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TITLE : THE DRYING OF BANANA FRUIT OBJECTIVE Drying the banana fruit to measure its moisture content using

moisture analyzer. INTRODUCTION Those days, food preservation is commonly used by the ancestors to extend shelf life of food in which to inhibit microbiological and biochemical changes. However, preservation of food products in food industry nowadays has been well-developing, especially with the high technology equipments. There are a number of aims to be achieved by the industry such as to increase variety in the diet by providing a range of attractive flavors, colors, aromas and texture in food. Besides that, it is to provide nutrients required for health and also to generate income for the manufacturing company (Fellows, 2000). In food industry, they developed many types of food products in order to reached the demands from the customer and also competitors from others manufacturer. In fact, people nowadays prefer simple food but has adequate amount of nutrients, convenient to eat and also make us full by undergoes some principle of food preservation, for instances are drying, size reduction, extrusion and many more. Drying process is an alternative technique to reduce the water content in food. Water activities encourage the growth of microorganisms in foods. In drying process, heat has important influences on food processing where it is the most practical way of extending the shelf life of foods by removing water to inhibit deterioration. There are many types of fruits that can undergo drying process such as guavas, mangoes and

also bananas. In this experiment, bananas are used as sample to determine it drying process by cut them into slices with equal thickness. The purpose of drying may be carried out in the absence of oxygen in order to protect the components of foods that are easily oxidized (Fellows, 2000). Foods have a low thermal conductivity which becomes lower as the food dries and a thin layer of food is thus needed to conduct heat rapidly, without causing heat damage. MATERIALS AND INSTRUMENTS 1. Guava 2. Acetic acid 3. Calcium Chloride 4. Sugar 5. Plastic bag 6. Distilled water METHODS Firstly, the guava that we need to blanch was washed cleanly. Then the guava was peeled and cutted in cube shape with the width 1cm3. The cube shapes guava is then divided into three parts. One part is used raw while the second part was boiled at 80oC and the third part of guava was boiled at 100oC. After that, the guava was soaked in the salt water with the 12% concentration for a week. While the process of soaking, the guava was pressed with the water containing in the plastic bag. After one week, the guava was taken out and then immersed in the Calcium Chloride with the 0.4% in concentration. The water with the sugar concentration of 40% was heated. After that, 7. Beaker 8. Cutting board 9. Balancer 10. Knife 11. Hot plate

the vinegar and the 0.2% Calcium Chloride was added into the guava and the cooled to 70oC. Then, the guava was arranged in the clean and dry bottle until full and then closed tightly. The bottle was then heated in the boiling water for 6 minutes. Then, we observe the taste of the guava. RESULTS: Initials weight: Materials Banana (with skin) Banana (without skin) Aluminium foil Tray Alumiium foil + Tray + Banana Weight (g) 217.05 114.05 3.070 1730 1760

Moisture content: Time taken: 5 minutes Moisture analyzer tray weight: 2.584g Moisture contents Initial Final Percentage (%) 73.83 13.27

Weight changes of banana in the dehydrator: Time (hours) Weight 1.76 (kg) 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1 2 3 4 5 6

DISCUSSION Based on the results and graph obtained, it can be seen that the moisture content of bananas decreased from 73.83% to 13.27% in 6 hours. For the first six hours of drying, the weight of the banana plus the tray is 1.76kg, and for every next 1 hour, the weight recorded is constant which is 1.75kg.

This means that the dehydration of bananas is completed only in 2 hours. The constant temperature might be caused by too long exposure of the bananas to the surrounding temperature. Plus, the result obtained might be affected by temperature of dehydrator itself and also the thickness of each slice of bananas. The higher the temperature of the dehydrator, the shorter time to complete the process of dehydration of banana slices. The thickness of banana slices also influenced the process of dehydration. The thicker the slices of banana, the longer the time to complete the dehydration of the banana. In this experiment, natrium metabisulfite acts as antimicrobial preservative, inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Plus, it is also an antioxidant, decreasing the amount of oxygen in a substance and thus preventing the enzymatic browning especially in fruits. It also functions as bleaching agent. Natrium metabisulfite is a crystalline powder that is white to yellow in color. It is soluble in water. Another names for natrium metabisulfite are pyrosulphurous acid or disodium salt. Another sulfites that can be used exactly the same way as natrium metabisulfite is sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and also potassium metabisulfite. There are many types of preservatives that can be used but some of them are dangerous and has been banned in country such as Australia. The preservatives that should be avoided by people who are having cardiovascular disease, asthma, conjunctivitis and emphysema are calcium sulfite or sulphur dioxide. Besides drying, the bananas can be preserved by smoking, or it can be preserved by making banana jam (canning). It can also be fried to extend their life shelf. The

efficient way of drying the bananas is by drying them with food dehydrator instead of traditional ways- using sunlight. This is because if the weather is not good enough for drying, the quality of dried banana will be low. The quality is said to be good if the colour of the banana is brownish-yellow. Plus, the drying of the bananas is effective by using food dehydrator rather than sunlight because of its shorter time, less cost and high quality of control and hygiene (Dasuki, 1992). In addition, pisang emas, pisang raja and pisang ambon are types of bananas that can be used to be preserved by drying. This is because of its colour and moisture content. But of course, if the bananas are high in water content, the time taken to be dried might be much higher. CONCLUSION As for conclusion, we can state that the banana need to be decrease their moisture content until 15 20% which this percentage were the most suitable to reduce the microbiological activity and also extend it shelf life. Moreover, this process must have an accurate usage of drying time which helps to increase the quality of dried banana. In addition, we must also know how to use the correct technique of drying for dried banana by using the dehydrator instead of dry it under the sunlight. REFERENCE Rika. 2003. Pengaruh Suhu dan Lama Pengeringan Pisang Terhadap Mutu Sale Pisang. Retrieved on 20th MARCH. 2012