Volume2,No.2,February2013
_________________________________________________________________________________
www.borjournals.comBlueOceanResearchJournals7
=
(2)
JournalofEngineering,Computers&AppliedSciences(JEC&AS)ISSNNo:23195606
Volume2,No.2,February2013
_________________________________________________________________________________
www.borjournals.comBlueOceanResearchJournals8
+
(
(


.

\

=
n n
k
F
X
e
e
e
e
(3)
The excitation force may be attained by using the
following equation:
2
2
2
0
2 1 .
(
+
(
(


.

\

=
n n
X k F
e
e
e
e
(4)
2.3 Systems Transmissibility (TR)
Transmissibility (Tr) is defined as a comparison of
amplitude from the transmitted force that is being
produced from the system itself.
Transmissibility or the passing ability is, basically,
the ratio between the force going through the spiral
and the damper (F
T
) with the proper functioning of
the stimulator on the system (F
0
). Prior to find the
transmissibility of the system, we need to find the
values of variables m, c, , e, e
n
.
Formula for the transmissibility (TR) And the
Transmissibility force (F
TR
)
The rigidity of foundation spiral (k
foundation
) is found
by using the following equation:
( ) ( )
2
3 a a l EI k + = (6)
Where,
E = Modulus elasticity of the foundation (N/m
4
)
I = Inertia momentum of the foundation (m
4
)
l = Length of the foundation supporting the
machine (from fulcrum to bond)
a = Length of foundation from fulcrum to front
The calculation of systems natural frequency,
damper constant, critical silencing, and silencing
factor. The formula for calculation of silencing
coefficient (c) is acquired by equation:
A EI c / = (7)
Where,
= foundations density (kg/m
3
)
A = cross section area of foundation (m
2
)
Since there is no silencing function at this part,
therefore the coefficient value is gained from the
form of the foundation.
2.4 Critical damping coefficient (c
cr
)
The silencing factor or the silencing ratio () is
acquired through the comparison of the silencing
coefficient value (c) and the critical silencing
coefficient (c
cr
) which is calculated using the
following equation
km c
cr
2 = or c
cr
= 2m.e
n
(8)
2.5 The natural frequency of the system e
n
is
calculated by using equation (9)
m
k
n
= e (9)
2.6. Excitation frequency of the system e
is calculated using the following equation:
s rad
n
/
60
. . 2 t
e =
(10)
The methods used to control the vibration are: [5]
1. Controling the natural frequency of the
system and avoid resonance below the external
excitation.
2. Decrease the respons of the system by
adding a neutralizer (vibration damper)
3. Decrease the transmission of excitation
force from one part to another using vibration
isolator.
4. Comparison to the currently applied standards.
The level of vibration on a machine will affect to
the performance of the machine system itself, and
also the health of the engine operator. To ensure
the safety and comfort of the operator and the
system, a limitation is defined for the level of
vibration on a machine [67].
JournalofEngineering,Computers&AppliedSciences(JEC&AS)ISSNNo:23195606
Volume2,No.2,February2013
_________________________________________________________________________________
www.borjournals.comBlueOceanResearchJournals9
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Fig
3.4 Stand
The para
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. RESULT
.1. Vibration
oundation
Figure: 6 Vib
closed
At Fig.6 and Fi
he vibration am
50  2200 rpm
han that witho
mplitudes are
without absorbe
Graphs Fig. 8
oints A, B, C
without absorb
re at ranges (2
Figure. 7 Vib
closed
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
A
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,
m
m
M
b
SNNo:23195
___________
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AND DISC
n Amplitud
bration amplit
d to engine 1 w
ig.7 is shown
mplitude at po
m at engine1
out absorber.
(2730)m an
er respectively
and Fig. 9 s
C, D, E, F,
ber, where at p
2526)m and
bration amplit
to engine 1 w
B C
Measuring po
5606
_________
rchJournals
CUSSION
de on the
tude at various
with absorber
that the magn
oint A,B,C,D,E
with absorbe
At point F e
nd (5759)m
y.
how the amp
at engine 2
point F the a
(5660)m.
tude at various
without absorbe
D E
oints around e
10
installed
s points
r
nitudes of
E and F at
er are less
ngine1the
m with and
plitudes at
with and
amplitudes
s points
er
F
5
1
1
2
rp
engine 1
550
1100
1650
2200
pm
JournalofEngineering,Computers&AppliedSciences(JEC&AS)ISSNNo:23195606
Volume2,No.2,February2013
_________________________________________________________________________________
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Figure. 8 Vibration amplitude at various points
closed to engine 2 with absorber
Figure. 9 Vibration amplitude at various points
closed to engine 2 without absorber
Fig.10 Amplitude reduction at points around
engine 1 with absorber
Fig.11 Amplitude reduction at points around
engine 1 without absorber
Fig.12 Amplitude reduction at points around
engine 2 with absorber
Fig.13 Amplitude reduction at points around
engine 2 without absorber
Fig.10, Fig.11, Fig.12, Fig.13 show the reduction
percentages of the amplitudes especially that
occured at point F which is the highest,
respectively (53 65)% and (58 62)% at engine
1and engine 2 with absorber.
JournalofEngineering,Computers&AppliedSciences(JEC&AS)ISSNNo:23195606
Volume2,No.2,February2013
_________________________________________________________________________________
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5. CONCLUSION
This study shows that without rubber absorber at
engine foundation block with dimension
80 x 20 x 50mm, E = 2,3 x 10
9
N/m
2
and density
=1100 kg/m
3
the vibration amplitudes exited by
the
engines at frequencies range (9 37) Hz at points
A, B, C, D, E and F are at range (5878)m.
Plotted these values to the graph at Fig.5 is
determined the condition of the boat structure,
engine and
human as follows:
 No structural damage
 Machine vibration severity is at condition:
 satisfactory for low frequencies, (910)Hz
 unsatisfactory for high frequencies, (1137)Hz
 The human sensitivity: reduce comfort for
long exposure at frequencies (937)Hz.
Using rubber absorbers on the engine foundation
block reduced the vibration amplitudes at the
foundation blocks of the engines from a range (58 
78)m without absorber to a range (25 29)m
or at percentage 53%  65% respectively at
frequencies (9 37)Hz.
From the graph at Fig.5 is determined that:
 No structural damage
 Machine vibration severity is at condition:
satisfactory for frequencies (937) Hz
 The human sensitivity is at condition: threshold of
perception at frequencies (910) Hz, but at
frequencies (1037)Hz, is at condition: reduce
comfort for long exposure.
6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors would like to express the deepest
gratitude to the Directorate General of higher
Education of Ministry of Education and Culture of
Indonesia for the fund provided as well as the staffs
of Department of Naval Architecture of Pattimura
University and Department of Maritime
Technology Universiti Malaysia Terengganu for
their support.
7. REFERENCES
[1] Inman D. J., (1996). Engineering Vibration,
International Editions, Prentice Hall inc., USA.
[2] Hedge Alan. (2007). Human Vibration,
http://ergo.human.cornell.edu.com .
Hopcroft Robyn and Michael Skinner. (2005).
Human Vibration, http://dspace.dsto.
defence.gov.au/dspace/bitstream/1947/4336/1/
DSTOTR1756.pdf
[3] Thomson, W.T. (1993), Theory of Vibration
with Applications, PrenticeHall.
[4] Kumai, T. (1968), On the Estimation of
Natural Frequencies of Vertical Vibration of
Ships, Report of Research Institute for
Applied Mechanics, Vol. 16, No. 54.
[5] Srinivasulu P., (1980). Handbook of Machine
Foundations. Fourth Reprint, Tata McGraw
Hill Company Ltd., New Delhi.
[6] International Standards Organization, ISO
Standard 2372, "Mechanical Vibrations Of
Machines With Operating Speeds From 10
to 200 Rev/Sec  Basis For Specifying
Evaluation Standards", 1974.
[7] Bruel & Kjaer (1989), Human Vibration,
Denmark.
[8] Ghozali M., (2007), The Analyze of Vibration
Exited by Outboard Engine on The Engine
Foundation of Traditional Fishing Boat.
Final Thesis. Institut Technologi Sepuluh
Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia.
[9] Lekatompessy D.R., (2003) Effect of Main
Engine Vibration on the Engine Foundation
Structure of Traditional Boat. Master Thesis.
Institut Technologi Sepuluh Nopember,
Surabaya, Indonesia.
[10] International Standards Organization, ISO
Standard 2954, "Requirements For Instruments
For Measuring Machinery Vibration", 1974.