd Edition R. Naadel, Automaatjuhtimise alused Masters Thesis

[3] [4] [5]

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