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# Twodegreeoffreedomsystems

Equationsofmotionforforcedvibration
Freevibrationanalysisofanundampedsystem
Introduction Introduction
h d d d d b h Systemsthatrequiretwoindependentcoordinatestodescribetheir
motionarecalledtwodegreeoffreedomsystems.
f N b
mass each of motion of system in the system the of
types possible of number masses of Number freedom of degrees
of Number
=
y y
Introduction Introduction
h f d f f d f h Therearetwoequationsforatwodegreeoffreedomsystem,oneforeach
mass(preciselyoneforeachdegreeoffreedom).
Theyaregenerallyintheformofcoupleddifferentialequationsthatis,
eachequationinvolvesallthecoordinates.
Ifaharmonicsolutionisassumedforeachcoordinate,theequationsof
motionleadtoafrequencyequationthatgivestwonaturalfrequenciesof q y q g q
thesystem.
Introduction Introduction
If i it bl i iti l it ti th t ib t t f th Ifwegivesuitableinitialexcitation,thesystemvibratesatoneofthese
naturalfrequencies.Duringfreevibrationatoneofthenatural
frequencies,theamplitudesofthetwodegreesoffreedom(coordinates)
are related in a specified manner and the configuration is called a normal arerelatedinaspecifiedmannerandtheconfigurationiscalledanormal
mode,principlemode,ornaturalmodeofvibration.
Thusatwodegreeoffreedomsystemhastwonormalmodesofvibration
correspondingtotwonaturalfrequencies.
Ifwegiveanarbitraryinitialexcitationtothesystem,theresultingfree
vibrationwillbeasuperpositionofthetwonormalmodesofvibration.
However,ifthesystemvibratesundertheactionofanexternalharmonic , y
force,theresultingforcedharmonicvibrationtakesplaceatthefrequency
oftheappliedforce.
Introduction Introduction
d f h h h f h f f Asisevidentfromthesystemsshowninthefigures,theconfigurationofa
systemcanbespecifiedbyasetofindependentcoordinatessuchas
length,angleorsomeotherphysicalparameters.Anysuchsetof
coordinatesiscalledgeneralizedcoordinates.
Although the equations of motion of a two degree of freedom system are Althoughtheequationsofmotionofatwodegreeoffreedomsystemare
generallycoupledsothateachequationinvolvesallcoordinates,itis
alwayspossibletofindaparticularsetofcoordinatessuchthateach
i f i i l di Th i f i equationofmotioncontainsonlyonecoordinate.Theequationsofmotion
arethenuncoupled andcanbesolvedindependentlyofeachother.Such
calledprinciplecopordinates.
Equationsofmotionforforced
vibration
d l d d d f f d Consideraviscouslydampedtwodegreeoffreedomspringmasssystem
showninthefigure.
Themotionofthesystemiscompletelydescribedbythecoordinatesx1(t)
andx2(t),whichdefinethepositionsofthemassesm1 andm2 atanytimet
from the respective equilibrium positions fromtherespectiveequilibriumpositions.
Equationsofmotionforforced
vibration
h l f d h d l TheexternalforcesF1 andF2 actonthemassesm1 andm2,respectively.
Thefreebodydiagramsofthemassesareshowninthefigure.
TheapplicationofNewtonssecondlawofmotiontoeachofthemasses pp
givestheequationofmotion:
Equationsofmotionforforced
vibration
b h h f l h Itcanbeseenthatthefirstequationcontainstermsinvolvingx2,whereas
thesecondequationcontainstermsinvolvingx1.Hence,theyrepresenta
systemoftwocoupledsecondorderdifferentialequations.Wecan
thereforeexpectthatthemotionofthem1 willinfluencethemotionof
m2,andvicaversa.
Equationsofmotionforforced
vibration
h b f Theequationscanbewritteninmatrixformas:
where [m] [c] and [k] are mass damping and stiffness matrices where[m],[c]and[k]aremass,dampingandstiffnessmatrices,
respectivelyandx(t)andF(t)arecalledthedisplacementandforce
vectors,respectively.whicharegivenby:
Equationsofmotionforforced
vibration
b h h [ ] [ ] d [k] ll h Itcanbeseenthatthematrices[m],[c]and[k]areall2x2matriceswhose
elementsaretheknownmasses,dampingcoefficienst,andstiffnessofthe
system,respectively.
Further,thesematricescanbeseentobesymmetric,sothat:
Freevibrationanalysisofanundampedsystem
For the free vibration analysis of the system shown in the figure we set Forthefreevibrationanalysisofthesystemshowninthefigure,weset
F1(t)=F2(t)=0.Further,ifthedampingisdisregarded,c1=c2=c3=0,andthe
equationsofmotionreduceto:
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
d k h h d ll Weareinterestedinknowingwhetherm1 andm2 canoscillate
harmonicallywiththesamefrequencyandphaseanglebutwithdifferent
amplitudes.Assumingthatitispossibletohaveharmonicmotionofm1
andm2 atthesamefrequencye andthesamephaseangle|,wetakethe
solutionstotheequations
as:
h X d X h d h i li d f whereX1 andX2 areconstantsthatdenotethemaximumamplitudesof
x1(t)andx2(t)and| isthephaseangle.Substitutingtheabovetwo
solutionsintothefirsttwoequations,wehave:
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Sincetheaboveequationsmustbesatisfiedforallvaluesoftimet,the
termsbetweenbracketsmustbezero.Thisyields,
which represents two simultaneous homogeneous algebraic equations in whichrepresentstwosimultaneoushomogeneousalgebraicequationsin
theunknownsX1 andX2.Itcanbeseenthattheaboveequationcanbe
satisfiedbythetrivialsoutionX1=X2=0,whichimpliesthatthereisno
ib i F i i l l i f X d X h d i f vibration.ForanontrivialsolutionofX1 andX2,thedeterminantof
coefficientsofX1 andX2 mustbezero.
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Theaboveequationiscalledthefrequency orcharacteristicequation
( ) 0 } ) )( {( } ) ( { ) (
2
2 3 2 2 1
2
1 3 2 2 2 1
4
2 1
= + + + + + + k k k k k m k k m k k m m e e
becausesolutionofthisequationyieldsthefrequenciesofthe
characteristicvaluesofthesystem.Therootsoftheaboveequationare
givenby: g y
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Thi h th t it i ibl f th t t h t i i l h i Thisshowsthatitispossibleforthesystemtohaveanontrivialharmonic
solutionoftheform
whene=e1 ande=e2 givenby:
WeshalldenotethevaluesofX1 andX2 correspondingtoe1 as
andthosecorrespondingtoe2 as.
Freevibrationanalysisofan
F th i
undampedsystem
Further,since
theaboveequationishomogeneous,onlytheratiosand
r2=canbefound.For,theequations
give:
Noticethatthetworatiosareidentical.
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Th l d f ib ti di t b Thenormalmodesofvibrationcorrespondingtocanbe
expressed,respectively,as:
Thevectors,whichdenotethenormalmodesofvibrationare
knownasthemodalvectorsofthesystem.Thefreevibrationsolutionor y
themotionintimecanbeexpressedusing
as: as:
wheretheconstantsaredeterminedbytheinitial
conditions.
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
I iti l diti Initialconditions:
Eachofthetwoequationsofmotion,
involvessecondordertimederivatives;henceweneedtospecifytwo
initial conditions for each mass initialconditionsforeachmass.
subjectingittothespecificinitialconditions.
However,foranyothergeneralinitialconditions,bothmodeswillbe
excited.Theresultingmotion,whichisgivenbythegeneralsolutionofthe
equations
canbeobtainedbyalinearsuperpositionoftwonormalmodes.
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
I iti l diti Initialconditions:
constants. are c and c where
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
2 2 1 1
t x c t x c t x

+ =
wecanchoosec1=c2=1withnolossofgenerality.Thus,thecomponentsofthe
vectorcanbeexpressedas:
) (t x

wheretheunknowncanbedeterminedfromtheinitial
conditions
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Freevibrationanalysisofan
undampedsystem
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
l d h l f d Example:Findthenaturalfrequenciesand
modeshapesofaspringmasssystem,which
isconstrainedtomoveinthevertical
direction.
Solution:Theequationsofmotionaregiven
by: by:
Byassumingharmonicsolutionas:
thefrequencyequationcanbeobtainedby:
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
Thesolutiontotheaboveequationgivesthenaturalfrequencies:
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
From
theamplituderatiosaregivenby:
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
From
Thenaturalmodesaregivenby
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
h l d Thenaturalmodesare
givenby:
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
b h h h b f d h Itcanbeseenthatwhenthesystemvibratesinitsfirstmode,the
amplitudesofthetwomassesremainthesame.Thisimpliesthatthe
lengthofthemiddlespringremainsconstant.Thusthemotionsofthe
mass1andmass2areinphase.
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
h h b d d h b l h Whenthesystemvibratesinitssecondmode,theequationsbelowshow
thatthedisplacementsofthetwomasseshavethesamemagnitudewith
oppositesigns.Thusthemotionsofthemass1andmass2areoutof
phase.Inthiscase,themidpointofthemiddlespringremainsstationary
foralltime.Suchapointiscalledanode.
Frequencies of a mass spring system Frequenciesofamassspringsystem
Usingequations
themotion(generalsolution)ofthesystemcanbeexpressedas:
Forced vibration analysis Forcedvibrationanalysis
Th ti f ti f l t d f f d t d Theequationofmotionofageneraltwodegreeoffreedomsystemunder
externalforcescanbewrittenas:
Weshallconsidertheexternalforcestobeharmonic:
as:
whereX1 andX2 are,ingeneral,complexquantitiesthatdependone and
thesystemparameters.Substitutingtheabovetwoequationsintothefirst
one:
Forced vibration analysis Forcedvibrationanalysis
b Weobtain:
IfwedefineatermcalledmechanicalimpedanceZrs(ie) as:
d i h fi i and write the first equation as:
where
Forced vibration analysis Forcedvibrationanalysis
h Theequation
canbesolvedtoobtain:
Where the inverse of the impedance matrix is given by: Wheretheinverseoftheimpedancematrixisgivenby:
Therefore,thesolutionsare:
By substituting these into the below equation the solutions can be Bysubstitutingtheseintothebelowequation,thesolutionscanbe
obtained.
Multidegreeoffreedomsystems
Modelingofcontinuoussystemsasmultidegreeoffreedomsystems
Eigenvalueproblem
Multidegree of freedom systems Multidegreeoffreedomsystems
A t t d b f t i i t contin o s d Asstatedbefore,mostengineeringsystemsarecontinuous and
haveaninfinitenumberofdegreesoffreedom.Thevibration
analysisofcontinuoussystemsrequiresthesolutionofpartial
differential equations which is quite difficult differentialequations,whichisquitedifficult.
Infact,analyticalsolutionsdonotexistformanypartialdifferential
ti Th l i f ltid f f d t th equations.Theanalysisofamultidegreeoffreedomsystemonthe
otherhand,requiresthesolutionofasetofordinarydifferential
equations,whichisrelativelysimple.Hence,forsimplicityof
analysis continuous systems are often approximated as analysis,continuoussystemsareoftenapproximatedas
multidegreeoffreedomsystems.
f f Forasystemhavingndegreesoffreedom,therearenassociated
naturalfrequencies,eachassociatedwithitsownmodeshape.
Multidegree of freedom systems Multidegreeoffreedomsystems
Different methods can be used to approximate a continuous system as a Differentmethodscanbeusedtoapproximateacontinuoussystemasa
multidegreeoffreedomsystem.Asimplemethodinvolvesreplacingthe
distributedmass orinertiaofthesystembyafinitenumberoflumpedmassesor
rigidbodies.
Thelumpedmassesareassumedtobeconnectedbymasslesselasticanddamping
members.
Linearcoordinatesareusedtodescribethemotionofthelumpedmasses.Such
modelsarecalledlumpedparameteroflumpedmassordiscretemasssystems.
Theminimumnumberofcoordinatesnecessarytodescribethemotionofthe
lumpedmassesandrigidbodiesdefinesthenumberofdegreesoffreedomofthe
system.Naturally,thelargerthenumberoflumpedmassesusedinthemodel,the
higher the accuracy of the resulting analysis highertheaccuracyoftheresultinganalysis.
Multidegree of freedom systems Multidegreeoffreedomsystems
Some problems automatically Someproblemsautomatically
indicatethetypeoflumped
parametermodeltobeused.
Forexample,thethreestorey
buildingshowninthefigure
automaticallysuggestsusinga y gg g
threelumpedmassmodelas
indicatedinthefigure.
Inthismodel,theinertiaofthe
systemisassumedtobe
concentratedasthreepoint
masses located at the floor masseslocatedatthefloor
levels,andtheelasticitiesofthe
columnsarereplacedbythe
springs. p g
Multidegree of freedom systems Multidegreeoffreedomsystems
h l h d f Anotherpopularmethodofapproximatingacontinuoussystemasa
multidegreeoffreedomsysteminvolvesreplacingthegeometryofthe
systembyalargenumberofsmallelements.
Byassumingasimplesolutionwithineachelement,theprinciplesof
compatibility andequilibrium areusedtofindanapproximatesolutionto
the original system This method is known as the finite element method theoriginalsystem.Thismethodisknownasthefiniteelementmethod.
UsingNewtonssecondlawtoderive
equationsofmotion
The following procedure can be adopted to derive the equations of motion of Thefollowingprocedurecanbeadoptedtoderivetheequationsofmotionof
amultidegreeoffreedomsystemusingNewtonssecondlawofmotion.
1 Set up suitable coordinates to describe the positions of the various point 1. Setupsuitablecoordinatestodescribethepositionsofthevariouspoint
massesandrigidbodiesinthesystem.Assumesuitablepositivedirections
forthedisplacements,velocitiesandaccelerationsofthemassesandrigid
bodies.
2. Determinethestaticequilibriumconfigurationofthesystemandmeasure
thedisplacementsofthemassesandrigidbodiesfromtheirrespectivestatic
equilibrium positions equilibriumpositions.
3. Drawthefreebodydiagramofeachmassorrigidbodyinthesystem.
Indicate the spring damping and external forces acting on each mass or rigid Indicatethespring,dampingandexternalforcesactingoneachmassorrigid
bodywhenpositivedisplacementorvelocityaregiventothatmassorrigid
body.
UsingNewtonssecondlawtoderive
equationsofmotion
l d l f h d b d h b 4.ApplyNewtonssecondlawofmotiontoeachmassorrigidbodyshownby
thefreebodydiagramas:
Example:Derivetheequationsofmotionofthespringmassdampersystem
h i h fi showninthefigure.
UsingNewtonssecondlawtoderive
equationsofmotion
f b d d f d l d l f DrawfreebodydiagramsofmassesandapplyNewtonssecondlawof
motion.Thecoordinatesdescribingthepositionsofthemasses,xi(t),are
measuredfromtheirrespectivestaticequilibriumpositions,asindicated
inthefigure.TheapplicationoftheNewtonssecondlawofmotionto
massmi gives:
or
Theequationsofmotionofthemassesm1 andm2 canbederivedfromthe
aboveequationsbysettingi=1alongwithxo=0andi=nalongwithxn+1=0,
respectively respectively.
Equations of motion in matrix form Equationsofmotioninmatrixform
h f f h b l b Theequationsofmotioninmatrixformintheaboveexamplecanbe
expressedas:
Equations of motion in matrix form Equationsofmotioninmatrixform
Equations of motion in matrix form Equationsofmotioninmatrixform
F d d t th ti f ti d t Foranundampedsystem,theequationsofmotionreduceto:
Thedifferentialequationsofthespringmasssystemconsideredinthe
example,canbeseentobecoupled.Eachequationinvolvesmorethan
onecoordinate.Thismeansthattheequationscannotbesolved
individuallyoneatatime;theycanonlybesolvedsimultaneously.
stiffnesses are coupled that is the stiffness matrix has at least one stiffnessesarecoupled thatisthestiffnessmatrixhasatleastone
nonzerooffdiagonalterm.Ontheotherhand,ifthemassmatrixhasat
leastoneoffdiagonaltermnonzero,thesystemissaidtobedynamically
coupled.Further,ifboththestiffnessandthemassmatriceshavenonzero p ,
offdiagonalterms,thesystemissaidtobecoupledbothstaticallyand
dynamically.
Undamped free vibrations Undampedfreevibrations
h f f f l b d d b Theequationsofmotionforafreelyvibratingundampedsystemcanbe
0 kx x c x m = + +
inwhich0isazerovector.Theproblemofvibrationanalysisconsistsof
determiningtheconditionsunderwhichtheequilibriumconditionexpressed
by the above equation will be satisfied. bytheaboveequationwillbesatisfied.
ByanalogywiththebehavourofSDOFsystems,itwillbeassumedthatthe
freevibrationmotionissimpleharmonic(thefirstequationbelow),which
may be expressed for a multi degree of freedom system as: maybeexpressedforamultidegreeoffreedomsystemas:
x x x
x x
2 2
) sin(
) sin( ) (
e u e e
u e
= + =
+ =
t
t t

Intheaboveexpressions,representstheshapeofthesystem(whichdoes
notchangewithtime;onlytheamplitudevaries)andu isaphaseangle.The
thirdequationaboverepresentstheaccelerationsinthefreevibration.
x
q p
Undamped free vibrations Undampedfreevibrations
S b tit ti Substituting
x x x
x x
2 2
) sin(
) sin( ) (
e u e e
u e
= + =
+ =
t
t t

intheequation
we obtain:
0 kx x c x m = + +
0 k m + + + ) i ( ) i (
2
u u t t weobtain:
which(sincethesinetermisarbitraryandmaybeomitted)maybewritten:
0 x k x m = + + + ) sin( ) sin(
2
u e u e e t t
| | 0 x m k =
2
e
Theaboveequationisonewayofexpressingwhatiscalledaneigenvalue
orcharacteristicvalueproblem.Thequantitiesaretheeigenvaluesor
characteristicvaluesindicatingthesquareofthefreevibration
2
e
frequencies,whilethecorrespondingdisplacementvectorsexpressthe
correspondingshapesofthevibratingsystem knownastheeigenvectors
ormodeshapes.
x
Undamped free vibrations Undampedfreevibrations
It b h b C l th t th l ti f thi t f ItcanbeshownbyCramersrulethatthesolutionofthissetof
simultaneousequationsisoftheform:
0
x =
Henceanontrivialsolutionispossibleonlywhenthedenominator
determinantvanishes.Inotherwords,finiteamplitudefreevibrationsare
m k
x
2
e
=
, p
possibleonlywhen
The above equation is called the frequency equation of the system
0
2
= m k e
Theaboveequationiscalledthefrequencyequationofthesystem.
ExpandingthedeterminantwillgiveanalgebraicequationoftheNth
degreeinthefrequencyparameterforasystemhavingNdegreesof
freedom
2
e
freedom.
TheNrootsofthisequationrepresentthefrequenciesof
theNmodesofvibrationwhicharepossibleinthesystem.
( )
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
,...., , ,
N
e e e e
Undamped free vibrations Undampedfreevibrations
Th d h i th l t f i ll d th fi t d th t Themodehavingthelowestfrequencyiscalledthefirstmode,thenext
higherfrequencyisthesecondmode,etc.
ll b ll d h f sequence,willbecalledthefrequencyvectore.

e
e
2
1
Normalization:
It t d li th t th ib ti d lit d bt i d f th

=
N
e
e e

3
2
Itwasnotedearlierthatthevibrationmodeamplitudesobtainedfromthe
eigenproblemsolutionarearbitrary;anyamplitudewillsatisfythebasic
frequencyequation
0
2
= m k e
andonlytheresultingshapesareuniquelydefined.
0 = m k e
Normalization of modes Normalizationofmodes
h l d b d b h l d f d f Intheanalysisprocessdescribedabove,theamplitudeofonedegreeof
freedom(thefirstactually)hasbeensettounity,andtheother
displacementshavebeendeterminedrelativetothisreferencevalue.This
iscallednormalizingthemodeshapeswithrespecttothespecified
referencecoordinate.
Othernormalizingproceduresalsoarefrequentlyused;e.g.,inmany
computerprograms,theshapesarenormalizedrelativetothemaximum
di l l i h d h h i h displacementvalueineachmoderatherthanwithrespecttoany
particularcoordinate.Thus,themaximumvalueineachmodalvectoris
unity,whichprovidesconvenientnumbersforuseinsubsequent
calculations.
Normalization of modes Normalizationofmodes
Th li i d t ft d i t f Thenormalizingproceduremostoftenusedincomputerprogramsfor
amplitudetotheamplitude,whichsatisfiesthecondition
n
|

Thiscanbeaccomplishedbycomputingthescalarfactor
1

=
n
T
n
| | m
n
M

=
m
T
n
v m v
whererepresentsanarbitrarilydeterminedmodalamplitude,andthen
computingthenormalizedmodeshapesasfollows:
n
v
2 / 1

=
n n
M
n
v |
Bysimplesubstitution,itiseasytoshowthatthisgivsthedesiredresult.A
consequenceofthistypeofnormalizingtogetherwiththemodal
orthogonalityrelationshipsrelativetothemassmatrixisthat
n n n
|
where| isthecompletesetofNnormalizedmodeshapesandIisanNxN
identitymatrix.Themodeshapesnormalizedinthisfashionaresaidtobe
I m
n
T
n
=

orthonormalrelativetothemassmatrix.
Mode shapes of a four storey 2D frame Modeshapesofafourstorey2Dframe
Amodelofafourstorythreebayframecanbeevaluatedto
determinethemodeshapes. This2Dmodelisfromatypical
building from the Marmara region in Turkey buildingfromtheMarmararegioninTurkey.
Generally the first mode of vibration is the one of primary Generally,thefirstmodeofvibrationistheoneofprimary
interest. Thefirstmodeusuallyhasthelargestcontributionto
thestructure'smotion. Theperiodofthismodeisthelongest p g
andthenaturalfrequencyisthelowest.
Mode shapes of a four storey 2D frame Modeshapesofafourstorey2Dframe
Firstmodeshape st ode s ape
Mode shapes of a four storey 2D frame Modeshapesofafourstorey2Dframe
Secondmodeshape Seco d ode s ape
Mode shapes of a four storey 2D frame Modeshapesofafourstorey2Dframe
Thirdmodeshape d ode s ape
Undamped free vibrations Undampedfreevibrations
l Example:
Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a vibrating system for which Determinetheeigenvaluesandeigenvectorsofavibratingsystemforwhich
Example Example
Example Example
l Solution:
Whenthecharacteristicequationpossessesrepeatedroots,the
correspondingmodeshapesarenotunique. p g p q
Example Example
l Solution:
Rigid body motion Rigidbodymotion
d h h d h Anunrestrainedsystemisonethathasnorestraintsorsupportsandthat
canmoveasarigidbody.Itisnotuncommontoseeinpracticesystems
thatarenotattachedtoanystationaryframe.
Suchsystemsarecapableofmovingasrigidbodies,whichcanbe
consideredasmodesofoscillationwithzerofrequency.
A semidefinite system such as this has a singular stiffness matrix In Asemidefinitesystemsuchasthis,hasasingularstiffnessmatrix.In
systemsthatarenotproperlyrestrained,rigidbodydisplacementscan
takeplacewithouttheapplicationofanyforce.Thus,denotingapossible
i id b d di l b h rigidbodydisplacementbyur,wehave
For a nonzero ur the above equation can be satisfied provided only that K
0 Ku f
r r
= =
Foranonzerour,theaboveequationcanbesatisfiedprovidedonlythatK
issingular.Inthiscase,thebelowequationcanonlybesatisfiedwhen
e=0.
| | 0 u M K
r
=
2
e | |
Rigid body motion Rigidbodymotion
h d b d d l h d l d h h Therigidbodydisplacementsarethosedisplacementmodesthatthe
elementmustbeabletoundergoasarigidbodywithoutstressesbeing
developedinit.
Rigidbodydisplacementshapesarealsoreferredtoasrigidbodymodes.
Asystemcan,ofcourse,havemorethanonerigidbodymode.Inthemost
general case up to six rigid body modes are possible For example a generalcase,uptosixrigidbodymodesarepossible.Forexample,a
spacecraftoranaeroplaneinflighthasallsixpossiblerigidbodymodes,
threetranslationsandthreerotations,onealongeachofthethreeaxis.
Rigidbodymodesofaplanestresselement g y p
Orthogonality of modes Orthogonalityofmodes
h l d d d ff l f b Thenaturalmodescorrespondingtodifferentnaturalfrequenciescanbe
showntosatisfythefollowingorthogonalityconditions.When: r n
e e =
0 0
T T
| | | | k
Proof: Thenthnaturalfrequencyandmodesatisfy
0 0 = =
r
T
n r
T
n
| | | | m k
Premultiplying the above equation by
n n n
| e | m k
2
=
T
|
Premultiplyingtheaboveequationby
Similarlytherthnaturalfrequencyandmodeshapesatisfy
r
|
n
T
r n n
T
r
| | e | | m k
2
=
y q y p y
r r r
| e | m k
2
=
Orthogonality of modes Orthogonalityofmodes
l l b | | k
2
T
|
Premultiplyingbygives:
r r r
| e | m k
2
=
T
n
|
r
T
n r r
T
n
| | e | | m k
2
=
Thetransposeofthematrixontheleftsideofwill
equalthetransposeofthematrixontherightsideoftheequation:
n
T
r n n
T
r
| | e | | m k
2
=
Subtractingthefirstequationfromthesecondequation:
r
T
n n r
T
n
| | e | | m k
2
=
Theequationistruewhenwhichforsystemswith
( ) 0
2 2
=
r
T
n r n
| | e e m
0 =
r
T
n
| | m r n
e e =
q y
positivenaturalfrequenciesimpliesthat
r n
| |
r n
e e =
Modalequationsforundamped
systems
h f f l h d TheequationsofmotionforalinearMDOFsystemwithoutdampingis:
The simultaneous solution of these coupled equations of motion that we
p

kx x m = +

Thesimultaneoussolutionofthesecoupledequationsofmotionthatwe
haveillustratedbeforefora2dofsystemsubjectedtoharmonic
excitationisnotefficientforsystemswithmoreDOF,norisitfeasiblefor
systems excited by other types of forces Consequently it is advantegous systemsexcitedbyothertypesofforces.Consequently,itisadvantegous
totransformtheseequationstomodalcoordinates.
Thedisplacementvectorx ofaMDOFsystemcanbeexpandedinterms
ofmodalcontributions.Thus,thedynamicresponseofasystemcanbe
expressedas:
N

) ( ) ( ) (
1
t t q t
r
r
r
q x = =

=
|
Modalequationsforundamped
systems
h h l d ( )
N

Usingtheequation,thecoupledequationsinxj(t)
givenbelow
p

kx x m = +

) ( ) ( ) (
1
t t q t
r
r
r
q x = =

=
|
canbetransformedtoasetofuncoupledequationswithmodal
coordinatesqn(t)astheunknowns.Substitutingthefirstequationintothe
second:
p

second:
p

k m
N
r
r r r r
N
r
(t ) q (t ) q | | = +

= = 1 1

p

k m
T
N
T
N
T
r r
(t ) q (t ) q | | | | |
|
= +

T
n
1 1
: gives by equation in this each term ying Premultipl
p

k m
n
r
r r n r r
r
n
(t ) q (t ) q | | | | | = +

= = 1 1
Modalequationsforundamped
systems
B f th th lit l ti ll 0 0
T T
| | | | k Becauseoftheorthogonalityrelations,all
termsineachofthesummationsvanishexceptther=nterm,reducingthe
equationto:
0 0 = =
r
T
n r
T
n
| | | | m k
( ) ( )
T T T
( ) ( )
) ( ) ( ) (
or
t P t q K t q M
(t ) q (t ) q
T
n n n
T
n n n
T
n
+
= +

p

k m | | | | |
where
Th b ti b i t t d th ti i th
) ( ) ( ) ( t P t q K t q M
n n n n n
= +
) ( ) ( t t P K M
T
n n n
T
n n n
T
n n
p k m | | | | | = = =
Theaboveequationmaybeinterpretedastheequationgoverningthe
responseqn(t)oftheSDOFsystemwithmassMn,stiffnessKn,andexciting
forcePn(t).
Th f M i ll d h li d f h h l d K ThereforeMn iscalledthegeneralizedmassforthenthnaturalmode,Kn
thegeneralizedstiffnessforthenthmode,andPn(t)thegeneralizedforce
forthenthmode.Theseparametersonlydependonthenthmode.
Modal equations for damped systems Modalequationsfordampedsystems
h d l d d h f f Whendampingisincluded,theequationsofmotionforaMDOFsystem
are:
p

kx x c x m = + +

Usingthetransformation
p

) ( ) ( ) (
1
t t q t
r
N
r
r
q x = =

=
|
where|r arethenaturalmodesofthesystemwithoutdamping,these
equationscanbewrittenintermsofthemodalcoordinates.Unlikethe
caseofundampedsystems,thesemodalequationsmaybecoupled
1 r=
p y , q y p
throughthedampingterms.However,forcertainformsofdampingthat
arereasonableidealizationsformanystructures,theequationsbecome
uncoupled just as for undamped systems Substituting the second uncoupled,justasforundampedsystems.Substitutingthesecond
equationintothefirst,weobtain:
p

k c m = + +

N
r r
N
r r r r
N
(t ) q (t ) q (t ) q | | | p

= = = r
r r
r
r r r r
r
( ) q ( ) q ( ) q
1 1 1
| | |
Modal equations for damped systems Modalequationsfordampedsystems
l l h h b
T
| Premultiplyingeachterminthisequationbygives:
T
n
|

t k c m
T
n
N
r r
T
n
N
r r
T
n r r
N
T
n
(t ) q (t ) q (t ) q | | | | | | | = + +

whichcanberewrittenas:

p
n
r
r r n
r
r r n r r
r
n
( ) q ( ) q ( ) q | | | | | | |

= = = 1 1 1
h
(t ) P (t ) q K (t ) q C (t ) q M
n n n
N
r
r nr n n
= + +

=1

where
The above N equations can be written in matrix form as:
r
T
n nr
C | | c =
TheaboveNequationscanbewritteninmatrixformas:
HereCisanondiagonalmatrixofcoefficientsCnr.
(t) P Kq q C q M = + +

Modal equations for damped systems Modalequationsfordampedsystems
Themodalequationswillbeuncoupledifthesystemhasclassical
damping.ForsuchsystemsCnr=0ifn=randCn canbeexpressedas:
M C e , 2 =
Forsuchsystems:
n n n n
M C e , 2 =
Dividing by M
) (t P q K q C q M
n n n n n n n
= + +
DividingbyMn:
) (
2
2
n
n
n n n n n n
M
t P
q q q e e , = + +
mode. nth for the ratio damping the is where
n
n
,