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by Andrius Ropolas written as a part of Critical urban theory course at K.U.

Leuven, Sint Lucas School of Architecture, Brussels, 2013

This paper attempts to analyze Russias closed cities ("closed administrative-territorial formations" or ZATO for short) through the social point of view, compare past and present situations and introduce concepts of The Right to the City, gated community and heterotopia in them. Two main stand points are overlooked: how and why people were and are fighting for their right to the city and what was architects role in this fight in the past and what it could be today. Paper is divided three main parts. In Introduction, history of Russian closed cities and situation of life, rights and freedoms meets concepts The Right to the City, gated community and heterotopia. It is explained how we can see closed cities and processes in them through these concepts. In the part The right to the city, gated communities, heterotopia and ZATOs it is explained how and why people were fighting for the right to the city before and in recent days. It is discussed if they failed or succeeded in doing that and what was the outcome of their failure or success. In addition, other concepts are elaborated - what does it mean for people to live in gated communities and heterotopian spaces, how these concepts influence their life. In the last part Architecture and planning in restricted areas it is explained what was the role of architects in the past in fight for the right to the city. In addition it is discussed what architects can do today to engage in this fight. Moreover Henri Lefebvres idea about power of proletariat is challenged in context of closed cities. Paper concludes that because of specific nature of these formations, in the past people managed to fight for their right to the city and architects involvement was not necessary, however today situation is opposite and moreover, involvement from government is necessary.

On February 11, 1943 Soviet Union started their nuclear research and development program as a response to information that other countries are also researching possibilities of nuclear power (Bukharin et al., 1999, p. 2). This led to construction of almost 100 entirely new closed cities or ZATOs across Soviet Union (Eidel, 2009b). Those cities were designed just for one main function production of elements or objects necessary for soviet army to keep up in their race for power against United States of America (USA). Some of the closed cities were working on nuclear program, others manufacturing war machines or focusing on space programs, but all of them shared some common things secrecy, isolation and exclusivity. The secrecy in cities was at top level, as it is mentioned in article by Michael R. Gordon (1998): for the first few years, none of the residents were allowed to leave. However after first satellites appeared, secrecy diminished greatly. From 1960 to 1972 USA did over one hundred satellite missions to uncover depths of these cities (Bukharin et al., 1999, p. 9). Cities often were built in distant areas, away from bigger cities to keep people and more importantly information isolated. Primary access to the cities was railway, some cities also had airfields or helicopter 1

facilities (Bukharin et al., 1999, p. 9) cities were fenced and protected by KGB (Lemaitre, 2005). Their existence was hidden from public and closed cities often did not have proper names, just codes, nor they appeared on maps. Phone lines had direct connection just with main officials in Moscow. The Right to the City as described by Henri Lefebvre (1968) was clearly not fulfilled. Without having freedom of movement and speech it was hard to make any impact for people themselves. At the same time the idea of these places came roughly from up, they were planned by small group of people and built by prisoners (Gordon, 1998), so in the structure of the cities it was already programmed that citizens would not have any power in decision making. However these harsh conditions had their advantages for workers. People working in these cities had higher than average salaries, longer holidays, there was virtually no crime, closed cities were often more spacious and green compared to similar open cities, there was almost no unemployment, common pride was also very high, because people felt that their work is very necessary. When in the rest of Soviet Union there were queues for products, in these cities people could get everything without any trouble (Eidel, 2009). Latest movies were shown one day after their premiere in Moscow movie theaters (Gordon, 1998). This could be compared to gated communities. As described by Hook and Vrdoljak (2002) gated communities are symbol of prestige and places of higher security, protecting people inside from reality outside. Although their research is focusing on South Africa, main conditions are the same in ZATOs. People in closed cities had certain special privileges, the rules and sometimes even political situation inside was different from outside. Most of the world and even Russians did not know about the existence of those kind of structures, until in 1992 a law governing closed administrative-territorial formations or ZATO (Lappo and Polian, 1998) was accepted. The space which is here and at the same time not here is a clear example of heterotopian space. In conversation about ZATO at Van Alen Institute, professor Jean-Louis Cohen referred to military, territorial, scientific complexes, such as ZATOs, as system of heterotopian spaces. As elaborated by Michel Foucault (1986) there are different types of heterotopian spaces. Closed cities because of their mix of different functions (civil and military) in one space are heterotopias of crises. Today visitors in closed cities mention the feeling that time in these places has stopped for last 30 years (Eidel, 2009). Isolation from outside world made these cities heterotopias of time. After fall of Soviet Union and new disarmament agreements between Russia and USA, situation started to change dramatically. Although already in 1980s government understood that there is no need to keep the same production pace as before (Bukharin et al., 2000, p. 62), after 1991 the importance of production in these cities diminished even more. Funding from the government decreased creating social issues. In 1996 director of the nuclear design center Chelyabinsk-70 killed himself, because he could not pay salaries to his workers (Gordon, 1998). As stated by Oleg Bukharin and others (2000, p. 10) government funding in 1999 was only one-seventh as it was in 1990. To prevent specialists from leaving closed cities and Russia for better paid jobs in Iran or North Korea, local government together with USA started conversion and reorganization projects in these sensitive areas to create new products, create new work places and use existing knowledge for civil purposes. A program Reorganization of Nuclear Industry Enterprises had to release 30 000 workers from nuclear complexes and at the same time to create same amount of workplaces by reorienting released personnel to work in civil production and supporting development of private enterprises from period 2002 until 2010 (Rumyantsev and Kholdov p. 174). Today there are 47 closed cities with a population of around 1.3 million. It means that almost every 100th person in Russia lives in a closed city under special regulations. Although presence of these cities is no longer denied they are still kept in secrecy. Privacy and freedom of people living and working in these structures is limited, they cannot freely change their residence location, nor sometimes live with their relatives. As it was reported by European Human Rights Advocacy Center in 2011 Maxim Kurpachev could 2

no longer live with his mother, because he was convicted for some criminal offenses and after release from prison, he could no longer get permanent residence at closed city of Ozersk, where his mother lives. In some cases not only people struggle for the right to the city, but also cities themselves: The Primorskii Krai government has used the threat of dumping waste in international waters as leverage for more funding in Moscow (Whittenton). It is extremely difficult for foreigner to get inside these cities. It is easy to find stories of journalists who got their access denied in last minute (Hodge, 2006). Also for Russians it is also a serous task, of course it differs depending on the city and how heavily it is secured. Often easiest way to get access is to have relatives living there (Eidel, 2009). Special limitations to get to closed cities makes these spaces heterotopias of purification. Same difficulties applies to media. Federal and local mass media have no access to closed cities. None of independent pressmen are allowed to visit ZATOs. (Kutepova, 2003). According to Roemer Lemaitre (2005) these restrictions violate freedom of movement and other international human rights. However more cities are planned to be opened. With the military reform transforming the Russian army and the market economy booming, it is inevitable that most of these cities will open up says Alexander Golts, an independent military analyst (Nemtsova, 2009). On the other hand it is not only government who wants these cities to be closed, but also people. Often they look with suspicion about plans to open city they live in. Nostalgia and old feeling of prestige is such a strong factors playing big role for older residents, that 89% of interviewed people of city of Norilsk did not want their city to be opened (Lappo and Polian, 1998, p. 47) although younger people often strive for possibilities in bigger open cities, especially Moscow.

Existing restrictions confronted with Henri Lefebrves Right to the city ideas raises question if people living in closed cities have any rights and power at all to make any impact on their environment. Although information and processes inside closed cities are protected and in the past were protected even more, there is information about attempts to fight for the rights to the city. As researched by Sergei I. Zhuk (2008) in closed city of Dnepropetrovsk in 1970s, which at that time was the site of biggest missile factory in Soviet Union, among youth, forbidden things like religion and westernization were spreading. Youth were buying copies of western music on black market. As emphasized by Zhuk (2008), the record of Jesus Christ Superstar played a big role of spreading new ideas among young people and made headaches for KGB (p. 662). He even mentions some arrests, when in 1970 ten young hippies were arrested and later, forty more. However often only people from Soviet elite could afford buying these records, so hippies arrested, were children of some high officers (p. 672). This just demonstrates that sometimes system was fighting against itself. Bigger spread of western music led to events organized by Baptists around the city with western music and radio shows (p. 667), although they were later banned people always found away how bypass restrictions. In his text Zhuk makes an important conclusion: The story of popular religiosity and Western mass culture in Dnepropetrovsk during the Brezhnev era highlights the complete failure of Soviet ideologists and the KGB to protect the youth of this strategically important center of the Soviet military-industrial complex from ideological pollution. At the same time, it shows how the tastes and activities of the new youth culture created new values and demands for cultural consumption that gradually transformed and replaced traditional Soviet values and Communist ideological practices. Here it is stated that the fight for rights to the city, not only led to changes in the city, but also changes in ideological system and traditional 3

Soviet values. It means that highly classified status of city and work being done inside can be separated from people and their right to the city. The walls keeping work and information safe inside the city does not necessarily apply to people living inside. Even with limited rights, without help from up, people always found tools to fight for their rights and make change. After crash of Soviet Union and introduction of market economy needs of people changed. Despair of people about the future is visible in dramatically dropping birth rates. In closed city of Tomsk birthrates compared to years 1965 and 1990 dropped by 20%, in Seversk by 41% and compared with years 1975 and 1995 birthrate in all Russian Federation dropped by 49% (Oleynichenko et al, 2005, p. 46). Freedom of culture, music, religion were no more restricted, however market economy forced to face new challenges. Nuclear defense sector did not benefit from opening up economy (Kaser, 2006). Declining need of production from closed cities led to declining financial support for them. Russian crises of 1999 also did no leave those areas untouched. At the same time population in ten cities in control of Ministry of Atomic Energy grew by 57 000 residents from period 1989 to 1998 (Kaser, 2006). Troubles with finance and inability to change anything by people themselves, because of isolation and direct financial dependence from Moscow, led to new forms of protest and fights for rights. Suicide of director of Chelyabinsk-70 in late 1996 for inability to pay salaries to his workers, was probably most radical, but not only way of expressing despair. About 300 workers from one nuclear submarine factory blocked the Trans-Siberian railroad, demanding wages that were nearly ten months overdue, one striking plant mechanic said he could see "only one way out to go to a nuclear submarine and do something," adding that it would not be hard to cause a "tragedy worse than Chernobyl" (Whittenton). These are just few examples of people trying to influence decisions related to their rights. Government understands seriousness of these issues, however changes are happening very slowly. Main reasons of slow changes are that very big changes in system and big amount of finance are needed to accomplish goals (Bukharin et al, 2000, p. 10). Lack of experience in market economy also keeps cities dependent on government funding (Ball, 2001). Initiatives between USA and Russia, like Nuclear Cities Initiative and a program Reorganization of Nuclear Industry Enterprises, tries to help closed cities to reorient their knowledge to civil production and create new private enterprises. There are exceptions, not all closed cities are struggling with finance: The nuclear facilities in three cities (Novouralsk, Zelenogorsk, and Ozersk) have been doing relatively well because they have been able to market uranium-enrichment and other fuel-cycle services to foreign nuclear-power utilities and have been blending-down excess weapons uranium for sale (Bukharin et al., 2000, p. 10). However overall situation is unkind. As research in closed city of Ozersk (Kozlov, 2008, p. 159) shows people are not happy with welfare, medical assistance, public services and social security. Despite all attempts to change situation, people feel unappreciated. Former Atomic Energy Minister Yevgeny Adamov was lecturing authorities in the nuclear cities not to pay plumbers and common laborers more than nuclear scientists (Gordon, 1998). As an outcome, for inability to fight for their right to the city, younger people leave their closed cities: We live here under a magnifying glass every step to the left or right is noticed and discussed. My friends and I plan to move to Moscow right after graduation. At least I will see people from other countries there, says Olga Sibiyato, an 11th-grader at High School No 235 in closed city of Znamensk (Nemtsova, 2009). What still keeps people in these cities are advantages of being in gated community and a heterotopian space. Isolation of cities by walls and checkpoints not only protects information inside from foreign spies and sabotage, but nowadays protects people and city inside the walls from organized crime (Bunn et al, 1998). Another feature of gated communities is that they often are symbol of status and prestige. For 4

many, the lock on the gate and secretiveness of their hometown is not a Soviet relic, but the meaning and pride of their lives says Anna Nemtsova (2009) about people in closed city of Znamensk. 89% of people from Norilsk said that they do not want their city to be opened (Lappo and Polian, 1998). People see closeness as a special feature of their city rather than downside. The wall is not to make us close-minded, or isolated, but to provide us with a special status, says mayor of Znamensk Victor Likh (Nemtsova, 2009). As being places of heterotopia of time and deviation closed cities creates strong nostalgic and patriotic approach. Remembrance of past, which is very strong in these places, makes things to have meaning. We are rocket specialists, the elite of the Russian army, Thousand of missiles have gone through our hands If not us, then who is going to keep Russia safe? says Aleksei Prudnikov, the commander of the anti-terror unit at Znamensk military range (Nemtsova, 2009). As Matthew Bunn and others (1998) think, only patriotism prevented from wide selling nuclear weapons and technologies from closed cities on black market.

Construction boom of closed cities was happening from 1940s to 1960s as mentioned by Xenia Vytuleva at Van Alen Institute conversation (2012). At that time soviet modernistic ideas of architecture were already defined. Across all Soviet Union typical housing, industrial, cultural, medical projects were being realized. Despite of distance, no newly built area differed too much in style from other. Housing blocks in Georgia or Lithuania were almost the same. Typical planning was also big advantage for fast building. This planning ideology is visible in closed cities ( Only difference, that as space of privilege, closed cities were more green and spacious (Gordon, 1998). Typical building system, ideological approach and extreme secrecy of closed cities meant that architects had limited possibilities to be involved in fight with people for the right to the city. At the same time, there was no need of architects to be involved structure and ideology was all over the same, no difference if it was open or closed city. Moreover, conditions were even better in closed cities. As it was discussed before, people successfully managed to fight for their rights to the city in these conditions. Today situation is different. Being heterotopias of time, closed cities did not follow contemporary trends, market economy bypassed them. It means that closed cities today have same structure as they had 30 years ago, old ideological presence and structure are not reflecting what is happening outside the walls. As a reason of economical declination and inability to fight for their rights to the city, there is a tendency for youth to leave closed cities, striving for more possibilities in Russias biggest cities, where presence of reality and contemporary world is most appreciable and visible. It is clear that ongoing changes of restructurization, conversion and private enterprises in closed cities must be encouraged and not only because Russia can no longer afford these complexes (Bukharin , 2000, p. 60), but also because it will create better environment for people. Opening up to the world is another side of the medal. For some cities is inevitable to open up, as Russian government can no longer support them and production from them is not as necessary as before, the only way of survival is opening up and contributing to market economy. These processes of reorientation, conversion of closes cities and opening of some of them leads to massive changes in cities structure and economy. And here is the place where architects can play their role in help for people to fight for their city. ''People in the closed cities are like children, the gap between ordinary cities and the free market is quite big, but the gap between people who lived in a closed city and a market economy is enormous'' - Yevgeny Adamov, fromer Atomic Energy Minister (Gordon, 1998) 5

In these new conditions architects can help to understand better and plan processes of change. New conditions will change face of the cities, so it is very important to have visions how these cities can see themselves in the future. Although similar rules apply to all closed cities, in depth they are very different, with difference in size, social structure, needs, geography and many more factors. Architects can help to manage all these issues and provide global vision for these places, which could reflect past of the cities, present reality outside city walls and future needs. Smart visions would make it easier for people to shape city themselves, by reclaiming and fighting for their rights to the city. However without changes initiated and supported by Russian government, architects have no power, even governments of cities have no power to engage in fight for the right to the city. It is ironical example which opposes Henri Lefebvres idea of power of proletariat: Only groups, social classes and class fractions of revolutionary initiative can take over and realize to fruition solutions to urban problems. It is from these social and political forces that the renewed city will become the oeuvre (1968, p. 154). In case of ZATOs government is the trigger which can let people reclaim their city. Otherwise situation where people are either leaving, because they cannot fight for the right to their city, or accepting existing setting and being passive is inevitable. Ofcourse we have to remember that closed cities in Russia is unique example of mix of freedom rights, national security, specific cultural and historical context and functional purpose. They are realized utopias (Van Alen Institute, 2012), so it is natural that widely accepted philosophies work differently in these conditions. When the fight for the city was about culture, people managed to find their ways to gain their rights and city. They still managed to buy desired records, dress up as they wanted, organize events in cities. Architects did not need to be involved in these processes, because architectural and planning situation was everywhere the same. Eventually this fight had an outcome and changed all traditional Soviet values. This is materialization of Henri Lefebvres The Right to the City (1968) where he discusses that change can be only realized by working class and a critique of the ideological and strategic implications of planning projects (p. 153). However after crash of Soviet Union, there was no need to fight for culture, there was need to fight for social rights, earned salary and ability to work. It is impossible for people to influence these issues, without involvement from up, because control of economy in closed cities is directly dependent from Russias government, even city government has no power. It means that, although people are fighting for their rights to the city, they are still losing this fight. And as an outcome youth is leaving. Only nostalgia and patriotic feelings are keeping people in cities. Architects can be and must be involved in the fight for the right to the city, however they are also hostages of government, because without permission from up they can not even enter closed cities. However, changes are happening, government is trying to change situation, closed cities are opening up or changing their focus from military to civil production. Only because of changes triggered by government, architects can become useful and necessary in helping to control new processes and new realities. Without them, social and spatial consequences of fast changes in the cities can be unpredictable.

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