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Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry


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An assessment of the air pollution data from two monitoring stations in Kuwait
Reem S. Ettouney , John G. Zaki , Mahmoud A. El-Rifai & Hisham M. Ettouney
a b a a a

Department of Chemical Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt


b

Department of Chemical Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait Version of record first published: 03 Mar 2010.

To cite this article: Reem S. Ettouney , John G. Zaki , Mahmoud A. El-Rifai & Hisham M. Ettouney (2010): An assessment of the air pollution data from two monitoring stations in Kuwait, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 92:4, 655-668 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02772240903008609

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Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry Vol. 92, No. 4, April 2010, 655668

An assessment of the air pollution data from two monitoring stations in Kuwait
Reem S. Ettouneya*, John G. Zakia, Mahmoud A. El-Rifaia and Hisham M. Ettouneyb
a Department of Chemical Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait

(Received 21 August 2008; final version received 28 April 2009)

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This article assesses the air pollution data from two monitoring stations in Kuwait. The measurements cover major pollutants, i.e., CO, CO2, methanated and non-methanated hydrocarbons, NOx, SO2, O3, and particulate matter (PM10). The data also includes meteorological parameters, i.e., solar intensity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction, and has been collected over a period 4 years, from 2001 to 2004. Data analysis includes the assessment of annual hourly averages and 1-h maxima. Typical pollutant concentration trends, similar to those previously reported for Kuwait and for other locations around the world, are observed except for particulate matter measurements, which have higher values because of proximity to the desert. Emissions of nitrogen oxides show a consistent increase over the years. This is caused by the increase in the number of motor vehicles and the expansion in power generation and industrial activities. The data collected is a subset of the air quality criteria, as defined by the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). Keywords: air pollution measurements; meteorological data; monitoring; daily variations

Introduction Pollutant emissions in Kuwait are generated by motor vehicles, refineries, petrochemical plants, fossil fuel power plants, and other industries. Emissions of air pollutants in Kuwait are constantly measured and monitored by several local agencies, including the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KEPA). Assessment of air quality requires extended and accurate measurements of the concentration of primary and secondary air pollutants, as well as of meteorological parameters. Incomplete emission inventories, as shown by Elbir, Muezzinoglu, and Bayram (2000) in their evaluation of air pollution indicators in Turkey, can lead to incorrect conclusions and inefficient emission control measures. Comprehensive air pollutant measurements can be used to determine possible means of abatement, such as flue gas cleaning (Wark, Warner, and Davis 1998), the replacement of fuel oil or coal with natural gas (Lopez and Mandujano 2005), or the use of renewable energy (da Rosa 2005).
*Corresponding author. Email: ettouney@thewayout.net
ISSN 02772248 print/ISSN 10290486 online 2010 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/02772240903008609 http://www.informaworld.com

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The effect of meteorological conditions characterized by poor ventilation, or wet or dry precipitation, on pollutant distribution is to increase pollutant nchez-Ccoyllo and Andrade (2002) applied factorial analysis to concentration. Sa identify sources of fine aerosol emissions. These sources include motor vehicles, incinerators, vegetation, soil, and fuel combustion. This technique was also applied to identify major weather patterns that affect pollutant distribution. A similar approach was applied by Abdul-Wahab et al. (2000a) to determine the effect of wind direction on pollutant distribution. Silibello et al. (2008) modeled the PM10 distribution over Milan, Italy, using two aerosol modules. The study considered frequently occurring thermal inversions and calm conditions that tend to inhibit pollutant dispersion. Silva and Quiroz (2003) evaluated the performance of a network of eight monitoring stations located in Santiago, Chile. The study was motivated by the need to expand the network and to limit operating costs. The optimization considered variations in CO, PM10, O3, and SO2, as measured by the eight stations. Various scenarios were proposed for the operation of the eight stations; however, the results showed that removing more than two stations would result in poor characterization of the pollutant distribution. Ito, Xue, and Thurston (2004) studied spatial variations and the source apportionment of PM2.5 in New York, USA. The analysis was based on the data collected from three measuring stations over a period of 2 years. Four major sources were identified, namely regional secondary aerosols, soil, traffic, and residual oil burning/incineration. Analysis reveals the importance of having several monitoring stations to provide sufficient data for pollutants that fluctuate widely between stations. Hogrefe et al. (2004) used the MM5-CMAQ (5th Generation Mesoscale Model Community Multiscale Air Quality) model to determine how well the modeling system captured the variability embedded in surface temperature and ozone observations, over a period of several years and under different meteorological conditions. The results indicated that MM5-CMAQ captured interannual and synoptic-scale variability present in surface temperature and ozone observations under climate conditions prevailing at that time, while the magnitude of fluctuations on the intraday and diurnal time scales was underestimated. A number of studies have focused on characterization of air pollutants over a period of time in more than one location, in both urban and industrial areas around the world. Maciejczyk et al. (2004) used a mobile laboratory to characterize the ambient air quality of the South Bronx, New York City. This area has high concentrations of diesel trucks and waste transfer facilities. The study showed that the highways encircling the South Bronx have an adverse influence on residents exposure to pollutants. This was characterized by a 110120% increase in asthma hospitalizations between 1987 and 1996. Significantly lower rates for the same disease were found in other areas of New York City. The study by Sokhi et al. (2006) investigated ozone distribution in London during the summer of 2002. The model reproduces the temporal trends well but it does less well in reproducing the magnitudes of the measured hourly O3 peaks. The sensitivity of these model predictions, to emission inventories and chemical mechanisms, is still to be assessed. Monteiro et al. (2007) presented a partial assessment of air pollution patterns in Portugal in 2001. Their study focused on measurements and model predictions for the distribution of NO2, SO2, CO, and O3. The results showed that limits were exceeded for NO2, SO2, and O3. However, CO was found to be within the limits imposed by local legislation.

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Chang and Lee (2008) used principal component analysis to analyze air pollution data collected from 1994 to 2003 in Taipei City, Taiwan. The analysis shows a continuous reduction in the primary pollutants, including CO, NOx, and SO2, due to regulatory policies. The results show monthly variations in air pollution concentrations. Poor dispersion, causing pollutant accumulation, is observed from January to April, while from April to August, high photochemical pollution is observed. An increase in the wind speed from September to December is associated with a decrease in air pollution. This article is intended to supplement previous continuous studies of the measurement and analysis of air pollution in Kuwait, conducted during the period 19942003. The studies by Abdul-Wahab et al. (2000a and b) included field measurements at the Shuaiba industrial area from December 1994 to November 1995. The measurements were made by a mobile laboratory equipped for the measurement of the main air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The study reported the occurrence of two maxima for primary pollutants, including NO, SO2, nonmethanated hydrocarbon (NMHC), CO, and PM10. However, secondary pollutants, which include O3 and NO2, showed a single maximum. Increases in SO2 and NO2 emissions were found during the summer period and were caused by the increase in power consumption for air conditioning. The second study by AbdulWahab et al. (1996) focused on the statistical determination of ozone concentration as a function of meteorological parameters and other pollutants. The correlation shows a decrease in ozone concentration with an increase in the concentrations of NOx and NMHC. Also, a positive correlation is obtained for ozone dependence on SO2, wind direction, wind speed, and solar radiation and a negative correlation is obtained for temperatures greater than 27 C. Further data analysis was performed by Abdul-Wahab et al. (1999, 2000a, b) using the industrial source complex short-term model and the integrated empirical rate-reactive plume model. The model predictions were validated against the measured field data. Results of these studies show the need for emission control of NOx and NMHC to limit ozone formation rates. The present study focuses on the quantitative analysis of air pollution data pertaining to two sites in Kuwait. The measurements were made over a period of 4 years, from 2001 to 2004. The averages for the measured data are compared against the US EPA air quality criteria and against the data reported for Kuwait in previous measurements made by Abdul-Wahab et al. in 1995 (2000a and b).

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Locations and measurements The measurements were made in two main locations, Jahra and Umm Al Hyman. Jahra is the largest governorate in the State of Kuwait and is located to the west of Kuwait City. It is surrounded by several industrial, power, and desalination plants and has heavy traffic connecting its urban areas with the rest of Kuwait City. Umm Al Hyman is located at the southern end of Kuwait City. The area has three large oil refineries, a cement plant, a petrochemical complex, and several power and desalination plants. Figure 1 presents a map of Kuwait showing the locations of the two sites. The pollutants measured were nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, methanated hydrocarbon (MHC),

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Figure 1. (Color online). Map of Kuwait showing Jahra and Umm Al Hyman.

Table 1. Measurement devices. Parameter Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide NO, NO2, and NOx SO2 MHC and NMHC Ozone Particulate matter, PM10 Solar radiation (SOL) Air temperature (T) Wind speed (WS) Wind direction (WD) Apparatus Infrared analyzer, IR Infrared analyzer, IR Chemiluminance analyzer Florescence analyzer Gas Chromatograph with flame ionization detector (FID) Ultraviolet analyzer Standard gravimetric method Solar radiation sensor Thermometer Anemometer Direction sensor Range 01000 ppm 01000 ppm 020,000 ppb 020,000 ppb 020 ppm 01000 ppb 05000 mg m3 02000 W m2 30 to 60 C 0.4676 m s1 40 to 50 Accuracy 0.04 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.4 ppb 0.4 ppb 0.1 ppm 1 ppb 5 mg m3 20 W m2 0.1% 0.2 m s1 5

and NMHC. The recorded meteorological conditions include wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, and solar intensity. Table 1 summarizes the main features of the devices used to measure air pollutants and meteorological parameters. Measurements were taken at 5-min intervals, which resulted in 105,120 data points per year. The collected data was processed to generate hourly averages, which gave 8760 data points per year. Logged data was removed during maintenance and recalibration periods. Maintenance occurred once a month for the hydrocarbon gas chromatography units and on a less frequent basis for the infrared- and ultraviolet-measuring units. The meteorological units required the lowest frequency of maintenance. The solar radiation data were examined during night time hours

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when the measuring unit recorded not available (N/A) values. These readings were replaced with zero. The annual hourly average for each pollutant and meteorological parameter was obtained by the following relation: ! !! 365 12 X X xi, j, k, =12 365, yi, k 1
1 j1

where subscript i denotes the pollutant species or the meteorological parameter, l defines the day of the year, k defines the hour of day, and j defines the 12 measurements made at equal intervals during the course of 1 h.

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Results and discussion Figures 24 show the measured air pollution and meteorological data in Jahra and Umm Al Hyman as annual hourly averages for each year, while Tables 2 and 3 report the data for the entire study period. Review of the data showed similar patterns in pollutant distribution and meteorological data. As previously mentioned, the Umm Al Hyman site is located close to a cluster of several refineries, oil gathering centers, oil shipping ports, petrochemical plants, and other industrial plants. It is also closer to the seashore and is more strongly affected by the daytime sea breeze phenomena. The data shown in Figures 24 have the following characteristics: . Diurnal variations in the wind speed and wind direction are consistent with the sea breeze phenomena. During the evening hours, the wind direction emanates from the north and switches to the south during daylight hours. Also, the wind speed reaches maximum values during daylight hours. . Solar radiation in Umm Al Hyman is higher than in Jahra, owing to its proximity to the seashore, which results in clearer skies and hence a lower PM10 concentration. The maximum solar radiation average in Umm Al Hyman exceeds 700 J m2, while in Jahra it is close to 600 J m2, as shown in Figures 3 and 5. PM10 concentration averages are in the range 90200 mg m3 in Umm Al Hyman and 150300 mg m3 in Jahra. The major source of PM10 in both locations is dust from the desert, which extends for hundreds of kilometers to the west, south, and north of both sites. . The daily averages of ozone in Umm Al Hyman increase as a direct result of the higher solar intensity. Examination of the ozone data in Figures 2 and 4, as well as Tables 2 and 3, indicate higher ozone concentrations in Umm Al Hyman than in Jahra. . The sea breeze effect also reduces the daily average temperature in Umm Al Hyman by 23 C, as compared to Jahra. . The distribution pattern of NO, NO2, and NOx show a continuous increase in the annual hourly averages for both sites. This is attributed to population and industrial growth and the associated increase in the number of motor vehicles and power generation. For example, power and desalinated water capacities have doubled in the period 19952005 (Al-bahou et al. 2007). The desalinated water production capacity increased from 7.67 105 m3 day1 to

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0.02 0.016 Concentration (ppm) SO2 2001 2002 2003 2004 0.08 NO 2001 Concentration (ppm) 0.06 2002 2003 0.04 2004

0.012 0.008

0.02

0.004 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 0.06 0.05 Concentration (ppm) 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2.5 3 6 9 12 Hour 0.8 MHC 2001 2002 2003 2004 NMHC Concentration (ppm) 0.6 2001 2002 2003 2004 15 18 21 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 0.16 NO2 2001 Concentration (ppm) 2002 2003 2004 0.12 NOx 2001 2002 2003 0.08 2004 15 18 21 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21

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0.04

Concentration (ppm)

2.25

0.4

1.75

0.2

1.5 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21

0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 350 300 3 Concentration ( gm ) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 3 3

Concentration (ppm)

Concentration (ppm)

CO 2001 2002 2003 2004

400 375 350 325 300 275 CO2 2001 2002 2003 2004

12 Hour

15

18

21 0.07 0.06 Concentration (ppm) 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

12 Hour

15

18

21

PM10 2001 2002 2003 2004

O3 2001 2002 2003 2004

12 Hour

15

18

21

12 Hour

15

18

21

Figure 2. Annual hourly averages of pollutant concentrations for Jahra, 20012004.

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5 2001 Wind speed (ms ) 4 3 2 1 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 2002 2003 2004 Wind direction 240 180 300
1

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2001 120 60 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 2002 2003 2004

35 30 Solar radiation (Jm2) Temperature ( C)


o

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 2001 2002 2003 2004

25 20 15 10 5 0 2001 2002 2003 2004

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Figure 3. Annual hourly averages of meteorological data for Jahra, 20012004.

. .

1.44 106 m3 day1 and the electric power capacity increased from 6.8 to 10.2 GW. Concentrations of NMHC are much higher in Umm Al Hyman than in Jahra. This is caused by the proximity of the site to the oil refineries and oil gathering centers. Most of these facilities have large numbers of flares that continually burn small amounts of light hydrocarbons. The flares operate intermittently, as a result, a considerable fraction of unburned hydrocarbons are released into the atmosphere. The diurnal variations in MHC and NMHC in Umm Al Hyman are associated with higher rates of ozone formation than in Jahra. There is an evident decrease in sulfur dioxide concentration in the Jahra area. This is mainly caused by a reduction in the burning of high sulfur fuels by the industries located in the area. However, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the Umm Al Hyman area is constant throughout the 4-year period. This is due to the constant output capacity of most of the refineries and other industries found in the area. It is however expected that the sulfur dioxide concentration will increase over the next decade, as a new refinery is to be commissioned, which is expected to increase production output by 30%. Diurnal variations in CO are consistent with the behavior of nonreactive photochemical components, where two maxima occur, one during the early morning hours and one during the late evening hours. This is caused by an increase in traffic volumes and energy consumptions. Similar patterns are also observed for nitrogen oxides.

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0.02 0.016 Concentration (ppm) SO2 2001 2002 2003 2004 0.08 NO 2001 Concentration (ppm) 0.06 2002 2003 2004 0.04

0.012 0.008

0.02

0.004 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 0.06 0.05 Concentration (ppm) 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2.5 3 6 9 12 Hour MHC 2001 2002 2003 2004 0.8 NMHC 2001 2002 2003 2004 15 18 21 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 NO2 2001 2002 2003 2004 Concentration (ppm) 0.12 0.16 NOx 2001 2002 2003 0.08 2004 15 18 21 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21

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Concentration (ppm)

Concentration (ppm) 21

2.25

0.6

0.4

1.75

0.2

1.5 0
2.5 CO Concentration (ppm) 2002 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 350 300 3 Concentration (g m ) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 3 6 9 12 Hour PM10 2001 Concentration (ppm) 2002 2003 2004 15 18 21 2003 2004 Concentration (ppm) 2 2001

0 3 6 9 12 Hour
400 375 350 325 300 275 0 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 3 6 9 12 Hour O3 2001 2002 2003 2004 15 18 21 CO2 2001 2002 2003 2004

15

18

12 Hour

15

18

21

Figure 4. Annual hourly averages of pollutant concentrations for Umm Al Hyman, 20012004.

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Table 2. Averages of pollutant concentrations and meteorological data for Jahara, 20012004. PM10 174.8 170.5 162.3 156.0 155.7 154.8 168.5 187.7 197.2 205.3 208.1 204.0 212.7 213.5 217.6 206.9 215.6 223.0 223.9 218.5 219.5 215.4 201.5 187.8 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.5 347.8 352.9 352.2 350.1 349.4 349.0 349.2 351.4 350.4 349.3 349.4 350.2 350.4 350.6 350.6 350.2 349.9 351.3 353.4 356.9 359.2 358.9 359.1 355.8 15.4 18.3 21.2 23.0 23.6 23.0 20.6 19.6 24.9 30.8 34.9 37.7 39.6 40.1 41.7 41.1 34.8 25.5 16.8 12.0 10.5 10.7 11.7 13.5 2020.0 1990.0 1980.0 1980.0 1980.0 1990.0 2000.0 1990.0 2000.0 2000.0 1980.0 1980.0 2000.0 1970.0 1970.0 1960.0 1970.0 1980.0 1990.0 2000.0 2000.0 2000.0 1990.0 1990.0 322.0 313.0 306.0 291.0 289.0 286.0 288.0 311.0 294.0 277.0 279.0 267.0 278.0 263.0 266.0 256.0 256.0 285.0 305.0 322.0 341.0 333.0 340.0 326.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 246.8 247.4 248.3 247.9 246.2 244.9 243.4 240.0 232.3 222.1 214.1 210.4 207.9 205.5 203.8 202.8 203.6 206.8 210.0 216.8 226.1 234.7 241.0 245.4 25.1 24.5 24.0 23.6 23.1 22.8 23.0 24.4 26.4 28.4 30.0 31.2 32.0 32.6 32.7 32.6 32.0 31.0 29.7 28.6 27.7 27.0 26.3 25.7 CO CO2 O3 MHC NMHC WS (m s) WD T ( C) SOL (W-1m2) 4.8 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.9 17.5 77.0 186.4 315.5 434.2 519.7 566.0 560.0 506.2 412.0 287.4 154.2 52.6 10.0 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.3 6.1

Hour

SO2

NO

NO2

NOx

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

9.2 8.9 8.5 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.7 8.4 9.1 8.9 10.2 11.2 10.9 11.5 11.8 13.7 12.4 11.3 10.6 10.9 10.9 10.6 9.6 9.5

39.9 29.2 21.2 14.9 11.3 10.1 15.7 30.5 19.7 12.1 9.9 8.6 7.7 7.9 6.3 5.6 7.5 13.5 30.1 48.9 58.1 58.3 54.6 49.3

26.5 22.3 18.5 15.5 13.9 14.6 18.5 22.5 20.1 17.5 16.5 15.6 15.2 16.1 14.6 15.1 21.6 30.1 37.6 39.8 38.9 36.5 33.3 30.0

67.0 52.0 40.2 30.7 25.6 25.0 34.7 53.6 40.3 30.1 26.8 24.5 23.2 24.1 21.1 20.9 29.4 44.0 68.3 89.5 97.8 95.6 88.7 80.0

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Notes: Gas concentrations are expressed in parts per billion, except for CO, CO2 in parts per million, and PM10 in microgram per cubic meter.

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Table 3. Averages of pollutant concentrations and meteorological data for Umm Al Hyman, 20012004. PM10 126.8 124.4 125.7 115.2 109.7 112.6 119.0 128.9 136.1 142.1 152.1 162.5 156.9 155.5 148.8 147.8 141.0 137.8 130.6 132.0 129.4 126.6 126.4 134.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 360.5 360.9 360.8 360.6 360.4 360.4 360.3 360.5 360.9 360.7 361.1 362.4 361.6 361.7 361.4 361.3 360.8 361.0 361.0 361.1 360.9 361.1 360.9 360.2 20.1 20.8 21.6 22.2 22.7 22.3 22.4 23.3 27.7 33.2 38.3 41.9 44.4 45.4 46.2 45.3 41.5 35.1 29.0 24.4 21.9 21.1 20.2 19.9 2130.0 2150.0 2160.0 2160.0 2140.0 2150.0 2150.0 2140.0 2070.0 2030.0 2010.0 1990.0 1970.0 1970.0 1960.0 1950.0 1940.0 1950.0 1960.0 1980.0 1990.0 2030.0 2070.0 2110.0 560.0 589.0 592.0 585.0 544.0 554.0 555.0 553.0 451.0 378.0 336.0 307.0 281.0 266.0 251.0 239.0 247.0 267.0 305.0 362.0 381.0 416.0 458.0 509.0 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.4 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 262.9 265.5 265.2 264.7 265.4 264.1 264.9 259.4 246.3 223.3 199.3 179.3 168.6 162.0 161.7 164.3 172.2 183.4 201.3 221.2 235.8 247.5 254.4 259.8 24.9 24.5 24.0 23.6 23.1 22.8 23.0 24.3 26.0 27.5 28.6 29.0 29.4 29.5 29.5 29.3 29.0 28.3 27.7 27.3 26.8 26.4 25.9 25.5 CO CO2 O3 MHC NMHC WS (m s1) WD T ( C) SOL (J m2) 15.8 16.0 16.1 16.3 16.5 40.1 120.2 260.2 413.9 547.8 643.9 677.1 676.8 620.2 506.0 349.8 187.8 68.6 24.0 20.6 15.5 15.3 15.6 15.7

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Hour

SO2

NO

NO2

NOx

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

10.3 10.7 11.1 11.3 10.9 10.9 10.8 12.4 13.7 15.2 15.5 15.0 14.4 13.4 12.7 12.0 11.4 11.0 10.4 10.2 9.8 9.6 9.7 9.9

12.8 11.3 9.4 8.3 7.5 7.4 9.1 14.0 12.9 11.2 9.8 8.7 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.3 6.5 7.7 10.4 13.8 16.0 16.2 15.5 14.3

19.6 17.9 16.0 14.7 13.6 14.2 15.4 17.1 16.1 15.2 14.7 14.5 14.0 13.5 12.7 12.5 13.9 17.0 20.6 23.1 23.6 22.7 21.9 21.0

32.7 29.5 25.7 23.3 21.4 21.9 24.7 31.4 29.4 26.7 24.8 23.5 22.1 21.3 19.7 19.1 20.7 25.0 31.2 37.1 39.9 39.2 37.6 35.6

Notes: Gas concentrations are expressed in parts per billion, except for CO, CO2 in parts per million, and PM10 in microgram per cubic meter.

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5 2001 Wind speed (ms ) 4 3 2 1 0 0 35 30 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 2002 2003 2004 Wind direction 240 180 300
1

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2001 120 60 0 0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21 2002 2003 2004

800 700 Solar radiaton (Jm2) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
0 3 6 9 12 Hour 15 18 21

2001 2002 2003 2004

Temperature ( C)

25 20 15 10 5 0 2001 2002 2003 2004

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12 Hour

15

18

21

Figure 5. Annual hourly averages of meteorological data for Umm Al Hyman, 20012004.

Table 4. Comparison against EPA criteria for data averages measured in Jahra and Umm Al Hyman. Umm Al Hyman 5.38 ppm 0.016 ppm 134 mg m3 0.042 ppm 0.011 ppm 0.045 ppm EPA criteriaa 35 ppm 0.053 ppm 150 mg m3 0.075 ppm 0.03 ppm 0.14 ppm

Pollutant Carbon monoxide Nitrogen dioxide Particulate matter (PM10) Ozone Sulfur dioxide

Jahra 9.68 ppm 0.022 ppm 195 mg m3 0.037 ppm 0.009 ppm 0.069 ppm

Average time 1h Annual 24 h 8h Annual 24 h

Notes: ahttp://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html.

The averages of the measured data, as compared to the US EPA air quality criteria, are shown in Table 4 and the following trends are observed: . The concentrations of CO, O3, NO2, and SO2 are lower than the limits stipulated by the US EPA. This is primarily caused by the difference in the industrialization trends found in the United States and Kuwait. Although, the power consumption rates and the number of motor vehicles per capita are quite comparable, there is a sizeable difference concerning industrial size, aviation volumes, and transportation rates. . The particulate matter in the Kuwait environment exceeds the limits set by the US EPA. The higher PM10 concentrations are mainly caused by

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Table 5. Comparison of 1-h maxima of measured data to data reported by Abdul-Wahab et al. (2000b). Jahra Umm Al Hyman Shuaiba 20012004 20012004 1995a 0.76 0.76 0.151 0.83 5.30 4.00 0.19 9.60 823 4050 0.28 0.285 0.14 0.42 6.00 6.48 0.149 5.38 589 4990 0.10 0.30 0.08 0.40 7.00 6.00 0.15 4.00 580 2000

Pollutant Sulfur dioxide (ppm) Nitrogen monoxide (ppm) Nitrogen dioxide (ppm) Nitrogen oxides (ppm) MHC (ppm) NMHC (ppm) Ozone (ppm) Carbon monoxide (ppm) Carbon dioxide (ppm) PM10 (mg/m3)

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Notes: aAbdul-Wahab et al. (2000b).

desert dust. This condition is aggravated by low rates of precipitation during the short rainy season. A comparison of the maximum hourly averages of the measured data with the data reported by Abdul-Wahab et al. (2000b) is given in Table 5. The comparison shows the following trends: . The reported data in Umm Al Hyman and Shuaiba are quite comparable, with the exception of the hourly maximum of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. This is explained by the proximity of the two locations to each other. The higher particulate matter in Umm Al Hyman could be a result of poor rainy seasons during the period 20012004, of an increase in the number of motor vehicles, construction activities, etc. . The increase in the hourly maximum for sulfur dioxide is a result of the increase in the number of motor vehicles and in the power generation rates. This increase is quite pronounced for sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides in the Jahra area. . The maximum hourly concentration of ozone is quite comparable for the two sites and with respect to the data reported for Shuaiba in 1995. Although higher ozone concentrations, due to the increase in concentrations of other primary reactive pollutants, might be expected, the analysis presented by Abdul-Wahab et al. (1996) indicates negative dependence of ozone formation rates on temperatures above 27 C. In Kuwait, the maximum hourly temperatures exceed 40 C, which would result in a decrease in the ozone formation rate during daylight hours.

Conclusions Air pollution and meteorological data have been measured and analyzed for two locations in Kuwait over a period of 4 years (20012004). The measurements cover carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter, as well as meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and

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direction, air temperature, and solar intensity. Measurements were taken at 5-min intervals and were processed to obtain annual hourly averages and annual 1-h maxima. The collected data show consistent behavior against data previously measured in 1995 and against data reported for urban and industrial areas around the world. Most of the measured data are well below the international standards except for particulate matter. This is attributed to short rainy seasons. Another important feature in the reported data is the consistent increase in the concentrations of nitrogen oxides. This is attributed to population growth and the associated increase in power consumption and in the number of motor vehicles. Also, industrial activity and aviation traffic have grown steadily over the past decade. The measured data gave lower values than the limits set by the US EPA. This is attributed in part to the limited level of industrialization of Kuwait compared with the United States, although the power consumption (381 GJ per capita per annum in Kuwait and 327 GJ per capita per annum) and the number of motor vehicles per capita are comparable (325 cars/1000 people in Kuwait and 481 cars per/1000 people in the United States). The higher ambient temperatures in Kuwait are also thought to cause rapid reaction and dissipation of air pollutants. For example, ozone formation is found to decrease at higher ambient temperatures. This is irrespective of the presence of sufficient amounts of active photochemical pollutants and the abundance of solar energy.

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