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Card 1: What are physical quantities?

Base Quantities

Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in term of other physical quantities.

Card 3: State the 5 base quantities and their SI unit

5 Base Quantites

 Quantity Name of Unit Symbol of Unit Length metre m Time second s Temperature Kelvin K Mass kilogram kg Current Ampere A

Card 4: What is derived quantities?

Derived Quantities

A derived quantity is a Physics quantity that is not a base quantity. It is the quantities which derived from the base quantities through multiplying and/or dividing them.

Card 5: What is derived unit?

Derived Unit

The derived unit is a combination of base units through multiplying and/or dividing them.

Card 6: What are prefixes?

Prefixes

Prefixes are the preceding factor used to represent very small and very large physical quantities in SI units.

 Prefixes Symbol Value Tera T 10 12 Giga G 10 9 Mega M 10 6 kilo k 10 3 desi d 10 -1 centi c 10 -2 mili m 10 -3 micro µ 10 -6 nano n 10 -9 pico p 10 -12 fento f 10 -15

Card 7: What are scalar quantities?

Scalar Quantities

1. Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude alone. 2. Examples of scalar quantities are distance, speed, mass, volume, temperature, density and energy.

Card 8: What are vector quantities?

Vector Quantities

• 2. Examples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and magnetic field.

Card 1: What is error?

Error

Error is the difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement.

Card 2: What is systematic error?

Systematic Error

Systematic errors are errors which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so their mean value is displaced. Systematic errors can be compensated if the errors are known.

Card 3: State 3 sources of systematic error.

Sources of Systematic Error

• 3. consistently improper use of equipment.

Card 4: State 2 precaution steps to reduce systematic error.

Steps to reduce Systematic Error

• 2. Repeating the experiment by using different instruments.

Card 5: What is meant by zero error?

Zero Error

• 3. The zero error can be positive or negative.

Card 6: Define random Error

Random Error

• 2. It changes from one measurement to the next.

Card 7: State the causes of random error

Causes of Random Error

• 4. wrong technique of measurement.

Card 8: How random error can be avoided or reduced?

How to avoid random error

• 2. Find the average value of the reading.

Card 9: What is parallax error?

Parallax Error

A parallax error is an error in reading an instrument due to the eye of the observer and pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale.

Card 1: What is meant by precision?

Precision

Precision is the ability of an instrument in measuring a quantity in a consistent manner with only a small relative deviation between readings.

Card 2: How to measure the precision of a measurement?

Relative Deviation

The relative deviation is the percentage of mean deviation for a set of measurements and it is defined by the following formula:

Card 3: Define accuracy.

Accuracy

The accuracy of a measurement is the approximation of the measurement to the actual value for a certain quantity of Physics.

Card 4: How the accuracy of a measurement can be increased?

How to Increase Accuracy

• 4. using more sensitive equipment such as a vernier caliper to replace a ruler.

Card 5: What is meant by sensitivity of a measuring instrument?

Sensitivity

• 4. Sensitive instruments need not necessarily be accurate.

Card 6: Describe how a micrometer is used to make a measurement.

Micrometer Screw Gauge

• 3. Take the reading.

wikipedia.org . ) Reading of main scale = 5.5mm Reading of thimble scale = 0.27mm Actual Reading = 5.5mm + 0.27mm = 5.77mm " id="pdf-obj-8-14" src="pdf-obj-8-14.jpg">

Actual Reading = 5.5mm + 0.27mm = 5.77mm

2 Force and Motion

Card 1: Linear Motion

Linear Motion

Linear motion is the movement of an object along a straight line.

Card 2: What is distance?

Distance

Unit: metre (m) Type of Quantity: Scalar quantity

Card 3: What is Displacement?

Displacement

Unit: metre (m) Type of Quantity: Vector quantity

Card 5: What is speed

Speed

Unit: ms -1Type of quantity: Scalar quantity

Card 6: What is velocity

Velocity

Unit: ms -1Type of quantity: Vector quantity

Card 7: What is acceleration?

Acceleration

Unit: ms -2Type of quantity: Vector quantity

Card 8: Notes - Acceleration

Notes - Acceleration

to have acceleration. An object traveling with a constant acceleration, a, if the velocity changes at a constant rate.

Card 9: 4 Equations for Uniform Acceleration Motion

4 Equations of Uniform Acceleration

The above equation is for solving numerical problems involving uniform acceleration.

Card 1: Ticker Timer

Ticker Timer

1/50 s or 0.02 s.

Card 2: Analysing Ticker Tape 1 - Uniform Velocity

Uniform Velocity

The object is moving at a uniform velocity.

Card 3: Analysing Ticker Tape 1 - Uniform Acceleration

Uniform Acceleration

uniformly. The velocity of the object is increasing uniformly, i.e. the object is moving at a constant acceleration.

Card 4: Analysing Ticker Tape 1 - Uniform Deceleration

Uniform Deceleration

uniformly. The velocity of the object is decreasing uniformly, i.e. the object is decelerating uniformly.

Card 5: Finding velocity from ticker tape

Finding Velocity

t is time taken from the first dot to the last dot of the distance measured.

Example 1

Previous | Top | Next Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot? b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape? Answer: a. There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s b. Distance travelled = 15cm Card 6: Findng acceleration Finding Acceleration Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation: " id="pdf-obj-16-16" src="pdf-obj-16-16.jpg">

Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the

• a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot?

• b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape?

a.

There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence

Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s

b.

Distance travelled = 15cm

Card 6: Findng acceleration

Finding Acceleration

Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation:

Previous | Top | Next Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot? b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape? Answer: a. There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s b. Distance travelled = 15cm Card 6: Findng acceleration Finding Acceleration Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation: " id="pdf-obj-16-42" src="pdf-obj-16-42.jpg">

t is time taken from the initial velocity to the final velocity.

Example 2

Previous | Top | Next The ticker-tape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdf-obj-17-20" src="pdf-obj-17-20.jpg">

The ticker-tape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car.

In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change.

Initial velocity,

Previous | Top | Next The ticker-tape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdf-obj-17-30" src="pdf-obj-17-30.jpg">
Previous | Top | Next The ticker-tape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdf-obj-17-32" src="pdf-obj-17-32.jpg">

Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s

Acceleration,

Example 3

Previous | Top | Next The ticker-tape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdf-obj-17-40" src="pdf-obj-17-40.jpg">

A trolley is pushed up a slope. Diagram above shows ticker tape chart that show the movement of the trolley. Every section of the tape contains 5 ticks. If the ticker-tape timer produced 50 dots per second, determine the acceleration of the trolley.

In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change.

Initial velocity,

Top | Next Analysing Displacement - Time Graph " id="pdf-obj-18-11" src="pdf-obj-18-11.jpg">

Time taken for the velocity change, t = (2.5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 2.5) ticks = 40 ticks t = 40 × 0.02s = 0.8s

Acceleration,

Card 1: Displacement - Time Graph

Displacement - Time Graph

Top | Next Analysing Displacement - Time Graph " id="pdf-obj-18-21" src="pdf-obj-18-21.jpg">

In a Displacement-Time Graph, the gradient of the graph is equal to the velocity of motion.

Card 2: Analysign Displacement - Time Graph

Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-19-2" src="pdf-obj-19-2.jpg">
Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-19-4" src="pdf-obj-19-4.jpg">

Gradient = 0 Hence, velocity = 0

Gradient is constant, hence, velocity is Uniform

Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-19-10" src="pdf-obj-19-10.jpg">
Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-19-12" src="pdf-obj-19-12.jpg">

Gradient is negative and constant, hence velocity is uniform and in opposite direction

Gradient is increasing, hence velocity is increasing.

Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-19-18" src="pdf-obj-19-18.jpg">

Gradient is decreasing, hence velocity is decreasing.

Card 3: Velocity - Time Graph

Velocity - Time Graph

Previous | Top | Next Analysing Velocity - Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdf-obj-20-2" src="pdf-obj-20-2.jpg">

of the changing rate in velocity, which is the acceleration of the object. The area below the velocity-time graph gives a value of the object's displacement.

Card 4: Analysing Velocity - Time graph

Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Previous | Top | Next Analysing Velocity - Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdf-obj-20-34" src="pdf-obj-20-34.jpg">
Previous | Top | Next Analysing Velocity - Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdf-obj-20-36" src="pdf-obj-20-36.jpg">

Uniform velocity

Uniform acceleration

Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration-Time graph Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration- Time graph In order to convert a velocity-time graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the acceleration-time graph. Previous | Top | Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1-Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdf-obj-21-2" src="pdf-obj-21-2.jpg">
Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration-Time graph Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration- Time graph In order to convert a velocity-time graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the acceleration-time graph. Previous | Top | Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1-Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdf-obj-21-4" src="pdf-obj-21-4.jpg">

Uniform deceleration

Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration-Time graph Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration- Time graph In order to convert a velocity-time graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the acceleration-time graph. Previous | Top | Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1-Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdf-obj-21-8" src="pdf-obj-21-8.jpg">

Increasing acceleration

Increasing deceleration

Card 5: Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration-Time graph

Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration- Time graph

In order to convert a velocity-time graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the acceleration-time graph.

Card 6: Graph of free falling 1-Dropping an object from high place

Dropping an object from high place

Previous | Top | Next Card 7: Graph of free falling 2 - Launching obejct upward Launching Object Upward " id="pdf-obj-22-2" src="pdf-obj-22-2.jpg">
Velocity - Time Graph
Acceleration - Time Graph

Card 7: Graph of free falling 2 - Launching obejct upward

Launching Object Upward

Previous | Top | Next Card 7: Graph of free falling 2 - Launching obejct upward Launching Object Upward " id="pdf-obj-22-16" src="pdf-obj-22-16.jpg">
Velocity-Time Graph
Acceleration-Time Graph

Card 8: Graph of free falling 3 - Object moving upward and fall back to the ground

Object moving upward and fall back to the ground

Previous | Top | Next Card 8: Graph of free falling 3 - Object moving upward and fall back to the ground Object moving upward and fall back to the ground Velocity-Time Graph Acceleration-Time Graph " id="pdf-obj-23-14" src="pdf-obj-23-14.jpg">
Velocity-Time Graph
Acceleration-Time Graph

Card 9: Graph of free falling 4 - Object falling and bounces back

Object falling and bounces back

Previous | Top | Next Card 9: Graph of free falling 4 - Object falling and bounces back Object falling and bounces back Velocity-Time Graph Acceleration-Time Graph Card 1: What is mass? Mass Mass is the amount of matter. Unit: kilogram (kg) Type of quantity: Scalar quantity Previous | Top | Next Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-24-12" src="pdf-obj-24-12.jpg">
Velocity-Time Graph
Acceleration-Time Graph

Card 1: What is mass?

Mass

Mass is the amount of matter. Unit: kilogram (kg) Type of quantity: Scalar quantity

Card 2: What is inertia?

Inertia

Inertia is the property of a body that tends to maintain its state of motion.

Card 3: State Newton's First Law

Newton's First Law

In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line).

Card 4: Situation Involving Inertia 1 - Jerking a Card

Jerking a Card

Previous | Top | Next In the absence of external forces , an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line). Previous | Top | Next Card 4: Situation Involving Inertia 1 - Jerking a Card Jerking a Card When the cardboard is jerked quickly, the coin will fall into the glass. Explanation :  The inertia of the coin resists the change of its initial state, which is stationary. " id="pdf-obj-25-42" src="pdf-obj-25-42.jpg">

As a result, the coin does not move with the cardboard and falls into the glass because of gravity.

Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2 - Pulling a Book

Pulling a Book

Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2 - Pulling a Book Pulling a Book When the book is pulled out, the books on top will fall downwards. Explanation : Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit. Previous | Top | Next Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3 - Pulling a Thread Pulling a Thread " id="pdf-obj-26-16" src="pdf-obj-26-16.jpg">

Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit.

Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3 - Pulling a Thread

Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2 - Pulling a Book Pulling a Book When the book is pulled out, the books on top will fall downwards. Explanation : Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit. Previous | Top | Next Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3 - Pulling a Thread Pulling a Thread " id="pdf-obj-26-34" src="pdf-obj-26-34.jpg">

The inertia of the load prevents the force from being transmitted to thread A, hence causing thread B to snap.

Card 7: Relation ship between mass and inertia

Larger Mass - Greater Inertia

Previous | Top | Next Bucket filled with sand is more difficult to be moved . It's also more difficult to be stopped from swinging. Explanation: Object with more mass offers a greater resistance to change from its state of motion. " id="pdf-obj-27-29" src="pdf-obj-27-29.jpg">

Object with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion.

Card 8: Empty Cart is easier to be moved

Empty cart is easier to be moved

Previous | Top | Next Empty cart is easier to be moved An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion . Card 1:What is momentum? Momentum Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula: Unit: kgms Type of quantity: Vector " id="pdf-obj-28-18" src="pdf-obj-28-18.jpg">

An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion.

Card 1:What is momentum?

Momentum

Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula:

Previous | Top | Next Empty cart is easier to be moved An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion . Card 1:What is momentum? Momentum Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula: Unit: kgms Type of quantity: Vector " id="pdf-obj-28-32" src="pdf-obj-28-32.jpg">

Unit: kgms -1Type of quantity: Vector

Example 1

A student releases a ball with mass of 2 kg from a height of 5 m from the ground. What would be the momentum of the ball just before it hits the ground?

In order to find the momentum, we need to know the mass and the velocity of the ball right before it hits the ground. It's given that the mass, m = 2kg.

The velocity is not given directly. However, we can determine the velocity, v, by using the linear equation of uniform acceleration.

This is a free falling motion, The initial velocity, u = 0 The acceleration, a = gravirational acceleration, g = 10ms -2 The dispacement, s = high = 50m. The final velocity = ?

From the equation v 2 = u 2 + 2as v 2 = (0) 2 + 2(10)(5) v = 10ms -1

The momentum, p = mv =(2)(10) = 20 kgms -1

Card 2: Principle of Conservation of Momentum

Principle of Conservation of Momentum

Sum of Momentum Before Reaction = Sum of Momentum After Reaction

Card 3: Formula of Principle of Conservation of Momentum

Formula

Previous | Top | Next Card 3: Formula of Principle of Conservation of Momentum Formula Previous | Top | Next Example 2: Both objects are in same direction before collision. A Car A of mass 600 kg moving at 40 ms -1 collides with a car B of mass 800 kg moving at 20 ms -1 in the same direction. If car B moves forwards at 30 ms -1 by the impact, what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash? Answer: m 1 = 600kg m 2 = 800kg u 1 = 40 ms -1 u 2 = 20 ms -1 v 1 = ? v 2 = 30 ms -1 " id="pdf-obj-30-14" src="pdf-obj-30-14.jpg">

Example 2: Both objects are in same direction before collision.

A Car A of mass 600 kg moving at 40 ms -1 collides with a car B of mass 800 kg moving at 20 ms -1 in the same direction. If car B moves forwards at 30 ms -1 by the impact, what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash?

m1 = 600kg m2 = 800kg u1 = 40 ms -1 u2 = 20 ms -1 v1 = ? v2 = 30 ms -1

According to the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (600)(40) + (800)(20) = (600)v1 + (800)(30) 40000 = 600v1 + 24000 600v1 = 16000 v1 = 26.67 ms -1

Example 3: Both objects are in opposite direction before collision.

A 0.50kg ball traveling at 6.0 ms -1 collides head-on with a 1.0 kg ball moving in the opposite direction at a speed of 12.0 ms-1. The 0.50kg ball moves backward at 14.0 ms -1 after the collision. Find the velocity of the second ball after collision.

m1 = 0.5 kg m2 = 1.0 kg u1 = 6.0 ms -1 u2 = -12.0 ms -1 v1 = -14.0 ms -1 v2 = ?

(IMPORTANT: velocity is negative when the object move in opposite siredtion)

According to the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (0.5)(6) + (1.0)(-12) = (0.5)(-14) + (1.0)v2 -9 = - 7 + 1v2 v2 = -2 ms -1

Card 4: What is elastic collision?

Elastic Collision

-In an elastic collision, the 2 objects seperated right after the collision, and -the momentum is conserved after the collision.

Card 5: What is inelastic collision?

Inelastic Collision

-In a perfectly elastic collision, the 2 objects attach together after the collision, and -the momentum is also conserved after the collision.

Example 4: Perfectly Inelastic Collision

A lorry of mass 8000kg is moving with a velocity of 30 ms -1 . The lorry is then accidentally collides with a car of mass 1500kg moving in the same direction with a velocity of 20 ms -1 . After the collision, both the vehicles attach together and move with a speed of velocity v. Find the value of v.

(IMPORTANT: When 2 object attach together, they move with same speed.)

m1 = 8000kg m2 = 1500kg u1 = 30 ms -1

u2 = 20 ms -1 v1 = v v2 = v

According to the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (8,000)(30) + (1,500)(20) = (8,000)v+ (1,500)v 270,000 = 9500v v = 28.42 ms -1

Card 6: Application of conservation of momentum 1 - Rocket

Rocket

• 4. By conservation of momentum, an equal and opposite momentum is produced and acted on the rocket, pushing the rocket upwards.

Card 7: Application of conservation of momentum 1 - Jet Engine

Jet Engine

• 5. This produces an equal and opposite momentum to push the jet plane forward.

Card 1: Newton's Second Law

Card 2: Force

Force

direction. The unit of force is Newton ( or kgms -2).

Card 3: Formula of Force

Formula of Force

From Newton's Second Law, we can derived the equation

Previous | Top | Next Card 4: Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law Newton's First Law: When there is no net force acting on an object, the object is either stationary or move with constant speed in a straight line . Newton's Second Law: When there is a net force acting on an object, the object will accelerate . Example 1 Previous | Top | Next A box of mass 150kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface; find the acceleration of the box when a 300N force is acting on the box horizontally. Answer: F = ma (300) = (150)a a = 2 ms -2 Example 2 A object of mass 50kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. If the velocity of the object changes from stationary to 25.0 m/s in 5 seconds when is acted by a force, find the magnitude of the force that is acting? " id="pdf-obj-35-2" src="pdf-obj-35-2.jpg">

(IMPORTANT: F Must be the net force)

Card 4: Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law

Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law

When there is a net force acting on an object, the object will accelerate.

Example 1

A box of mass 150kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface; find the acceleration of the box when a 300N force is acting on the box horizontally.

F = ma (300) = (150)a a = 2 ms -2

Example 2

A object of mass 50kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. If the velocity of the object changes from stationary to 25.0 m/s in 5 seconds when is acted by a force, find the magnitude of the force that is acting?

We know that we can find the magnitude of a force by using the formula F = ma. The mass m is already given in the question, but the acceleration is not give directly.

We can determine the acceleration from the formula

From the formula F = ma = (50)(5) = 250N

The force acting on the box is 250N.

Card 5: Effects of Force

Effects of Force

When a force acts on an object, the effect can change the size, shape, stationary state, speed and direction of the object.

Card 1: What is Impulse?

Impulse

Impulse is a vector quantity.

Card 2: Formula of Impulse

Formula of impulse

Impulse = mv - mu

Example 1

A car of mass 600kg is moving with velocity of 30m/s. A net force of 200N is applied on the car for 15s. Find the impulse exerted on the car and hence determine the final velocity of the car.

Impulse = F × t = (200) × (15) = 300oNs

Impulse = mv - mu (3000) = 600v - 600(30) 600v = 3000 + 18000 v = 21000/600 = 35 m/s

[500,000N]

Card 3: What is impulsive force?

Impulsive Force

It is a force which acts on an object for a very short interval during a collision or explosion.

Example 2

A car of mass 1000kg is traveling with a velocity of 25 m/s. The car hits a street lamp and is stopped in0.05 seconds. What is the impulsive force acting on the car during the crash?

Card 4: Effects of Impulse vs Force

Effects of impulse vs Force

An impulse determines the velocity change of an object. A greater impulse yield a higher velocity change.

Card 5: Examples Involving Impulsive Force

Examples Involving Impulsive Force

Playing baseball

Card 6: Effect of time on impulsive force 1 - Long Jump

Long Jump

Previous | Top | Next Card 7: Effect of time on impulsive force 1 - High Jump High Jump " id="pdf-obj-39-4" src="pdf-obj-39-4.jpg">

reaction time when atlete land on it. This is to reduce the impulsive force acts on the leg of the atlete because impulsive force is inversely proportional to the reaction time.

Card 7: Effect of time on impulsive force 1 - High Jump

High Jump

Wikipedia.org .)  During a high jump, a high jumper will land on a thick,  soft mattress after the jump. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the high jumper. Previous | Top | Next Card 8: Effect of time on impulsive force 1 - Jumping Jumping A jumper bends his/her leg during landing. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduce the impact of impulsive force acting on the leg of the jumper. Card 1: Crumble Zone Crumble Zone  The crumple zone increases the reaction time of collision  during an accident. This causes the impulsive force to be reduced and hence reduces the risk of injuries. Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-40-2" src="pdf-obj-40-2.jpg">

(This image is licenced under the GNU Free Document Licence. The original file is from the Wikipedia.org.)

soft mattress after the jump. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the high jumper.

Card 8: Effect of time on impulsive force 1 - Jumping

Jumping

A jumper bends his/her leg during landing. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduce the impact of impulsive force acting on the leg of the jumper.

Card 1: Crumble Zone

Crumble Zone

during an accident. This causes the impulsive force to be reduced and hence reduces the risk of injuries.

Card 2: Seat Belt

Seat Belt

Previous | Top | Next The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard. Card 4: Head Rest Head Rest Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-41-6" src="pdf-obj-41-6.jpg">

Card 3: Airbag

Airbag

Previous | Top | Next The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard. Card 4: Head Rest Head Rest Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-41-20" src="pdf-obj-41-20.jpg">

The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard.

Card 4: Head Rest

Reduce neck injury when driver and passengers are thrown backwards when the car is banged from backward.

Card 5: Windscreen

Windscreen

Shatter-proof glass is used so that it will not break into small pieces when broken. This may reduce injuries caused by scattered glass.

Card 6: Padded Dashboard

Cover with soft material. This may increases the reaction time and hence reduce the impulsive force when passenger knocking on it in accident.

Card 7: Collapsible Steering Columns

Collapsible Steering Columns

This may reduce the impulsive force acting on the driver.

Card 8: Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)

Card 9: Bumper

Bumper

Made of elastic material so that it can increases the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force caused by collision.

Card 10: Passanger Safety Cell

Passanger Safety Cell

This may prevent the car from collapsing on the passengers during a car crash.

Card 1: Gravitational Field

Gravitational Field

A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction

Card 2: Gravitational Field Strength

Gravitational Field Strength

Symbol: g

Card 3: Formula of Gravitational Field Strength

Gravitational Field Strength Formula

Previous | Top | Next The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. Unit: ms Symbol: g Important notes:  Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass  of the moving object. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms . Previous | Top | Next Card 5: Comparing gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration Gravitational Field Strength vs. Gravitational Acceleration  Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol, g and the same value (10ms ) on the surface of the earth. " id="pdf-obj-44-2" src="pdf-obj-44-2.jpg">

Card 4: Gravitational Acceleration

Gravitational Acceleration

of the moving object. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms -2.

Card 5: Comparing gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration

Gravitational Field Strength vs. Gravitational Acceleration

gravitational field strength acting on it.

Card 6: What is weight?

Weight

Unit: Newton (N)

Previous | Top | Next The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N) Card 7: Differences between Weight and Mass Previous | Top | Next Differences between Weight and Mass Weight Mass Depends on the gravitational field strength Independent from the gravitational field strength Vector quantity Scalar Quantity Unit Newton (N) Unit: Kilogram (kg) Card 8: What is free falling? Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-45-30" src="pdf-obj-45-30.jpg">

Card 7: Differences between Weight and Mass

Differences between Weight and Mass

 Weight Mass Depends on the gravitational field strength Independent from the gravitational field strength Vector quantity Scalar Quantity Unit Newton (N) Unit: Kilogram (kg)

Card 8: What is free falling?

Free Falling

Practically, free falling can only take place in vacuum.

Card 9: Free falling case 1 - Falling from high place

Falling from high place

Previous | Top | Next Card 9: Free falling case 1 - Falling from high place Falling from high place Acceleration = 10ms Initial velocity = 0 Displacement = high of the location Previous | Top | Next Card 10: Free falling case 2 - Launching object upward Launching object upward " id="pdf-obj-46-18" src="pdf-obj-46-18.jpg">

Acceleration = 10ms -2Initial velocity = 0 Displacement = high of the location

Card 10: Free falling case 2 - Launching object upward

Launching object upward

Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-47-2" src="pdf-obj-47-2.jpg">

Acceleration = -10ms -2Velocity at maximum height = 0

Card 1: Vector and Scalar Quantity

Vector and Scalar Quantity

A vector quantity is a quantity which is fully described by both magnitude and direction.

Card 1a: Vector Diagram

Vector Diagram

Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-47-24" src="pdf-obj-47-24.jpg">

The arrow shows the direction of the vector. The length representing the magnitude of the vector.

Card 2: Equal Vector

Equal Vector

Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction.

Card 3: Vector Addition - Triangle Method

Vector Addition - Triangle Method

Previous | Top | Next Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction. Card 3: Vector Addition - Triangle Method Previous | Top | Next Vector Addition - Triangle Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow. Card 4: Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method Previous | Top | Next Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method " id="pdf-obj-48-26" src="pdf-obj-48-26.jpg">

Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow.

Card 4: Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method

Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method

Previous | Top | Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdf-obj-49-2" src="pdf-obj-49-2.jpg">

Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the tail of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow.

Card 5: Addition of 2 perpendicular vectors

Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors

Previous | Top | Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdf-obj-49-20" src="pdf-obj-49-20.jpg">

If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation.

Previous | Top | Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdf-obj-49-24" src="pdf-obj-49-24.jpg">

Example 1

Two forces, P and Q of magnitude 10N and 12N are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resultant force if P and Q are acting on an object?

Example 2

Previous | Top | Next Two forces, P and Q of magnitude 10N and 12N are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resultant force if P and Q are acting on an object? Answer : Example 2 Diagram above shows that four forces of magnitude 2N, 4N, 5N and 8N are acting on point O. All the forces are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resulatant force that acts on point O? Answer : The resultant force of the horizntal component = 5 - 2 = 3N to the right The resultant force of the vertical component = 8 - 4 = 4N acting downward. Therefore, the magtitude of these 2 force components, Card 6: Vector Resolution Vector Resolution " id="pdf-obj-50-21" src="pdf-obj-50-21.jpg">

Diagram above shows that four forces of magnitude 2N, 4N, 5N and 8N are acting on point O. All the forces are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resulatant force that acts on point O?

The resultant force of the horizntal component = 5 - 2 = 3N to the right The resultant force of the vertical component = 8 - 4 = 4N acting downward.

Therefore, the magtitude of these 2 force components,

Previous | Top | Next Two forces, P and Q of magnitude 10N and 12N are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resultant force if P and Q are acting on an object? Answer : Example 2 Diagram above shows that four forces of magnitude 2N, 4N, 5N and 8N are acting on point O. All the forces are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resulatant force that acts on point O? Answer : The resultant force of the horizntal component = 5 - 2 = 3N to the right The resultant force of the vertical component = 8 - 4 = 4N acting downward. Therefore, the magtitude of these 2 force components, Card 6: Vector Resolution Vector Resolution " id="pdf-obj-50-32" src="pdf-obj-50-32.jpg">

Card 6: Vector Resolution

Vector Resolution

Previous | Top | Next Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Answer: Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N - 500N =2098N Example 4 " id="pdf-obj-51-2" src="pdf-obj-51-2.jpg">

A vector can be resolve into 2 component which is perpendicular to each others.

Example 3

Previous | Top | Next Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Answer: Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N - 500N =2098N Example 4 " id="pdf-obj-51-14" src="pdf-obj-51-14.jpg">

Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log.

Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N

Resultant horizontal force = 2598N - 500N =2098N

Example 4

Diagram above shows two forces of magnitude 25N are acting on an object of mass 2kg. Find the acceleration of object P, in ms -2 .

Horizontal component of the forces = 25cos45 o + 25cos45 o = 35.36N

Vertical component of the forces = 25sin45 o - 25sin45 o = 0N

The acceleration of the object can be determined by the equation

F = ma (35.36) = (2)a a = 17.68 ms -2

Card 7: Inclined Plane

Inclined Plane

Weight component along the plane = Wsinθ. Weight component perpendicular to the plane = Wcosθ.

Example 5

Previous | Top | Next A block of mass 2 kg is pulling along a plane by a 20N force as shown in diagram above. Given that the fiction between block and the plane is 2N, find the magnitude of the resultant force parallel to the plane. Answer : First of all, let's examine all the forces or component of forces acting along the plane. The force pulling the block, F = 20N The frictional force F fric = 2N The weight component along the plane = 20sin30 o = 10N The resultant force along the plane = 20 - 2 - 10 = 8N Card 8: What does the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means? Vectors in Equilibrium " id="pdf-obj-53-10" src="pdf-obj-53-10.jpg">

A block of mass 2 kg is pulling along a plane by a 20N force as shown in diagram above. Given that the fiction between block and the plane is 2N, find the magnitude of the resultant force parallel to the plane.

Previous | Top | Next A block of mass 2 kg is pulling along a plane by a 20N force as shown in diagram above. Given that the fiction between block and the plane is 2N, find the magnitude of the resultant force parallel to the plane. Answer : First of all, let's examine all the forces or component of forces acting along the plane. The force pulling the block, F = 20N The frictional force F fric = 2N The weight component along the plane = 20sin30 o = 10N The resultant force along the plane = 20 - 2 - 10 = 8N Card 8: What does the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means? Vectors in Equilibrium " id="pdf-obj-53-17" src="pdf-obj-53-17.jpg">

First of all, let's examine all the forces or component of forces acting along the plane.

The force pulling the block, F = 20N The frictional force Ffric = 2N The weight component along the plane = 20sin30 o = 10N

The resultant force along the plane = 20 - 2 - 10 = 8N

Card 8: What does the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means?

Vectors in Equilibrium

Previous | Top | Next Card 9: What doe s the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means? Forces in equilibrium Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero. Example 6 Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-54-2" src="pdf-obj-54-2.jpg">

When 3 vectors are in equilibrium, the resultant vector = 0. After joining all the vectors tail to head, the head of the last vector will join to the tail of the first vector.

Card 9: What does the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means?

Forces in equilibrium

Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero.

Example 6

Diagram above shows a load of mass 500g is hung on a string C, which is tied to 2 other strings A and B. Find the tension of string A.

Tension of string C, TC = weight of the load = 5N All forces in the system are in equilibrium, hence

Vertical component of tension A (TA) = TC TAcos60 o = TC TA = TC/cos60 o TA = 5/cos60 o = 10N

Card 1: What is work?

Work

Unit: Nm or Joule (J) Work is a scalar quantity.

Card 2: Formula of Work

Formula of work

Top | Next Example 1 Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-56-18" src="pdf-obj-56-18.jpg">
Top | Next Example 1 Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-56-20" src="pdf-obj-56-20.jpg">

Example 1

Top | Next Example 1 Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-56-30" src="pdf-obj-56-30.jpg">

A force of 50 N acts on the block at the angle shown in the diagram. The block moves a horizontal distance of 3.0 m. Calculate the work being done by the force.

Work done, W = F × s × cos θ W = 50 × 3.0 × cos30 o = 129.9J

Card 3: Formula of work 2 - When the displacement is in the direction of force

Formula of work 2

Example 2

W = F × s

Previous | Top | Next Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N. If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m, find a. the work done by the pulling force b. the work done by the frictional force Asnwer: (a) The force is in the same direction of the motion. Work done by the pulling force, " id="pdf-obj-57-34" src="pdf-obj-57-34.jpg">

Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N. If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m, find

• a. the work done by the pulling force

• b. the work done by the frictional force

Asnwer:

(a) The force is in the same direction of the motion. Work done by the pulling force,

W = F × s = (10)(2) = 20J

(b) The force is not in the same direction of motion, work done by the frictional force

W = F × s × cos180 o = (5)(2)(-1) = -10J

Card 4: Work Done to Move Object Upward

Work Done Against the Force of Gravity

Previous | Top | Next Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. Each steps is 15cm in height. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg, find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase. Answer : In this case, Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion, h = 35 × 0.15 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 ms -2 Work done, W = ? W = mgh = (45)(10)(35 × 0.15) = 2362.5J Card 5: Finding Work Done from a Force - Displacement Graph Force - Displacement Graph " id="pdf-obj-58-15" src="pdf-obj-58-15.jpg">

Example 3

Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. Each steps is 15cm in height. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg, find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase.

In this case, Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion, h = 35 × 0.15 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 ms -2 Work done, W = ?

W = mgh = (45)(10)(35 × 0.15) = 2362.5J

Card 5: Finding Work Done from a Force - Displacement Graph

Force - Displacement Graph

Previous | Top | Next The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. Answer : In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done " id="pdf-obj-59-2" src="pdf-obj-59-2.jpg">

In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area in between the graph and the horizontal axis.

Example 4

Previous | Top | Next The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. Answer : In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done " id="pdf-obj-59-18" src="pdf-obj-59-18.jpg">

The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley.

In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done

Previous | Top | Next Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Example 5 Previous | Top | Next Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000-kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s. Answer: Kinetic Energy, Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy " id="pdf-obj-60-2" src="pdf-obj-60-2.jpg">

Card 6: What is Energy

Energy

Unit: Nm or Joule(J)

Card 7: Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

Example 5

Previous | Top | Next Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Example 5 Previous | Top | Next Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000-kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s. Answer: Kinetic Energy, Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy " id="pdf-obj-60-33" src="pdf-obj-60-33.jpg">

Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000-kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s.

Kinetic Energy,

Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Formula:

Previous | Top | Next A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground? Answer : According to the principle of conservation of energy, the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain. Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J Card 9: Elastic Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or compressing. Formula: " id="pdf-obj-61-6" src="pdf-obj-61-6.jpg">

Example 6

A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground?

According to the principle of conservation of energy, the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain.

Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J

Card 9: Elastic Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy

Formula:

Previous | Top | Next Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring. Answer : The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy. Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done Conservation of Energy and Work Done During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Card 1: What is power? Power " id="pdf-obj-62-2" src="pdf-obj-62-2.jpg">

Example 7

Previous | Top | Next Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring. Answer : The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy. Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done Conservation of Energy and Work Done During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Card 1: What is power? Power " id="pdf-obj-62-6" src="pdf-obj-62-6.jpg">

Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring.

The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy.

Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done

Conservation of Energy and Work Done

During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted

Card 1: What is power?

Power

Formula:

Example 1

Top | Next An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor. Answer : Work done, W = mgh = (20)(10)(1.5) = 300J Power, Card 2: Efficiency Efficiency The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy. " id="pdf-obj-63-12" src="pdf-obj-63-12.jpg">

An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor.

Work done, W = mgh = (20)(10)(1.5) = 300J

Power,

Card 2: Efficiency

Efficiency

The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy.

Previous | Top | Next In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75% Previous | Top | Next Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency - Air conditioner Air conditioner  Switch off the air conditioner when not in use.  Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size. " id="pdf-obj-64-2" src="pdf-obj-64-2.jpg">

Card 3: Efficiency Example

Efficiency

Previous | Top | Next In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75% Previous | Top | Next Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency - Air conditioner Air conditioner  Switch off the air conditioner when not in use.  Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size. " id="pdf-obj-64-14" src="pdf-obj-64-14.jpg">

75/100 x 100% = 75%

Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency - Air conditioner

Air conditioner

Close all the doors and windows of the room to avoid the cool air in the room from flowing out.

Card 5: Ways of increasing the efficiency - Regrigerator

Refrigerator

family size. Refrigerator of large capacity is more efficient compare with refirgerator of small capacity.

Card 6: Ways of increasing the efficiency - lamp or light bulb

Lamp or Light Bulb

Fluorescent bulbs are much more efficient than incandescent bulbs. Use a lamp with reflector so that more light is directed towards thr desirable place.

Card 7: Ways of increasing the efficiency - Washing Machine

Washing Machine

Use washing machine only when you have sufficient clothes to be washed. Try to avoid washing small amount of clothes.

Card 1: What is elasticity

Elasticity

Elasticity is the ability of a sub-stance to recover its original shape and size after distortion.

Card 2: Forces between atoms

Forces Between Atoms

Top | Next The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force.  At the equilibrium distance d , the attractive force equal  to the repulsive force. If the 2 atoms are brought closer , the repulsive force will dominate, produces a net repulsive force between the atoms. " id="pdf-obj-66-16" src="pdf-obj-66-16.jpg">

If the 2 atoms are brought furhter, the attractive force will dominate, produces a net attractive force between the atoms.

Card 3: Graph of Resultant Force against the Distance between 2 Atom

Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms

Previous | Top | Next Card 3: Graph of Resultant Force against the Distance between 2 Atom Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms x = Equilibrium Distance When the particles are compressed, x < x0 , the repulsive force between the particles increases. When the particles are stressed, x > x0 , the attractive force between the particles increases. If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit , the attractive force will decreases . Card 4: State Hooke's Law Hooke's Law Previous | Top | Next " id="pdf-obj-67-20" src="pdf-obj-67-20.jpg">

If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit, the attractive force will decreases.

Card 4: State Hooke's Law

Hooke's Law

Hooke's Law states that if a spring is not stretched beyond its elastic limit, the force that acts on it is directly proportional to the extension of the spring.

Card 5: What is elastic limit?

Elastic Limit

The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed.

Card 6: Equation derived from Hooke's Law

Equation derived from Hooke's Law

From Hook's Law, we can derived that

Previous | Top | Next The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed. Card 6: Equation derived from Hooke's Law Previous | Top | Next Equation derived from Hooke's Law From Hook's Law, we can derived that Card 7: What is spring constant? Spring Constant Previous | Top | Next Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring. " id="pdf-obj-68-43" src="pdf-obj-68-43.jpg">

Card 7: What is spring constant?

Spring Constant

Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring.

Previous | Top | Next Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension Graph of Streching Force - Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done Card 9: F - x Graph and Spring Constant Previous | Top | Next F-x graph and spring constant " id="pdf-obj-69-2" src="pdf-obj-69-2.jpg">

It is a measure of the stiffness of a spring or elastic object.

Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension

Graph of Streching Force - Extension

Previous | Top | Next Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension Graph of Streching Force - Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done Card 9: F - x Graph and Spring Constant Previous | Top | Next F-x graph and spring constant " id="pdf-obj-69-16" src="pdf-obj-69-16.jpg">

Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done

Card 9: F - x Graph and Spring Constant

F-x graph and spring constant

Previous | Top | Next Arrangement in series : Extension = x × number of spring " id="pdf-obj-70-2" src="pdf-obj-70-2.jpg">

The higher the gradient, the greater the spring constant and the harder (stiffer) spring. For example, the stiffness of spring A is greater than spring B.

Card 10: System of Spring

System of Spring

Previous | Top | Next Arrangement in series : Extension = x × number of spring " id="pdf-obj-70-16" src="pdf-obj-70-16.jpg">

Extension = x ÷ number of spring Stiffness increases Spring constant = k × number of spring

Factors Affecting the Stiffness of Spring

Stiffer

Less stiff