Card 1: What are physical quantities?
Physical Quantities
1. A physical quantity is a quantity that can be measured. 2. A physical quantity can be divided into base quantity and derived quantity.
Base Quantities
Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in term of other physical quantities.
Card 3: State the 5 base quantities and their SI unit
5 Base Quantites
Card 4: What is derived quantities?
Derived Quantities
A derived quantity is a Physics quantity that is not a base quantity. It is the quantities which derived from the base quantities through multiplying and/or dividing them.
Card 5: What is derived unit?
Derived Unit
The derived unit is a combination of base units through multiplying and/or dividing them.
Card 6: What are prefixes?
Prefixes
Prefixes are the preceding factor used to represent very small and very large physical quantities in SI units.
Card 7: What are scalar quantities?
Scalar Quantities
1. Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude alone. 2. Examples of scalar quantities are distance, speed, mass, volume, temperature, density and energy.
Card 8: What are vector quantities?
Vector Quantities

2. Examples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and magnetic field.
Error
Error is the difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement.
Card 2: What is systematic error?
Systematic Error
Systematic errors are errors which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so their mean value is displaced. Systematic errors can be compensated if the errors are known.
Card 3: State 3 sources of systematic error.
Sources of Systematic Error
Card 4: State 2 precaution steps to reduce systematic error.
Steps to reduce Systematic Error
Card 5: What is meant by zero error?
Zero Error
Card 6: Define random Error
Random Error
Card 7: State the causes of random error
Causes of Random Error
Random errors are caused by factors that are beyond the control of the observers. Random error can cause by:

2. lack of sensitivity of the instrument: the instrument fail to respond to the small change.

3. natural errors such as changes in temperature or wind, while the experiment is in progress.

4. wrong technique of measurement.
Card 8: How random error can be avoided or reduced?
How to avoid random error
Card 9: What is parallax error?
Parallax Error
A parallax error is an error in reading an instrument due to the eye of the observer and pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale.
Card 1: What is meant by precision?
Precision
Precision is the ability of an instrument in measuring a quantity in a consistent manner with only a small relative deviation between readings.
Card 2: How to measure the precision of a measurement?
Relative Deviation
The precision of a reading can be indicated by its relative deviation.
The relative deviation is the percentage of mean deviation for a set of measurements and it is defined by the following formula:
Accuracy
The accuracy of a measurement is the approximation of the measurement to the actual value for a certain quantity of Physics.
Card 6: Describe how a micrometer is used to make a measurement.
Micrometer Screw Gauge
1. Turn the thimble until the object is gripped gently
between the anvil and spindle.
wikipedia.org
. ) Reading of main scale = 5.5mm Reading of thimble scale = 0.27mm Actual Reading = 5.5mm + 0.27mm = 5.77mm " id="pdfobj814" src="pdfobj814.jpg">
(This image is licensed under GDFL. The source file can be obtained from wikipedia.org.)
Reading of main scale = 5.5mm Reading of thimble scale = 0.27mm
Actual Reading = 5.5mm + 0.27mm = 5.77mm
Linear Motion
Linear motion is the movement of an object along a straight line.
Card 2: What is distance?
Distance
The distance traveled by an object is the total length that is traveled by that object.
Unit: metre (m) Type of Quantity: Scalar quantity
Card 3: What is Displacement?
Displacement
Displacement of an object from a point of reference, O is the shortest distance of the object from point O in a specific direction.
Unit: metre (m) Type of Quantity: Vector quantity
Speed
Speed is the rate of change in distance. Formula:
Unit: ms ^{}^{1} Type of quantity: Scalar quantity
Velocity
Velocity is the rate of change in displacement. Formula:
Unit: ms ^{}^{1} Type of quantity: Vector quantity
Card 7: What is acceleration?
Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of velocity change.Acceleration is a vector quantity
Formula:
Unit: ms ^{}^{2} Type of quantity: Vector quantity
Card 8: Notes  Acceleration
Notes  Acceleration

An object moves with a constant velocity if the


magnitude and direction of the motion is always constant. An object experiences changes in velocity if


o the magnitude of velocity changes o the direction of the motion changes. An object that experiences changes in velocity is said


to have acceleration. An object traveling with a constant acceleration, a, if the velocity changes at a constant rate.

Card 9: 4 Equations for Uniform Acceleration Motion
4 Equations of Uniform Acceleration
The above equation is for solving numerical problems involving uniform acceleration.
Ticker Timer

A tickertimer consists of an electrical vibrator which


vibrates 50 times per second. This enables it to make 50 dots per second on a ticker


tape being pulled through it. The time interval between two adjacent dots on the tickertape is called one tick.


One tick is equal to

1/50 s or 0.02 s.

Card 4: Analysing Ticker Tape 1  Uniform Deceleration
Uniform Deceleration

The distance between the dots decreases uniformly.


The length of the strips of tape in the chart decreases


uniformly. The velocity of the object is decreasing uniformly, i.e. the object is decelerating uniformly.

Card 5: Finding velocity from ticker tape
Finding Velocity
Velocity of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation:
Caution!:
t is time taken from the first dot to the last dot of the distance measured.
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot? b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape? Answer: a. There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s b. Distance travelled = 15cm Card 6: Findng acceleration Finding Acceleration Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation: " id="pdfobj1616" src="pdfobj1616.jpg">
Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the

a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot?

b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape?
There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence
Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s
Distance travelled = 15cm
Card 6: Findng acceleration
Finding Acceleration
Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation:
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram 2.4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second. What is the a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot? b. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape? Answer: a. There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot, hence Time taken = 15 × 0.02s = 0.3s b. Distance travelled = 15cm Card 6: Findng acceleration Finding Acceleration Acceleration of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation: " id="pdfobj1642" src="pdfobj1642.jpg">
Caution!:
t is time taken from the initial velocity to the final velocity.
Previous 
Top 
Next The tickertape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdfobj1720" src="pdfobj1720.jpg">
The tickertape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car.
In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change.
Previous 
Top 
Next The tickertape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdfobj1730" src="pdfobj1730.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next The tickertape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdfobj1732" src="pdfobj1732.jpg">
Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s
Previous 
Top 
Next The tickertape in figure above was produced by a toy car moving down a tilted runway. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, find the acceleration of the toy car. Answer: In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change. Initial velocity, Time taken for the velocity change, t = (0.5 + 4 + 0.5) ticks = 5 ticks t = 5 × 0.02s = 0.1s Acceleration, Example 3 " id="pdfobj1740" src="pdfobj1740.jpg">
A trolley is pushed up a slope. Diagram above shows ticker tape chart that show the movement of the trolley. Every section of the tape contains 5 ticks. If the tickertape timer produced 50 dots per second, determine the acceleration of the trolley.
In order to find the acceleration, we need to determine the initial velocity, the final velocity and the time taken for the velocity change.
Top 
Next Analysing Displacement  Time Graph " id="pdfobj1811" src="pdfobj1811.jpg">
Time taken for the velocity change, t = (2.5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 2.5) ticks = 40 ticks t = 40 × 0.02s = 0.8s
Card 1: Displacement  Time Graph
Displacement  Time Graph
Top 
Next Analysing Displacement  Time Graph " id="pdfobj1821" src="pdfobj1821.jpg">
In a DisplacementTime Graph, the gradient of the graph is equal to the velocity of motion.
Card 2: Analysign Displacement  Time Graph
Analysing Displacement  Time Graph
Previous 
Top 
Next Analysing Velocity  Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdfobj202" src="pdfobj202.jpg">

The gradient of the velocitytime gradient gives a value


of the changing rate in velocity, which is the acceleration of the object. The area below the velocitytime graph gives a value of the object's displacement.

Card 4: Analysing Velocity  Time graph
Analysing Velocity  Time Graph
Previous 
Top 
Next Analysing Velocity  Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdfobj2034" src="pdfobj2034.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Analysing Velocity  Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration " id="pdfobj2036" src="pdfobj2036.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Converting a VelocityTime graph to AccelerationTime graph Converting a VelocityTime graph to Acceleration Time graph In order to convert a velocitytime graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the accelerationtime graph.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdfobj212" src="pdfobj212.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Converting a VelocityTime graph to AccelerationTime graph Converting a VelocityTime graph to Acceleration Time graph In order to convert a velocitytime graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the accelerationtime graph.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdfobj214" src="pdfobj214.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Converting a VelocityTime graph to AccelerationTime graph Converting a VelocityTime graph to Acceleration Time graph In order to convert a velocitytime graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the accelerationtime graph.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 6: Graph of free falling 1Dropping an object from high place Dropping an object from high place " id="pdfobj218" src="pdfobj218.jpg">
Card 5: Converting a VelocityTime graph to AccelerationTime graph
Converting a VelocityTime graph to Acceleration Time graph
In order to convert a velocitytime graph to acceleration time graph, we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the accelerationtime graph.
Card 6: Graph of free falling 1Dropping an object from high place
Dropping an object from high place
VelocityTime Graph
AccelerationTime Graph
Card 8: Graph of free falling 3  Object moving upward and fall back to the ground
Object moving upward and fall back to the ground
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 8: Graph of free falling 3  Object moving upward and fall back to the ground Object moving upward and fall back to the ground VelocityTime Graph AccelerationTime Graph " id="pdfobj2314" src="pdfobj2314.jpg">
VelocityTime Graph
AccelerationTime Graph
Card 9: Graph of free falling 4  Object falling and bounces back
Object falling and bounces back
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 9: Graph of free falling 4  Object falling and bounces back Object falling and bounces back VelocityTime Graph AccelerationTime Graph Card 1: What is mass? Mass Mass is the amount of matter. Unit: kilogram (kg) Type of quantity: Scalar quantity
Previous 
Top 
Next Top 
Next " id="pdfobj2412" src="pdfobj2412.jpg">
VelocityTime Graph
AccelerationTime Graph
Mass
Mass is the amount of matter. Unit: kilogram (kg) Type of quantity: Scalar quantity
Inertia
Inertia is the property of a body that tends to maintain its state of motion.
Card 3: State Newton's First Law
Newton's First Law
In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line).
Card 4: Situation Involving Inertia 1  Jerking a Card
Jerking a Card
Previous 
Top 
Next In the absence of external forces , an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line).
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 4: Situation Involving Inertia 1  Jerking a Card Jerking a Card When the cardboard is jerked quickly, the coin will fall into the glass. Explanation : The inertia of the coin resists the change of its initial state, which is stationary. " id="pdfobj2542" src="pdfobj2542.jpg">
When the cardboard is jerked quickly, the coin will fall into the glass.
Explanation:
The inertia of the coin resists the change of its initial state, which is stationary.
As a result, the coin does not move with the cardboard and falls into the glass because of gravity.
Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2  Pulling a Book
Pulling a Book
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2  Pulling a Book Pulling a Book When the book is pulled out, the books on top will fall downwards. Explanation : Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3  Pulling a Thread Pulling a Thread " id="pdfobj2616" src="pdfobj2616.jpg">
When the book is pulled out, the books on top will fall downwards. Explanation:
Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit.
Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3  Pulling a Thread
Pulling a Thread
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Situation Involving Inertia 2  Pulling a Book Pulling a Book When the book is pulled out, the books on top will fall downwards. Explanation : Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation, that is, when the book is pulled out, the books on top do not follow suit.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 6: Situation Involving Inertia 3  Pulling a Thread Pulling a Thread " id="pdfobj2634" src="pdfobj2634.jpg">
Pull slowly  Thread A will snap.
Explanation:
Tension of thread A is higher than string B. Tension at A = Weight of the load + Pulling Force
Yank quickly  Thread B will snap.
Explanation:
The inertia of the load prevents the force from being transmitted to thread A, hence causing thread B to snap.
Card 7: Relation ship between mass and inertia
Larger Mass  Greater Inertia
Previous 
Top 
Next Bucket filled with sand is more difficult to be moved . It's also more difficult to be stopped from swinging. Explanation: Object with more mass offers a greater resistance to change from its state of motion. " id="pdfobj2729" src="pdfobj2729.jpg">
Bucket filled with sand is more difficult to be moved. It's also more difficult to be stopped from swinging.
Explanation:
Object with more mass offers a greater resistance to change from its state of motion.
Object with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion.
Card 8: Empty Cart is easier to be moved
Empty cart is easier to be moved
Previous 
Top 
Next Empty cart is easier to be moved An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion . Card 1:What is momentum? Momentum Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula: Unit: kgms Type of quantity: Vector " id="pdfobj2818" src="pdfobj2818.jpg">
An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion.
Momentum
Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula:
Previous 
Top 
Next Empty cart is easier to be moved An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion . Card 1:What is momentum? Momentum Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. Formula: Unit: kgms Type of quantity: Vector " id="pdfobj2832" src="pdfobj2832.jpg">
Unit: kgms ^{}^{1} Type of quantity: Vector
A student releases a ball with mass of 2 kg from a height of 5 m from the ground. What would be the momentum of the ball just before it hits the ground?
In order to find the momentum, we need to know the mass and the velocity of the ball right before it hits the ground. It's given that the mass, m = 2kg.
The velocity is not given directly. However, we can determine the velocity, v, by using the linear equation of uniform acceleration.
This is a free falling motion, The initial velocity, u = 0 The acceleration, a = gravirational acceleration, g = 10ms 2 The dispacement, s = high = 50m. The final velocity = ?
From the equation v 2 = u 2 + 2as v 2 = (0) 2 + 2(10)(5) v = 10ms 1
The momentum, p = mv =(2)(10) = 20 kgms 1
Card 2: Principle of Conservation of Momentum
Principle of Conservation of Momentum
The principle of conservation of momentum states that in a system make out of objects that react (collide or explode), the total momentum is constant if no external force is acted upon the system.
Sum of Momentum Before Reaction = Sum of Momentum After Reaction
Card 3: Formula of Principle of Conservation of Momentum
Formula
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 3: Formula of Principle of Conservation of Momentum Formula
Previous 
Top 
Next Example 2: Both objects are in same direction before collision. A Car A of mass 600 kg moving at 40 ms 1 collides with a car B of mass 800 kg moving at 20 ms 1 in the same direction. If car B moves forwards at 30 ms 1 by the impact, what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash? Answer: m 1 = 600kg m 2 = 800kg u 1 = 40 ms 1 u 2 = 20 ms 1 v 1 = ? v 2 = 30 ms 1 " id="pdfobj3014" src="pdfobj3014.jpg">
Example 2: Both objects are in same direction before collision.
A Car A of mass 600 kg moving at 40 ms 1 collides with a car B of mass 800 kg moving at 20 ms 1 in the same direction. If car B moves forwards at 30 ms 1 by the impact, what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash?
m1 = 600kg m2 = 800kg u1 = 40 ms 1 u2 = 20 ms 1 v1 = ? v2 = 30 ms 1
According to the principle of conservation of momentum,
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (600)(40) + (800)(20) = (600)v1 + (800)(30) 40000 = 600v1 + 24000 600v1 = 16000 v1 = 26.67 ms 1
Example 3: Both objects are in opposite direction before collision.
A 0.50kg ball traveling at 6.0 ms 1 collides headon with a 1.0 kg ball moving in the opposite direction at a speed of 12.0 ms1. The 0.50kg ball moves backward at 14.0 ms 1 after the collision. Find the velocity of the second ball after collision.
m1 = 0.5 kg m2 = 1.0 kg u1 = 6.0 ms 1 u2 = 12.0 ms 1 v1 = 14.0 ms 1 v2 = ?
(IMPORTANT: velocity is negative when the object move in opposite siredtion)
According to the principle of conservation of momentum,
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (0.5)(6) + (1.0)(12) = (0.5)(14) + (1.0)v2 9 =  7 + 1v2 v2 = 2 ms 1
Card 4: What is elastic collision?
Elastic Collision
Elastic collision is the collision where the kinetic energy is conserved after the collision.
Total Kinetic Energy before Collision = Total Kinetic Energy after Collision
Additional notes:
In an elastic collision, the 2 objects seperated right after the collision, and the momentum is conserved after the collision.
Card 5: What is inelastic collision?
Inelastic Collision
Inelastic collision is the collision where the kinetic energy is not conserved after the collision.
Additional notes:
In a perfectly elastic collision, the 2 objects attach together after the collision, and the momentum is also conserved after the collision.
Example 4: Perfectly Inelastic Collision
A lorry of mass 8000kg is moving with a velocity of 30 ms 1 . The lorry is then accidentally collides with a car of mass 1500kg moving in the same direction with a velocity of 20 ms 1 . After the collision, both the vehicles attach together and move with a speed of velocity v. Find the value of v.
(IMPORTANT: When 2 object attach together, they move with same speed.)
m1 = 8000kg m2 = 1500kg u1 = 30 ms 1
Card 1: Newton's Second Law
Newton's Second Law
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction.
Implication:
When there is resultant force acting on an object, the object will accelerate (moving faster, moving slower or change direction).
Force

A force is push or pull exerted on an object.


Force is a vector quantity that has magnitude and


direction. The unit of force is Newton ( or kgms ^{}^{2} ).

Formula of Force
From Newton's Second Law, we can derived the equation
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 4: Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law Newton's First Law: When there is no net force acting on an object, the object is either stationary or move with constant speed in a straight line . Newton's Second Law: When there is a net force acting on an object, the object will accelerate . Example 1
Previous 
Top 
Next A box of mass 150kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface; find the acceleration of the box when a 300N force is acting on the box horizontally. Answer: F = ma (300) = (150)a a = 2 ms 2 Example 2 A object of mass 50kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. If the velocity of the object changes from stationary to 25.0 m/s in 5 seconds when is acted by a force, find the magnitude of the force that is acting? " id="pdfobj352" src="pdfobj352.jpg">
(IMPORTANT: F Must be the net force)
Card 4: Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law
Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law
Newton's First Law:
When there is no net force acting on an object, the object is either stationary or move with constant speed in a straight line.
Newton's Second Law:
When there is a net force acting on an object, the object will accelerate.
A box of mass 150kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface; find the acceleration of the box when a 300N force is acting on the box horizontally.
F = ma (300) = (150)a a = 2 ms 2
A object of mass 50kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. If the velocity of the object changes from stationary to 25.0 m/s in 5 seconds when is acted by a force, find the magnitude of the force that is acting?
We know that we can find the magnitude of a force by using the formula F = ma. The mass m is already given in the question, but the acceleration is not give directly.
We can determine the acceleration from the formula
From the formula F = ma = (50)(5) = 250N
The force acting on the box is 250N.
Effects of Force
When a force acts on an object, the effect can change the size, shape, stationary state, speed and direction of the object.
Impulse
Impulse is defined as the product of the force (F) acting on an object and the time of action (t).
Impulse exerted on an object is equal to the momentum change of the object.
Impulse is a vector quantity.
Card 2: Formula of Impulse
Formula of impulse
Impulse is the product of force and time.
Impulse = F × t
Impulse = momentum change
Impulse = mv  mu
A car of mass 600kg is moving with velocity of 30m/s. A net force of 200N is applied on the car for 15s. Find the impulse exerted on the car and hence determine the final velocity of the car.
Impulse = F × t = (200) × (15) = 300oNs
Impulse = mv  mu (3000) = 600v  600(30) 600v = 3000 + 18000 v = 21000/600 = 35 m/s
Card 3: What is impulsive force?
Impulsive Force
Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum in a reaction.
It is a force which acts on an object for a very short interval during a collision or explosion.
A car of mass 1000kg is traveling with a velocity of 25 m/s. The car hits a street lamp and is stopped in0.05 seconds. What is the impulsive force acting on the car during the crash?
Card 4: Effects of Impulse vs Force
Effects of impulse vs Force
A force determines the acceleration (rate of velocity change) of an object. A greater force produces a higher acceleration.
An impulse determines the velocity change of an object. A greater impulse yield a higher velocity change.
Card 5: Examples Involving Impulsive Force
Examples Involving Impulsive Force

Playing football


Playing badminton


Playing tennis


Playing golf


Playing baseball

Card 6: Effect of time on impulsive force 1  Long Jump
Wikipedia.org
.) During a high jump, a high jumper will land on a thick, soft mattress after the jump. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the high jumper.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 8: Effect of time on impulsive force 1  Jumping Jumping A jumper bends his/her leg during landing. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduce the impact of impulsive force acting on the leg of the jumper. Card 1: Crumble Zone Crumble Zone The crumple zone increases the reaction time of collision during an accident. This causes the impulsive force to be reduced and hence reduces the risk of injuries.
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj402" src="pdfobj402.jpg">
(This image is licenced under the GNU Free Document Licence. The original file is from the Wikipedia.org.)

During a high jump, a high jumper will land on a thick,


soft mattress after the jump. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the high jumper.

Card 8: Effect of time on impulsive force 1  Jumping
Jumping
A jumper bends his/her leg during landing. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduce the impact of impulsive force acting on the leg of the jumper.
Crumble Zone

The crumple zone increases the reaction time of collision


during an accident. This causes the impulsive force to be reduced and hence reduces the risk of injuries.

Seat Belt
Previous 
Top 
Next The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard. Card 4: Head Rest Head Rest
Previous 
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj416" src="pdfobj416.jpg">
Prevent the driver and passengers from being flung forward or thrown out of the car during an emergency break.
Airbag
Previous 
Top 
Next The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard. Card 4: Head Rest Head Rest
Previous 
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj4120" src="pdfobj4120.jpg">
The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard.
Head Rest
Reduce neck injury when driver and passengers are thrown backwards when the car is banged from backward.
Windscreen
Shatterproof glass is used so that it will not break into small pieces when broken. This may reduce injuries caused by scattered glass.
Padded Dashboard
Cover with soft material. This may increases the reaction time and hence reduce the impulsive force when passenger knocking on it in accident.
Card 7: Collapsible Steering Columns
Collapsible Steering Columns
The steering will swing away from driver’s chest during collision.
This may reduce the impulsive force acting on the driver.
Card 8: Antilock Braking System (ABS)
Antilock Braking System (ABS)
Prevent the wheels from locking when brake applied suddenly by adjusting the pressure of the brake fluid. This can prevents the car from skidding.
Bumper
Made of elastic material so that it can increases the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force caused by collision.
Card 10: Passanger Safety Cell
Passanger Safety Cell

The body of the car is made from strong, rigid stell cage.


This may prevent the car from collapsing on the passengers during a car crash.

Card 1: Gravitational Field
Gravitational Field
A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction
Card 2: Gravitational Field Strength
Gravitational Field Strength
The gravitational field strength at a point in the gravitational field is the gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at that point.
Unit: N/kg
Symbol: g
Card 3: Formula of Gravitational Field Strength
Gravitational Field Strength Formula
Previous 
Top 
Next The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. Unit: ms Symbol: g Important notes: Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass of the moving object. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms .
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 5: Comparing gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration Gravitational Field Strength vs. Gravitational Acceleration Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol, g and the same value (10ms ) on the surface of the earth. " id="pdfobj442" src="pdfobj442.jpg">
Card 4: Gravitational Acceleration
Gravitational Acceleration
The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force.
Unit: ms ^{}^{2} Symbol: g Important notes:

Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass


of the moving object. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms ^{}^{2} .

Card 5: Comparing gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration
Gravitational Field Strength vs. Gravitational Acceleration
Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol, g and the same value (10ms ^{}^{2} ) on the surface of the earth.

When considering a body falling freely, the g is the gravitational acceleration.


When considering objects at rest, g is the Earth’s

gravitational field strength acting on it.
Weight
The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object.
Unit: Newton (N)
Previous 
Top 
Next The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N) Card 7: Differences between Weight and Mass
Previous 
Top 
Next Differences between Weight and Mass Weight Mass Depends on the gravitational field strength Independent from the gravitational field strength Vector quantity Scalar Quantity Unit Newton (N) Unit: Kilogram (kg) Card 8: What is free falling?
Previous 
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj4530" src="pdfobj4530.jpg">
Card 7: Differences between Weight and Mass
Differences between Weight and Mass


Depends on the gravitational field strength

Independent from the gravitational field strength





Card 8: What is free falling?
Free Falling
Free falling is a motion under force of gravity as the only force acting on the moving object.
Practically, free falling can only take place in vacuum.
Card 9: Free falling case 1  Falling from high place
Falling from high place
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 9: Free falling case 1  Falling from high place Falling from high place Acceleration = 10ms Initial velocity = 0 Displacement = high of the location
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 10: Free falling case 2  Launching object upward Launching object upward " id="pdfobj4618" src="pdfobj4618.jpg">
Acceleration = 10ms ^{}^{2} Initial velocity = 0 Displacement = high of the location
Card 10: Free falling case 2  Launching object upward
Launching object upward
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj472" src="pdfobj472.jpg">
Acceleration = 10ms ^{}^{2} Velocity at maximum height = 0
Card 1: Vector and Scalar Quantity
Vector and Scalar Quantity
A scalar quantity is a quantity which can be fully described by magnitude only.
A vector quantity is a quantity which is fully described by both magnitude and direction.
Vector Diagram
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj4724" src="pdfobj4724.jpg">
The arrow shows the direction of the vector. The length representing the magnitude of the vector.
Equal Vector
Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction.
Card 3: Vector Addition  Triangle Method
Vector Addition  Triangle Method
Previous 
Top 
Next Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction. Card 3: Vector Addition  Triangle Method
Previous 
Top 
Next Vector Addition  Triangle Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow. Card 4: Vector Addition  Parallelogram Method
Previous 
Top 
Next Vector Addition  Parallelogram Method " id="pdfobj4826" src="pdfobj4826.jpg">
Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow.
Card 4: Vector Addition  Parallelogram Method
Vector Addition  Parallelogram Method
Previous 
Top 
Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdfobj492" src="pdfobj492.jpg">
Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the tail of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow.
Card 5: Addition of 2 perpendicular vectors
Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors
Previous 
Top 
Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdfobj4920" src="pdfobj4920.jpg">
If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation.
Previous 
Top 
Next Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. " id="pdfobj4924" src="pdfobj4924.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Answer: Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N  500N =2098N Example 4 " id="pdfobj512" src="pdfobj512.jpg">
A vector can be resolve into 2 component which is perpendicular to each others.
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Answer: Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N  500N =2098N Example 4 " id="pdfobj5114" src="pdfobj5114.jpg">
Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log.
Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30 o =2598N Friction = 500N
Resultant horizontal force = 2598N  500N =2098N
Diagram above shows two forces of magnitude 25N are acting on an object of mass 2kg. Find the acceleration of object P, in ms 2 .
Horizontal component of the forces = 25cos45 o + 25cos45 o = 35.36N
Vertical component of the forces = 25sin45 o  25sin45 o = 0N
The acceleration of the object can be determined by the equation
F = ma (35.36) = (2)a a = 17.68 ms 2
Inclined Plane
Weight component along the plane = Wsinθ. Weight component perpendicular to the plane = Wcosθ.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 9: What doe s the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means? Forces in equilibrium Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero. Example 6
Previous 
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj542" src="pdfobj542.jpg">
When 3 vectors are in equilibrium, the resultant vector = 0. After joining all the vectors tail to head, the head of the last vector will join to the tail of the first vector.
Card 9: What does the phrase “Force in Equilibrium” means?
Forces in equilibrium
Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero.
Work
Work done by a constant force is given by the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force.
Unit: Nm or Joule (J) Work is a scalar quantity.
Formula of work
A force of 50 N acts on the block at the angle shown in the diagram. The block moves a horizontal distance of 3.0 m. Calculate the work being done by the force.
Work done, W = F × s × cos θ W = 50 × 3.0 × cos30 o = 129.9J
Card 3: Formula of work 2  When the displacement is in the direction of force
Formula of work 2
When the direction of force and motion are same, θ = 0 ^{o} , therefore cosθ = 1
Work done,
W = F × s
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N. If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m, find a. the work done by the pulling force b. the work done by the frictional force Asnwer: (a) The force is in the same direction of the motion. Work done by the pulling force, " id="pdfobj5734" src="pdfobj5734.jpg">
Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N. If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m, find

a. the work done by the pulling force

b. the work done by the frictional force
(a) The force is in the same direction of the motion. Work done by the pulling force,
(b) The force is not in the same direction of motion, work done by the frictional force
W = F × s × cos180 o = (5)(2)(1) = 10J
Card 4: Work Done to Move Object Upward
Work Done Against the Force of Gravity
Previous 
Top 
Next Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. Each steps is 15cm in height. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg, find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase. Answer : In this case, Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion, h = 35 × 0.15 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 ms 2 Work done, W = ? W = mgh = (45)(10)(35 × 0.15) = 2362.5J Card 5: Finding Work Done from a Force  Displacement Graph Force  Displacement Graph " id="pdfobj5815" src="pdfobj5815.jpg">
Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. Each steps is 15cm in height. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg, find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase.
In this case, Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion, h = 35 × 0.15 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 ms 2 Work done, W = ?
W = mgh = (45)(10)(35 × 0.15) = 2362.5J
Card 5: Finding Work Done from a Force  Displacement Graph
Force  Displacement Graph
Previous 
Top 
Next The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. Answer : In a ForceDisplacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done " id="pdfobj592" src="pdfobj592.jpg">
In a ForceDisplacement graph, work done is equal to the area in between the graph and the horizontal axis.
Previous 
Top 
Next The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. Answer : In a ForceDisplacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done " id="pdfobj5918" src="pdfobj5918.jpg">
The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley.
In a ForceDisplacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done
Previous 
Top 
Next Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Example 5
Previous 
Top 
Next Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s. Answer: Kinetic Energy, Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy " id="pdfobj602" src="pdfobj602.jpg">
Energy
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.
Work is done when energy is converted from one form to another.
Unit: Nm or Joule(J)
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
Previous 
Top 
Next Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Example 5
Previous 
Top 
Next Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s. Answer: Kinetic Energy, Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy " id="pdfobj6033" src="pdfobj6033.jpg">
Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s.
Card 8: Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position (i.e., height).
Formula:
Previous 
Top 
Next A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground? Answer : According to the principle of conservation of energy, the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain. Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J Card 9: Elastic Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or compressing. Formula: " id="pdfobj616" src="pdfobj616.jpg">
A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground?
According to the principle of conservation of energy, the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain.
Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J
Card 9: Elastic Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or compressing.
Formula:
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring. Answer : The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy. Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done Conservation of Energy and Work Done During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Card 1: What is power? Power " id="pdfobj622" src="pdfobj622.jpg">
Previous 
Top 
Next Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring. Answer : The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy. Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done Conservation of Energy and Work Done During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Card 1: What is power? Power " id="pdfobj626" src="pdfobj626.jpg">
Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring.
The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy.
Card 10: Conservation of Energy and Work Done
Conservation of Energy and Work Done
During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted
Power
Power is the rate at which work is done, which means how fast a work is done.
Formula:
Top 
Next An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor. Answer : Work done, W = mgh = (20)(10)(1.5) = 300J Power, Card 2: Efficiency Efficiency The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy. " id="pdfobj6312" src="pdfobj6312.jpg">
An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor.
Work done, W = mgh = (20)(10)(1.5) = 300J
Efficiency
The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy.
Previous 
Top 
Next In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75%
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency  Air conditioner Air conditioner Switch off the air conditioner when not in use. Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size. " id="pdfobj642" src="pdfobj642.jpg">
Card 3: Efficiency Example
Efficiency
Previous 
Top 
Next In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75%
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency  Air conditioner Air conditioner Switch off the air conditioner when not in use. Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size. " id="pdfobj6414" src="pdfobj6414.jpg">
In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is
75/100 x 100% = 75%
Card 4: Ways of increasing the efficiency  Air conditioner
Air conditioner

Switch off the air conditioner when not in use.


Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size.

Close all the doors and windows of the room to avoid the cool air in the room from flowing out.
Card 5: Ways of increasing the efficiency  Regrigerator
Refrigerator

Always remember to close the door of refrigerator.


Open the refrigerator only when necessarily.


Always keep the cooling coil clean.


Defrost the refrigerator regularly.


Choose the refrigerator with capacity suitable for the


family size. Refrigerator of large capacity is more efficient compare with refirgerator of small capacity.

Card 6: Ways of increasing the efficiency  lamp or light bulb
Lamp or Light Bulb

Use fluorecent bulb rather than incandescent bulb.


Fluorescent bulbs are much more efficient than incandescent bulbs. Use a lamp with reflector so that more light is directed towards thr desirable place.

Card 7: Ways of increasing the efficiency  Washing Machine
Washing Machine
Use frontloading washing machine rather than top loading wahing machine because it uses less water and electricity.
Use washing machine only when you have sufficient clothes to be washed. Try to avoid washing small amount of clothes.
Card 1: What is elasticity
Elasticity
Elasticity is the ability of a substance to recover its original shape and size after distortion.
Card 2: Forces between atoms
Forces Between Atoms
Top 
Next The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force. At the equilibrium distance d , the attractive force equal to the repulsive force. If the 2 atoms are brought closer , the repulsive force will dominate, produces a net repulsive force between the atoms. " id="pdfobj6616" src="pdfobj6616.jpg">
The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force.

At the equilibrium distance d, the attractive force equal


to the repulsive force. If the 2 atoms are brought closer, the repulsive force will dominate, produces a net repulsive force between the atoms.

If the 2 atoms are brought furhter, the attractive force will dominate, produces a net attractive force between the atoms.
Card 3: Graph of Resultant Force against the Distance between 2 Atom
Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 3: Graph of Resultant Force against the Distance between 2 Atom Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms x = Equilibrium Distance When the particles are compressed, x < x0 , the repulsive force between the particles increases. When the particles are stressed, x > x0 , the attractive force between the particles increases. If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit , the attractive force will decreases . Card 4: State Hooke's Law Hooke's Law
Previous 
Top 
Next " id="pdfobj6720" src="pdfobj6720.jpg">
x _{0} = Equilibrium Distance
When the particles are compressed, x < x0, the repulsive force between the particles increases.
When the particles are stressed, x > x0, the attractive force between the particles increases.
If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit, the attractive force will decreases.
Card 4: State Hooke's Law
Hooke's Law
Hooke's Law states that if a spring is not stretched beyond its elastic limit, the force that acts on it is directly proportional to the extension of the spring.
Card 5: What is elastic limit?
Elastic Limit
The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed.
Card 6: Equation derived from Hooke's Law
Equation derived from Hooke's Law
From Hook's Law, we can derived that
Previous 
Top 
Next The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed. Card 6: Equation derived from Hooke's Law
Previous 
Top 
Next Equation derived from Hooke's Law From Hook's Law, we can derived that Card 7: What is spring constant? Spring Constant
Previous 
Top 
Next Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring. " id="pdfobj6843" src="pdfobj6843.jpg">
Card 7: What is spring constant?
Spring Constant
Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring.
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension Graph of Streching Force  Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done Card 9: F  x Graph and Spring Constant
Previous 
Top 
Next Fx graph and spring constant " id="pdfobj692" src="pdfobj692.jpg">
It is a measure of the stiffness of a spring or elastic object.
Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension
Graph of Streching Force  Extension
Previous 
Top 
Next Card 8: Graph of Streching Force against Spring Extension Graph of Streching Force  Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done Card 9: F  x Graph and Spring Constant
Previous 
Top 
Next Fx graph and spring constant " id="pdfobj6916" src="pdfobj6916.jpg">
Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done
Card 9: F  x Graph and Spring Constant
Fx graph and spring constant
Previous 
Top 
Next Arrangement in series : Extension = x × number of spring " id="pdfobj702" src="pdfobj702.jpg">
The higher the gradient, the greater the spring constant and the harder (stiffer) spring. For example, the stiffness of spring A is greater than spring B.
Card 10: System of Spring
System of Spring
Previous 
Top 
Next Arrangement in series : Extension = x × number of spring " id="pdfobj7016" src="pdfobj7016.jpg">
Arrangement in series:
Extension = x × number of spring
Stiffness decreases Spring constant = k/number of spring
Arrangement in parallel:
Extension = x ÷ number of spring Stiffness increases Spring constant = k × number of spring
Factors Affecting the Stiffness of Spring
Factors Affecting the Stiffness of Spring



Material type of spring



Diameter of wire of spring



Diameter of the spring



Length of the string



Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.
Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbitpenerbit terkemuka.
Batalkan kapan saja.