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Pre Islamic Poetry Origin of the Arabic Poetry Introduction: When did these people spring?

Is a question first posed and then answered by Clement Huart. According to Clement Huart, the Arabs belong to Semite Group, who from the lower plains Babylonia migrated to peninsula. The rugged terrain of the peninsula made them aloof from other Semitics groups and then develop their own language- Arabic associated with Yahrib bin Qahtan. The history is replete with the events of tribal clashes between the descendents of Qahtan and Adnan. The Arabs spent their life as nomads in search of water and Greenland. Thus it was during these migration the poetic genius of Arabian Peninsula was evoked. Further Clement Haurt holds the opinion, The long caravan marches across the monotonous dresses, turning the unaccustomed traveler sick, soon taught Arab to sing Rhymes. He noted various soon that he hurried the pace of recitation the any string of camels would raise their heads and got their pace. This creature is responsive to music rhythm. Evolution of Pre-Islamic Poetry: So, the Arab had produced poetry with absolutely knowledge of rules about it. The era of 250 to 400 years before the advent of Islam is known as Dour e Jahlia before that no record is available. The evolution of poetry traced back in this era passed many steps to emerge as the poetry, known to the world. 1- Free Prose: In very initial stage the poetry dont follow any pattern. It was just an expression of thoughts and thus was called as free prose. 2- Masjah Prose: Sermons and saying of wise people were mentioned in poetry which was in raw nature and was used to impress the people. 3- Rijz: Rijz, a way to invoke emotion of the warrior Arab was in the blood of the Arabs as they were racially proud. 4- Qaseedah: Qaseedah was the natural outcome as the Arab was fond of self-praise. 5- Hadi Khawani: The life is rugged terrain and unfavorable conditions resulted in the emergence of Hadi Khawani in the peninsula. 6- Behr and Qafia: Final touch to the Arabian Poetry was given after the introduction of Behr and Qafia in it. Types of Poetry: 1- Ghanai or Wajdani Poetry: Ghanai poetry is a type of poetry in which the poets express the feelings of his heart. 2- Narrative Poetry: Narrative poetry is used to narrate some happening or incident in war to boast of tribal pride. 3- Dramatic Poetry: Dramatic poetry is concerned with the narration of conceptual or idealistic view points from some heroic achievements. Criticism: Zaidan in his treatise Tarikh al adab al Arabiand Adab al Jahli has mention that Dramatic poetry emerged even before the narrative or ghanai poetry but this does not seem to be true as Clement Huart and Dr. Nicholson validate the poetry.Second, Arabs were nomads and were not able to think conceptually to such an extent. The Poet A Man To Be Revered: According to F I Malik The port in the pre Islamic era were respected by the people by and large. A poet was considered to be the savior of reverence of tribe on public forum like Souk Akaaz. He was considering being leader in case of war and peace. So, the poet held the central position in a tribe.Clement Huart presents an example to validate this point as he writes in his book A History of Arabic Literature That Zuhair Ibn Janab used to enjoy such a level of respect that encampments by his tribe made or forsaken by his order. The booty was distributed by him. This shows that he enjoyed a level of respect.

Pre Islamic Poetry and Its Significance Introduction: Pre-Islamic poetry is the master piece of pre Islamic literature. Indeed poetry is considered history of pre Islamic Arabs. In pre Islamic era the best poetry was used to be hanged with the wall of Kaaba. Hammaad The Rhapsodist has collected some of the Qasaids in the volume named as Mualqaat. Significance of Pre-Islamic Poetry: Hazrat Umers quote enunciating the significance of the pre Islamic poetry perfectly. 1) Significance In Views of Different Authors: Pre Islamic era was the age when poetry had reached the apex of its brilliance. The poet was the most respectable person in tribe. To safeguard the honor and respect of the tribe, the poets were always at the forefront. Ahmed Hassan Ziyat in his book Tarikh Adab Arabi has mentioned that Whenever there emerged a poet in a tribe, it was taken as a blessing of Providence. The appearance was celebrated as the people of other tribe used to congratulate the tribe in which the poet was emerged. F I Malik in his book further quotes that The poet was consider being the defender of the honor of tribe and was cause to bring a good name and fame to the respect of tribe. The poet was taken as a wise man and thus a leader of the tribe through thick and thin. Clement Huart in his book Literary History of Arabs has mention that there were many poets the evidence of whom was the final say in order to decide to encamp or decamp a certain place. The booty which was collected in fights with other tribes was distributed by no person other than the poet. Further in another chapter, Clement Huart writes that there were and markets in the Arab of pre Islamic era. Souk Akaaz was the most fascinating of the all. It used to be started on 1 st Zil-Hajj and remained for 20 days. During there 20 days people from all over the Arab used to come and literary activities were at the zenith of their glory. The poet used to present their Qasaids and best of the best was selected or judged by Banu Tamin in Souk Akaaz. The best Qaseedah was written in gold and then was hanged with the wall of Kaabah. Hammaad The Rhapsodist has collected some of the Qasaids in the volume named as Mualqaat because these were believed to be hanged with the wall of Kaabah. Another name Muzhabat is also given to them because these were believed to be written in gold. 2) Depiction Of The Conditions of Pre-Islamic Arabia: Another significance of pre Islamic poetry is that it depicts the social and moral condition of the society of Arabs before the emergence of Islam. It is the pre Islamic Poetry which serve as a window through which one can see the situation, whether, it was moral or social, it was political or cultural, of the society of pre Islamic era. Through this poetry of Dour-e-Jahlia, we know that Arabs were racially prejudiced without any central government or authority. The Arab were worrier and they were disintegrated into tribes. The ordinary Arab out of the love for his tribe did not leave any stone unturned. Hijv, Fakhar, Madah, Qaseedah, Marsiya etc. were the main

asnaf of poetry. The sole purpose of the poet was to show that his tribe was more respectable than the rival tribe. 3) Relevance To Quran The poetry was given so much importance that Allah bestowed on the Holy Prophet (PBUH) His miracle in the form of a lucid and eloquent Holy Quran. It is an established fact that the miracle bestowed by Allah to different Prophets were according to the art, which was at its apex in that era e.g. Juses was awarded with a miracle by dint of which he could touch a leaper and make him alright and could reincarnate life in a dead body. This miracle was bestowed by Allah Almighty on Jesus just because of the fact that Ilm-e-Tib was touching the heights of glory. Similarly Moses was the miracle to answer the magicians of that era. Same is true for the Holy Quran, a miracle of Allah, to show and answer the eloquent and lucid poets of Arabs. This fact validates that the poetry was most significant thing in the pre Islamic era. Salient Feature of Pre Islamic Poetry with Special Reference to Muallaqat Introduction: Pre Islamic era, known as Dour-e-Jahlia in other words it is the era of highly brilliant activities in poetic field. Many a notable can be traced back to that era. The poet enjoyed an unmatchable fame and respect in this era. As depicted by F I Malik in his book Muqalat Whenever a poet used to emerge on the scene in any tribe, the people considered it the blessing of Allah Almighty. As he was the defender and leader of the tribe in all the circumstances to come. There are two main ways through which we can have an idea about the pre Islamic poetry: 1- The poetry in written form i.e. Muallaqat. 2- The poetry which was passed from generation to the other and finally was brought to written form. Muallaqat: Al-Muallaqat is the work (poetic) compiled by Hammad Al- Rawya or Hammad-the Rhapsodist. This poet work is consisted of Qasaids long poems of the poet of pre Islamic era. These are known as Muallaqat as it indicates these qasaids were hanged on the wall of Kaabah. This point towards the customs of Arabs who used to hang the important documents wit the wall of Kaabah. This goes with the historical evidence too. These Qasaids were declared, best of the lot, of the contemporary poetic work and these were hanged with the wall of Kaabah to appreciate the poet. Many scholars objected this very fact but historical events e.g. hanging of document of boycott of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and hanging of Sorah Kosar by Hazrat Abdullah (R.A) are enough to prove this claim. Secondly, these qasaids, collectively are called Muzhabat which mean that these were written in gold. Al-Nahas in his treatise writes the true matter of the fact is that Hammad-The Rhapsodist saw how little the people cared about the Pre Islamic poetry, he collected all the poems and asked people to read them and respect them. This

goes with all the other information as singing poetic work was the profession of Hammad. He had a very good grip of Arabic literature so it was instrument set for him to do this important task. Poets of Muallaqat: Hammad collected the work of these seven poets: 1- Amra ul Qais 2- ZAuhair bin abi Salma 3- Labid bin Abi Rabia 4- Tarfa al Abad 5- Haris bin Halza 6- Umro bin Kalsoom 7- Antra Absi Abu Zaid Qureshi along with some other scholars has mentioned the name of: 1- Aashi 2- Nabigah Zaibani 3- Umro bil Al Bars in this context. Important Feature of Pre Islamic Poetry Pre Islamic poetry was done in following asnaf: 1- Sanf-i-Hija 2- Maddah 3- Marsyia 4- Rijz 5- Mufakharat 6- Fakhar The important features of the poetry include following points. 1- Starting Style: After a conventional prelude, the Nasib , in which poet remembers his best beloved by standing on the forsaken place e.g. Amra ul Qais starts Qasidah as: Zuhair bin Abi Salmas Qaseedah starts with the following verse: 2- San-Artificiality: The poetry of pre Islamic era does not have any attribute of artificiality in it. It is altogether natural an outcome of the emotion of the poets. 3- Wisdom: Pre-Islamic poetry yields the quality of wisdom. There are many sayings of wisdom in pre-Islamic poetry. Zuhair bin Abi Salma can be refered in this regard. As he said: Wa man yajalil maroof.wa yandim 4- Extemporaneous: The Arab poets were very much like reflectors what used to fall on them it was immediately reflected. They had a natural sense of ideas. 5- Love and Depiction of Nature: The Arab had a deep contact with the nature. Some of the poets like Amra ul Qais had spent the life of wanderers bay making encampment here and there and remained in search of water and greenery. So it was obvious that love for nature was manifested in their poetry. 6- Mufakhirat: The poet has a sense of personal pride and prejudiced. This was very clear from their poetry also. The poetry of Umro bin Kalsoom is a good

example of it. 7- Balaght -i- Kalam: Eloquence, lucidity and extemporaneousness was the the most outstanding feature of the poet of the pre Islamic rea. 8- Not of Reward except Nabigah Daibani Poerty: Not a single except Nabigab Al Daibani who has used poetry for material gains. Taksab bil Sher was done by Nabigah. 9- Repetition of Subjects: There were repetitions of subjects in almost all the Qasaids of the poets of pre Islamic era. Sources of pre Islamic Arab Poetry Introduction: Pre Islamic Arab poetry has reached up to us in two forms i.e. written and unwritten. Written part is that of the Muallaqat and the unwritten portion was pen down in 7 th and 8 th century. Pre Islamic poetry has reached us in three ways. 1- Dewaan 2- Muntehibat 3- Kutb-i-Adb-i-Nasr Dewaan: The following poets had their dewaan: -ul-Qais

Some other famous Dewaans are: Mehjhan

Muntehibaat: Muntehibat are actually a collection of books made for the purpose of reading pre Islamic poetry. We can classify it in the following five categories. a) Al-Mualliqat: These are also called Al-Mashuraat. These were collected by the legend Hammad Al Rawya, who though corrupted in some extent, yet his effort to collect the data was not less than an achievement. The numbers of Mualliqat are 7 to 10. b) Hamasa: Hamasa is basically the collection of best poetic work by the well on scholar Abu

Tamam Habib bin Aus who died in 850 A.D. he selected the master pieces of poetry from pre Islamic era and complied them in one book. The book has 10 chapters. Some of the chapters are as under:

c) Al-Mufazilliat: This is also a collection of poetic works done in the 8 th century, by Al Mufzil Al Ghabi. Basically Al Mufzil Al Ghabi was directed by the Caliph Mansoor to collect the poetic works from the pre Islamic era for his son. Originally there were 30 qasaids in that book but Asmai added 90 new qasaids so that total number of qasaids are 120 now. d) Hamasa Al Bahtari: Many people were impressed by success of Hamasa, so they tried to follow the pattern of Hamasa. Al Bahtari was one of those scholars who jumped into this race. Though he died in 897 A.D. yet he completed his book which due some reason could not meet success. e) Jumhrah Ashaar Al Arab: Abu Zaid Qureshi was the author of this book. The book has 49 qasaids and 7 chapters. So the ratio was 7 qasaids per chapter Kutb-i-Adb-i-Nasr: These were the books which are not basically the book of poetry, but in these books frequent reference to the poetic works have been made. So these books are important source for pre Islamic poetry. i- Kitab Al Biyan Wal Bateen by Al Jahiz ii- Kitab Al Sher Wal Shuraa by Ibn Qutaiba iii- Al Kamal By Mubard iv- Khazana Al Adab by Abdul Qadir Baghdadi Importance of Pre-Islamic Poetry In Understanding Holy Quran 1) Socio Economic Culture: The interpretation of Holy Quran sometimes require a peep into the socio economic set up of that era and the poetry of that era is very good depiction and manifestation of the socio economic circumstances of that time. So, poetry was consulted to know the customs and traditions of that era. 2) Understanding of Gharaib: There are many strange words or Gharaib in the Holy Quran which were alien to Arabs because these were no more in use in there day to day life. However these words were used by the poets in their poetry. So, in order to understand these Gharaibs , the interpreters and Mufasareen used to consult the pre Islamic poetry,

e.g. Is the opening of a Surah in Holy Quran. This word has been used by Amrao ul Qais in his poetry also. To understand Waduhaa the Mufasareen sought help from Pre Islamic poetry. 3) Explanation of Ayats: Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was asked to explain some Ayats of the Holy Quran, he made allusion to the pre Islamic poetry to make it comprehendible for the people who asked him to explain: People asked: Hazrat Abdullah points a verse of Labid: People asked: Hazrat Abdullah replied by quoting Labid who mentioned: People asked: Hazrat Abdullah replied by quoting Labid who mentioned: People asked: Hazrat Abdullah replied by quoting Labid who mentioned: 4) Source To Understand Grammar: The pre- Islamic poetry was the master piece in the Arabic literature therefore this poetry provided as being a source for the grammar and it was used as a guideline. 5) Source To Know The Superiority of Quran: Pre Islamic poetry also shows when it is compared with the Holy Quran that Holy Quran is the best of the lot and superior in its style, eloquence and lucidity than the pre Islamic poetry. Pre Islamic poetry validates the fact the Holy Quran is the Kalam of Allah and cannot be of man, e.g. a German scholar writes when he compared Surah Rehman with the Qaseedah of pre Islamic era, The Quran flips the Qaseedah-totally. Quran shows that the nature is transitory and human legacy is permanent while in ordinary Qaseedah human legacy change while the nature remain the same. Secondly, pre-Islamic poetry a propensity in people to listen to the poetic work of the poet in that era. It was obvious, Quran the miracle was the Kalam of Allah which penetrated deep in the hearts of the people and thus the pre Islamic poetry indirectly helped the propagation of Quran and Islam. 6) Importance of Pre-Islamic Poetry For Preaching Islam Similarly, the poetry was indirectly helpful to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in preaching the non-believers. The people were very responsive to the literary activity. Quran being the most lucid and eloquent of the all works of that era, it was the master piece of Allah Almighty, casted deep impact on their hearts. They were turned non-believer to the follower of Holy Prophet because they got impressed by the miracle of the Holy Quran. Islamic Period LANGUAGE OF QURAN Introduction: The Holy Quran has been revealed in Arabic language. At the time of revelation of Quran, there were hundreds of dialects of Arabic. But the Quran was revealed in

Qureshi dialect. It is a well-known fact that the Qureshi dialect is superior to its style, structure and morphology. Our Holy prophet (PBUH) said: "I am the most lucid man of the Arab as I am Qureshi and has been brought up in Bani Saad." "Seven Letters of Quran" Quran has been revealed on seven letters but it is still a myth that what these seven exactly meant. Our Holy Prophet ( PBUH) said "Ina hazal quran-al-qurana unzila ala sabate ahrufin" There are many opinions as to be interpretation of this Hadith. Allama Bin Arabi (RH) has quoted 35 opinions. Some famous opinions are as under. First Opinion According to Hafiz Ibne Jarir Tibri (RH) and some other scholars, Quran has been revealed in the seven grammars in Arabic Language. As there were many tribes in te Arab and each tribe had its own dialect and grammars so it was very difficult for them to pronounce the Quran. So Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered the holy Quran to be pronounced on seven grammars of the different Arab tribes. Imam Hatim (RH) has even counted the ribes e.g. Quresh, Huzail, Tim-ur-Rubab, Azd, Rabia, Hawazan, Saad bin bakr. Some other scholars have also added Banu Kanaya, Banu Qais, Banu Zabba. Criticism on First Opinion: Allama Tuhari (R.A.) favours this second opinion. According to him, Holy Prophet (PBUH) divided the Arabic Peninsula in seven different regions. The act of Holy Prophet (PBUH) was aimed at facilitating the people. Holy Prophet (PBUH) specified Mradifat for each tribe. "Tirmizi Sharif has quoted incident about the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that Holy Prophet (PBUH) as the Jibrail that i have been sent to an illiterate Ummah, which also has Sck old man, old women and kids, who have difficulty in pronouncing the Quran due to their specific dialect. Then Jibrail (A.S.) requested him (PBUH) to order the people to pronounce the Quran on seven letter. However, this practice was banned in the last period of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and in the last era. The Holy Quran was repeated only in Qureshi accent and grammar. Meaning of Writing on Qureshi Grammar: Till the Hazrat Usman (RA)' s era, Quran was written in several letters but due to the conflicts and quarrels among the peoples of the different regions over the Qiraat. Hazrat Usman (R.A) set up a committee, headed by Hazrat Zai-bin-Thabit (R.A). Hazrat Usman (R.A) advised that committee in the following words, If the difference of opinion may arose between you and Zaid, you should write according to Hazrat Zaid's opinion because he is a Qureshi and Quran has been revealed in Qureshi language. After the completion of committee's work, all other copies of Quran ( written in other dialect) were burnt. According to a scholar, the only difference of opinion arose between Hazrat Zaid (R.A) and others was regarding tabut, which was written as Al tabut because it was accrding to the Qureshi dialect. Subject and Topic of Quran

Introduction: We can divide the subject and topic of Quran with two references that is: 1. With reference to revelation 2. With reference to subjec With Reference to Revelation: In this category, we can divide Quran as follows: 1. Makki Surahs 2. Madni Surahs 1. Makki Suraha: In Makki surah, mostly, Basic believes of the Islamhave been discussed e.g. Tauheed, Risalat, Akhirat, Hell , Paradise. Makki Surah aim at inculcating the sense of accountability among the Muslims. Moreover some incidents from the past have also been explained. 2. Madni Surahs: Madni Surah discussed three different but co-related themes. a) Ghazwat/ Jihad: Rules of war, Prisoners rights and Mal-e-Ghanemat have been discussed. b) Ibaadat: Detailed laws about Namaz, Fast, Hajj, Zakat have been narrated. c) Social Laws: In this portoin Madni Surahs have discussed almost every sphere of social laws. It has given judicial, economic, administrative, criminal, matrimonial, educational laws. With Reference to Subject: In this category we can divide Quranic teachings in following classes: 1. Believes 2. Ahkaams (commandments) 3. Incidents 4. Examples 1) Believes: The Holy Quran talks about the basic believe of Islam such as Islamic injunctions about idol worshippers, Christian, Jews. 2) Ahkaams/Commandments: The Holy Quran gives Ahkaams about the rights of God as well as rights of people. For instance, Quran explains the commandments about Namaz, Fasting Hajj and Zakat. Similarly Quran gives Ahkaams about trade, economy, inheritence, will, morality, banking, education, etc. Quran also declare its Ahkaams in clear words about Nikkah, Talaq and Jihad, etc. 3) Incidents: The Quran talks about two types of incidents i.e. of past and of future. For example incidents about the lives of Hazrat Adam (A.S), Hazrat Noah(A.S), Hazrat Younas (A.S), Hazrat Musa(A.S), Hazrat Ismail (A.S), Hazrat Shoaib(A.S),Hakeem Luqman, Malika Saba, Zulqurnain and Qaroon belong to the past. Where as future incidents are relating doom's day, hell, paradise, etc. 4) Examples: The Holy Quran gives examples to facilitate the learning process. The Quran

compares human beings and human acts with that of nature.[/QUOTE] Narrative Style of Quran Introduction: The Quranic style is said to be the best narrative style in the world. It has no match as the style is very lucid, fluent, meaningful and comprehendable. Literary Challenge of Quran: The Quran proudly challenges the whole world. So far, no one (neither modern linguistics nor proud Arabs) could accept the challenge of Quran. Distinctive qualities of Quranic Narrative Style: 1. Parallel harmonious effect: The Quran don't follow any literary laws yet it gives a very harmonious effect, which enchant its reader or listeners. Its impact is unbelievable and to some ones unnarrateable. 2. Is it Poetry or Prose? Linguists still face confusion as to classifying the Holy Quran as a prose or as a verse. It is difficult to say exactly that what Quran is? Probably it is both. 3. Blend of all Narrative Styles: There are three traditional narrative styles i.e. oratory, literary and academic. But Quran employs all these three styles so skillfully that while following one style, Quran does not infringe the other. 4. Repetition of Subject: Normally, repitition of any thing has a boring effect on human being but Quran has unique feature that it repeats its Ahkaam time and again (i.e. about Salat, Zakat, Fast, etc.) Yet we do not feel bore. 5. Delicate and Honoured Tone: The Quran is very delicate as to its content but at the same time it maintains its authoritative tone, which has a convincing effects on the listener or readers. 6. Beautiful and Pleasant Style: The Quran is not a book of jokes. It discusses very serious, thought provoking topics. But Quranic style is so pleasant that one does not feel bore. For example, an inheritance law is a very serious subject but it is a miracle of Quranthat in Surah Nisa, it has been narrated the whole inheritance laws in a very pleasant and consuming manner, that one does not feel bore. 7. Employing All Specialties Perfectly: Some persons in the history had command over the ghazal where as some others had command over some other genres of literature e.g. Qasida, Rubahi, Nazam, Naat etc. But Quran follows all these qualities perfectly at the same time. 8. Compactness: The Quran has small and compact sentences but there meanings are very deep and penetrating. 9. Understandable for Educated as Well as Illiterate Persons: The Holy Quran is unique in a sense that it has something to offer to both---educated as well as illiterate persons. An illiterate person can seek knowledge from Quran like a scholar can. Though there will be difference in level of comprehension but Quran has something to offer for both. 10. The Best Words and Arrangement of Sentences: The Quranic arrangement of words in the sentences is the best one. 11. Inter-connectivity of Ayats: Apparently there is no content list of Quran

but Ayats are so well knitted that person feel connectivity among the Ayats. This is why; Quran becomes a well-organized book in the eyes of even a new reader. 12. Style of Makki Surahs: Makki Surahs have small sentences which are motivating and encouraging. Makki Surahs, normally avoids long and perplexing sentences. 13. Style of Madni Surahs: Madni Surahs have long sentences capable of explaining the technical concepts for example economic, inheritance and matrimonial laws. Quran Its Miracles, Language and Influence on Subsequent Literature Quran --- A Heavenly Revealed Book The Holy Quran is last heavenly revealed book. It is in pure Arabic language. It can be divided in two main parts; one is Makki and second is Madni. Most of the Mkki surahs consist of fundamental beliefs of Islam like Tauheed, Resalat, life hereafter etc. On the other hand Madnio surahs are consisting of orders relating to ethics, social life and Islamic government. Miracles of Holy Quran: 1- Inimitable: The Holy Quran was revealed in an era when the Arabian Peninsula was full of the lucid and eloquent poets. But Quran as it was kalam of Rehman was superior to the poetic work of the poets. Quran challenges everybody to bring even a very small verse in competition to Quran. Quran put the same challenge four times before the non-believer. No one was able to meet the challenge from then to now. 2- Miracle of The Holy Prophet (PBUH) Every prophet of Allah Almighty was awarded with a miracle of the art which was at its apex during that time. The Jesus was given the miracle of Tib. He used to touch the leapers to make him healthy and could reincarnate the life in to a dead body. This was bestowed by Allah almighty on Jesus Christ because this was the time when Ilm-e-Tib was touching the height of its glory. Moses was given the miracle to competes rather over power the magicians and it was magic that was consider to be the order of the day. During the era of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), lucidity and poetry was at its apex. Then it was necessary to beat this art. That is the reason Allah Almighty awarded the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with the miracle of Quran. Quran was the best when it was compared to the literary work of that time. 3- Quran Safeguarded by Allah Almighty: Even after 1400 year time, the Holy Quran is safeguarded and intact. This is indeed a marvelous miracle of the Holy Quran that Allah Almighty has safeguarded this book by employing His Wisdom. Even a minute change cannot occur in this Holy Book, this indeed is the blessing and miracle of Allah. 4- Impact of Quran For Who Understand it are Miraculous: The Holy Qurans lucidity made it even more effective for the people who try to understand it. Labid bin Rabia embraced Islam when he tried to complete (in poetic

sense, he tried to add another stanza) Sura-al-kusar but could not do so. He understood that this cannot be the kalam of a man. So, he wrote This is not written by any man and embraced Islam. Similarly, the incident of Hazrat Umers embracing Islam shows that its impact is great and cannot be explained in words. 5- Quran Neither A Verse Nor A Prose: Another miracle is that Quran has been revealed in such a way that it looks like a neither prose nor like a verse, as depicted by Dr. Taha Hussain. It flips qasidah, totally, when Sura Rehman is revealed and understood. All the magnificence shows that Quran is also a miracle in its context and style. Influence / Impact of Quran on Subsequent Literature: Introduction: The Holy Quran imprinted deep marks over the subsequent literature. The spirit of the Holy Quran diffused in the Muslims and depicted itself in every walk of life. We can discuss the impacts of Holy Quran under following heads: 1- Impact on language 2- Impact on prose 3- Impact on calligraphy 4- Impacts on modern literary disciplines Impacts on Language: The Quranic narrative style gifted a peculiar delicacy to the Arabic language. Moreover Arabic became the National Language of a state which was stretched over hundred of lacs of miles. The Holy Quran introduced new words in it e.g.

Ghraibs were used by Quran. Imam Raghib Asfahani has counted many Ghraibs which were mentioned in the Holy Quran. These Ghraibs were no more use of the ordinary Arab people. Impacts on Prose: The Holy Quran influenced the prose of that era in the following ways: a. Modern Narrartive style: The prose style after the revelation of Quran was more advanced and better in structure. Further, the sentences were more connected and coherent. The letters written by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Maktubat e Nabvi and Khutbat e Nabvi followed a specific style which was propagated in Islamic Caliphate. b. Insha Pardazi Invented: When the Islamic state expended, it was a compulsion to maintain the accounts of expenditure and income of such big state, For this purpose Offices were established and it necessitated the Insha Paradazi. c. Peculiar Narrative Style: A specific style of writing was developed after the revelation of the Holy Quran. d. Oratory: Oratory became a common fashion in the public gatherings particularly during the wars to provoke the emotions of soldiers. e. Tradition of writing down history in Arab:

Before the revelation of Quran, there was no tradition of writing down history in Arab. It was only after the Islam that this tradition was established. Probably, was the first person to start writing history. In the true spirit of the subject. Initially, the subject was used to quote the context of each Ayat and surah of the Holy Quran. Impacts on Calligraphy: The Quranic revelation also gave Imppetus to the calligraphical styles. New styles were invented e.g. -i-Marsah -i-Naskh -i-Riyasi Moreover, every region (African, Persian, Turkish, etc) developed its own calligraphical style. New Fields of Knowledge: After the revelation of the Holy Quran, it was propagated to the far off areas. Non Arabic people committed blunders while pronouncing the Holy Quran. This necessitated the introduction of new fields of knowledge in order to understand Holy Quran. The new fields e.g.

sul-i-Fiqh -i-Sarf-o-Nahv were introduced by the Muslims. Khalil bin Ahmed was the first one to write a book on Ilm-i-Lughat named as Kitab-ul-ain. Quran Is Neither Prose Nor Poetry Introduction: The Qur'an is the revelation from Allah for the guidance of mankind. It is the fundamental document of the religion of Islam. It is regarded by the faithful as the Holy, revealed, eternal Word of God, preserved on the guarded tablets, lawh e mahfuz in heaven . It is divided into 114 Suras or chapters. Suras are divided into verses, termed ayat. The Qurans Literary Form: Pre-Islamic Arabic literature is found in two forms: prose and poetry. But the Quranic discourse cannot be described as any of the known literary forms. The most predominant opinion is that it doesnt adhere to any of the rules known to poetry and prose. Another opinion is that the Quran combines metrical and non-metrical composition to create its own literary form. Some scholars disagree with the above opinions and claim that the Quran is a form of rhymed prose, saj. Non-compliance to the Rules of Prose or Poetry: The Quran is not like the prose of Saj or Mursal and it doesn't fit into any of the al-Bihar. This can be seen by the following example: Wad Duha wal laili idha saja Ma waddaka Rabbuka wa maa qala Wa lal akhiraatu khairul laka minal oola

Wa la sawfa yu teeka Rabbuka fa tarda The examination of the whole chapter indicates that it is not Saj or Mursal as this verse has an internal rhythm, whereas Saj does not have a consistent rhythm and Mursal has no rhythm or rhyme. Also it cannot be described as poetry; the totality of this chapter, or any other chapter for that matter, does not adhere to any of the al-Bihar. Taha Husains View: The holy Quran is the master piece of Allah Almighty and miracle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Quran, a specimen of eloquence and lucidity in different from poetry and prose of the time when it was revealed. Truly wrote by Dr. Taha Hussain, But you know that the Quran is neither poetry not prose, and that is clear; for it does not bind itself to the bonds of verse. And it is not prose, for it is bound by bonds peculiar to itself, not found elsewhere. The Holy Quran consists of verses which vary in length depending upon the situation and occasions for which these are revealed. What is more interesting is the word selection, a selection which allows varying reading speed which make it even more effecting and impressive. On this point Dr. Taha Hussain further wrote, For example those verses dealing with dialogue that took place between the Prophet (PBUH) and the pagan and legislation have low reading speed. While the verses dealing with the non-believer, who are warned of punishment against their infidelity, have high reading speed. Taha Hussain further elaborates the fact by quoting examples of high reading speed and low reading speed surah: uraa: Example of speedy reading Unique Style of Quran: The Qur'an can only be described as the 'peak of eloquence'. It selects the perfect words in the most apt arrangements to achieve the intended communicative goal. When the Qur'an is compared to any other Arabic text, poetry or prose, it transcends the choices made by human authors; including words, pronouns, sounds, rhythms and particles. An instance of such miraculous aspect is the word aghtasha (bedimmed) in the ayah: And He bedimmed its night and brought out its forenoon. (TMQ, 79: 29). It affects the listener and causes him to sense the impact of darkness, silence, stagnancy, and solitude. The Quran is a sea of rhetoric. The Quran exhibits an unparalleled frequency of rhetorical features, surpassing any other Arabic text, classical or modern, poetry or prose. The use of rhetoric in the Quran stands out from any type of discourse. Qurans style is unique in the sense that it employs more rhetorical features than any other rhymed prose; past or present. How Quranic Theme is Different from the Themes Depicted in Contemporary Poetry: The subject matter of the poetry in the era when the Holy Quran was revealed was very limited. The poet usually said poems on verses on the incidents of their love

affairs, the memorization of the forsaken place by their beloved and the events boasting the status of their tribe. Quran presents the illustrations from a minute to the universe. It is complete code of life because it contains the preaching, legislation, way to lead a social and every bit of information necessary for spend a life according to the commandments of Allah. Qurans Style is Narrative and Dramatic: While explaining the stories of Noah, Ibrahim, Moses, Jesus, Joseph, David, Suleiman, etc. while the poets followed ghanai or wajdani style in contemporary era which is inferior. Another point which is elaborated by Angleika Neuwirth explain how Quran flips qaseedah (one of the most important sanf of poetry). In surah Rehman Allah Almighty has presented the bounties which will be showered on those people who will accept the commandments of Allah and spend their lives accordingly. In this surah, the nature in transitory while the human legacy lives on which is the reversal of the ordinary qaseedah. Conclusion: Some scholars, however, by keeping in view, the style followed by the Holy Book have drawn influence that it has some time the characteristics of both the poetry and prose. The harmonious effects of Surah Al Najam and initial verses of Surah Al Maryum are cited as the example to validate the above stated notion. But overall, the Holy Quran in neither a verse nor a prose, it is something else above the level of a man as it is Devine and from the Providence. This is the miracle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Importance of Hadith Literature Introduction: The hadith is the sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad saww. It formed a sacred literature which for the Muslims ranks second in importance only to the Qur'an itself. According to Muslims, the collection of hadith or sayings by or about the prophet Muhammad saww was a meticulous and thorough process that began right at the time of Muhammad saw. As a source of law, ethics and doctrine, the vast corpus of hadith continue to exercise decisive influence. Importance Of Hadith Literature: Hadith literature serves as an astonishingly voluminous source of data for the history of pre-Islamic Arabia and of early Islam, and for the development of Arabic literature, as well as of Islamic thought in general and Islamic law in particular. It also played a decisive role in establishing a common cultural framework for the whole Islamic world, and continues to wield substantial influence on the minds of the Muslim community; an influence which, it seems clear, will continue for the foreseeable future. 1) Importance of Hadith Literature in The Eyes of Muhammad (s.a.w.w): A number of Companions who were young in the lifetime of the Prophet (s.a.w.w) devoted themselves to attaining knowledge of hadith. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w) encouraged attainment of knowledge of h adth by saying Whoever takes a path seeking knowledge, Allh makes easy for him a path to

Paradise. *Muslim+ He (s.a.w.w) did not just encourage them to learn the Hadith, but to pass it on as well, as he said, May Allh brighten the face of the person who hears what I say and retains it, then convey it to others. 2) Importance of Hadith literature in Sahabas Eyes: The companions made great efforts to preserve hadith literature. Abdullah bin Umar used to write every word of Holy Prophet. Ab Hurayrah, Abdull h ibn Umar ibn al-Khat t b, Anas ibn M lik, and ishah bint Ab Bakr,were some other great men who preserved hadith literature and passed it on to the following generations. The Companions used to give great concern to sitting with the Prophet (s.a.w.w) to hear his h adths and learning from him as much as possible. Of course, while some of them were independently wealthy and were able to devote themselves entirely to learning from the Prophet (s.a.w.w). Some other Companions were young and unmarried, having few worldly obligations, allowing them to devote their time to learning from the Prophet (s.a.w.w); at the head of them was Ab Hurayrah. 3) Importance of Hadith Literature in the Eyes of Scholars: Hadith literature has great importance for the Muslims. Islamic scholarship has hence devoted immense efforts to gathering and classifying the hadith, and ensuring their authenticity. The Scholars of the Ummah, from the time of the Companions until the present day, have taken great care to preserve and convey the Hadith of All hs Messenger . Travelling to Gather H adth: It is noteworthy regarding the importance of hadith literature that many scholars from the T bin travelled long distances to Madnah to hear h adth. Im m Ah mad said concerning him that he was the first to travel to many lands and spend years in travel through various lands to hear h adths.He did not marry until he was forty years old because all of his time and effort was devoted to travelling to seek h adth. Such was the case with many of the scholars. Conclusion: Al-Musnad of Im m Ah mad ibn H anbal, Muwatta of Im m Malik, l-J mi as -S ah h of al-Im m al-Bukh r, s -S ah h of Im m Ab al-H usayn Muslim ibn H ajj j , Al-J mi of at-Tirmidh , As-Sunan of Im m Ab D w d etc are some of the books on hadith literature. Hadith literature is the second most important literature after Quran that shapes the life of a Muslim. It deals with all the aspects of life i.e. food, drink, marriage, law, morality, finance etc.It also helps in understanding the Holy Quran. Impact of Hadith on Literature Introduction: To understand the words and meanings of Holy Quran and to act upon them is the first priority of Muslims. Thats why when the Holy companions feel difficulty to understand the words of Holy Quran, they approach to Holy Prophet (PBUH) for help. When Muslims general defeat many countries and Islam spread in the world then the words and acts of Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the form of Hadith spread

everywhere. Many people from those countries came to Madina and Makkah for understanding the knowledge of Hadith. Impact of Hadith on Literature: The hadith has many great impact on literature. 1- Impact on language 2- Impact on prose 3- Impact on calligraphy 4- Impact on creating new fields of knowledge 5- Introduction of new narrative style 6- Abolition of vulgore Literature 1- Impact on Language: The Hadith introduced new words in it e.g.

Ghraibs which were mentioned in the Hadith. These Ghraibs were no more use of the ordinary Arab people. 2- Impact on Prose: As the Hadith was the wording of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), soon it as spread far off areas which came under the sway of Muslims. Their expenses were recorded the revenue and expense of the Caliphate. Secondly, the letters written by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Maktubat e Nabvi and Khutbat e Nabvi followed a specific style which was propagat ed in Islamic Caliphate. 3- Impact on calligraphy: New style of calligraphy was introduced in Hadith which has great impact on subsequent literature. 4- New Fields of knowledge: After the revelation of the Holy Quran and Hadith, it was propagated to the far off areas. Non Arabic people committed blunders while pronouncing the Holy Quran and Hadith. This necessitated the introduction of new fields of knowledge in order to understand Holy Quran and Hadith. The new fields e.g.

were introduced by the Muslims. 5- Introduction of New Narrative Style: With the propagation of Hadith new narrative style was introduced in subsequent literature. 6- Abolition of Vulgar Literature: There is complete abolition of vulgar literature with the impact of Hadith. The social evils which were present in society and were explain in literature were condemned.

Umayyad Period Abassid Period Khumriat in bbasid Era Background: Khumriat are collectively called as poems which are meant on describing the events of luxury and drinking. In Umayyad era when the Islamic state expanded and with the expansion came the prosperity. It was obvious that luxuriousness, drinking and other such habits became the order of the day. Khumriat is Abbasid Era: The Abbasid poet excelled in the composition of Bacchic poetry devoted drinking, singing and luxury. Ti was obvious that the economic prosperity and progress of that era supplied ample resources for the Abbasid during their reign. The propagation of political ideas was needed so the poet were given patronage by the influential person and the caliph. Under the auspices of the caliph, these poet excelled in Madah, Khumriat etc. It is a well-established fact that there were certain caliphs ho liked such poetry. Ibn-e-Mutaz is quoted as an example in this content. In Abbasid era the most prominent figure who wrote Khumriat was Abu Nawas. He was such a prolific poet in this context that it was said by Al Jahiz, Had Husnain ( Ibn-e-Sereen and Hassan Basri) listened/heard the khumriat of Abu Nawas, they would have left the path of virtue and adopted a habit of drinking. Al Jahiz who was all in praise for Abu Nawas once said, I have not seen any one more prolific in lexicography and eloquence then Abu Nawas. Al Jahiz declared Abu Nawas as capable as Bashar bib Bard. Abu Nawas started poetry when he learnt by heart the poetic work of all the male poets along with the poetry of more than 60 ladies poets. So, the immaculate poetry by this outstanding figure was a glaring addition in Arabic literature. Other poets in this regard are: Ibn-e-Mutaz

But their contribution is in no comparison to Abu Nawass work done in writing Khumriat Al Jahiz Introduction: His full name was Abu Usman Umro Bin Behr Al-Jahiz, born in Bsara. He was very ugly, of short stature and strange eyes. Therefore he was named as Al-Jahiz as the person with stange eyes is called: He spent a life of 100 years where he saw many upa and downs yet he was the most glaring personality of Arabic literature as he has been designated the title of Imam ul Adab in a book of Al Qairwani. The name of that book is Al Umda Education: He got his education from the prominent and capable scholars of their times. He got

his education from Basra, which was the stage of learning at that particular time;

were his teacher. He was very fond of reading and used to read ferociously. School of Thought: Al Jahiz belonged to Mutazilla school of thought initially but then he developed his own school of thought, the followers of which named it as Al Jahizya His Activities: 1- A prolific intellectual and translator. He translated the works of Persian and Greece in Arabic. 2- He did invaluable service in the fields of Geography and even wrote a book in this regard. 3- When we see the second group of prose writers, without any doubt and dispute, Jahiz was the leader of this group. 4- He wrote as many as 200 hundred books but as bad luck would have it, most of his books have been lost. His books have been praised by Ibn Al Amid in these words the books of jahiz teach us knowledge and duty Some of the names of his books are given as under: n (Arabic culture and literature)

an (About animals)

5- Another contribution of Al Jahiz is that he was the first who started to pen down the literary tradition in Abbasid era. This was done by him because of the reason that many non-Arabic crept in because of the territorial expansion. Mistakes and flaws in the Arabic of non-indigenous people who was avoided by Al Jahiz by ensuring what was pure Arabic work. He also invented the technique to introduce humor in serious writing to make it more interesting and affective. Some Interesting Facts about Al Jahiz: Ahmad Hassan Ziyat in his book Tarikh e Adb e Arabi has commended that Al Jahiz was man of terrible features with unbalanced body. Once he was called by Caliph Mutawakil, when he heard about his accomplishment in all the fields of knowledge. The Caliph wanted him to be the tutor of his beloved child but when he saw Al Jahiz, the ugly but prolific literary man he gave him 10 thousand Dirham and asked him to leave. Nevertheless, he was a man of high literary status. He remained for 100 long years and died after his right side was paralyzed owing to illness. Criticism: Although he was one of the most glaring personalities of Arabic literature yet he was not able to avoid criticism. The criticism about him is pertaining to his exaggeration while praising the Caliph. Modern Arabic Literature

New Trends in Arabic Literature in 20 th Century (1900 1999) How and when Arabic literature was revived? Arabic literature which was facing its downfall for the last five centuries was revived in Egypt. In 1798, France attacked Egypt and got dominance. After the invasion of Napoleon, Arabs especially Egypt came in direct contact with French or west. Now all the trends which were introduced in Arabic literature were determined by this very fact. They established two Madrassas, two newspapers, a theater, an educational academy and a printing press. Mohammad Ali, who was the ruler of Egyptians, came to know that the progress of west is due to education, management and military. Therefore, he decided to promote education in Egypt. He also established different schools and French scholars taught there. Students and delegations were sent to France for higher education. Similarly, in Lebanon, Amir Bashir Al Shahabi did the same. Books from Europe were translated into Arabic. This revival of Arabic literature is called Al-Nahdat Al-Adab. During the 20 th century the Arabic literature was affected by the political turmoil and upheavals which were taking place in the Arab world. Sources of Development of Modern Arabic Literature: There were many sources, which directly or indirectly affected the modern Arabic literature. Important ones are given below: 1. Modern Schools: Muhammad Ali established different modern schools for military, medical and physical education at different levels. Their number increased by time and Tayyaba College, Madrasa AlSana and Madrasa Darull uloom were established in Alsona where different western books on modern education were translated into Arabic. Similarly, Darul Uloom played a vital role in promotion of Arabic language and literature. 2. Learning Western Languages And Sending Delegations: The policy of sending students to the western countries for higher education, by Mohammad Ali Pasha and the ismail pasha was very fruitful. Similarly, when French and English languages were made compulsory in the institutions of Egypt and Syria, it brought a change in their thinking. Consequently, new ways were adopted in prose and poetry of Arabs. 3. Jam-e Azhar Azhar, which is among the oldest universities of the world, was established by Johar Saqli in 199. It was basically for promotion of religious education. Students of Azhar were also sent to Europe for higher studies. In 1887, some new courses were introduced in Azhar. Sheikh Mohammad Abda played important role in progress of this university. Hence, it played very important role in promotion and progress of Arabic literature and language. Majority of the Arab writers and intellectuals were

from this in this institution in the mid of 20th century. 4. Jam-e Misriya It was established in 1908 as a national university. Scholars from Europe were especially invited. Writers and intellectuals of Egypt also gave lectures. New disciplines like Law College, medical college, agricultural college, commerce college very deep impact. In 1820, an American college was established in Beirut who was then given the status of university Al Jamea-Tul America. So all these factors contributed in the development of modern Arabic literature which was influenced by the west. The Influence Emerged In The Form of

iting about the social problems and issues etc. A cursory look at the trends in all genres will make the situation and picture more clearly to us. 1- Poetry:-Poetry was an area in which the new trends were emerged during 20 th century. Overall these are four main groups of poet in modern era of Arabic poetry. 1- Neo Classical 2- Pre Romantic 3- Romantic 4- Committed Poets First part of 20 th century witnessed that most of the poets wrote romantic poetry. Poetry of Adb-e-Mehjar was part of it. Jabran, Abu Alia Mazi, Mikhail Naemia etc. were from famous Mehjari poats. Ibrahim Naji, Khalil Matran and Ahmad Zaki Abu Shadi were some other poets of romantic group of poets. However, after world war-I, the political situation took new turn. The forceful creation of Israel was a sort of injury inflected on the heart of Arabs by the western world. Romantic poetry lost its charm and was replaced by the committed poetry. Now it was regarded necessary that there should be an objective or commitment of the poetry. No poetry can be said as according to the circumstances and charm full until an objective is not tried to achieve. Some poets resort to write for the favor of Nationalism. Mahmood Dervaish, who got unmatchable fame, was a Palestinian Poet who wrote for the propagation of Nationalism. Another innovation was the introduction of Free Verse by the poet named Badr Shakir Al-Sayab. 2- Short Story:

Short stories were introduced in west in 19th century and became very popular among readers. When Arab writers interacted with the west in 19th century, they liked it very much. They started translating these stories in Arabic but this translation was not like actual. It was translated according to the local circumstances of Egypt and common language was used, so that common man could understand and enjoy it. Hafiz Ibrahim and Mustafa Lutfi Al Munfaloti translated European short stories. Munfloti in his book Al Abarat translated some stories from European language and also wrote some stories himself. In 1917, Mehmood Taimoor wrote a story Fil Qatar in western pattern, which was termed the exact short story in modern period. After the 1st world war, these stories became very popular and many writers emerged in this field. 3- Modern Arabic Novel in 20th Century: Modern novel or novel of 20 th century also witnessed two trends. These trends are as following: 1- Neoclassical movement to revive the old traditions of past. Maqama and Thousand and One Night is an example. 2- Modern movement which emphasized on imitating the French novel. In the beginning of 20th century, Jurji Zaidan wrote historical novels which were like the style of sir watter scot. The first successful novel of Arabic was zainab by Mohammad Hussain Haikal. Novel writing became very popular between the period of 1st and 2nd world war. Writers like Taha Hussain, Taufeeq-ul Hakeem, Mehmood Tahir Ibrahim Abdul qadir AlMazni etc. contributed in it. This was the starting period of novel. After 2nd world war, the creation of Israel defeat of Arabs in 1948, 1956, 1967. Wars against Israel, discovery of oil in Arab countries, other social and political issues left deep impact on the writers. They were influenced by these events and it was reflected in their novels. Najib Mehfooz, from Egypt got a Nobel Prize in literature in 1988. 4- Modern Theater and Drama: In Egypt, theater was operating from the beginning of the 20th century. After 1st world war, theater was dominated by comedy plays. In 1935, government established a theatrical company. Famous poet Khalil Matren was its head. Some other companies also emerged that promoted theater. Many writers and actors became famous due to theater. 5- Drama in 20 th Century: Though Drama in Modern era was started to be written in 19 th century, it took major trends in 20 th century by getting influenced by the French Drama. Theater and

drama became much popular when Ahmad Shoqi and Taufeeq-ul Hakeem started writing dramas, 6 were tragic and one was comedy. Only one was prose, others were versified. Tofique Al Hakim is one of the most famous Drama writers of his times. Taufik Ul akeem wrote some dramas before going to France, which were ordinary and relating to political and social issues. He came back from France in 1927 and his style was totally changed. He was impressed by Bernard Shaw. He wrote dramas like ahl Al Kahaf and Shaharzad, which were the best among his writings. Dramas of Taufeeq-ul Hakeem were published in two volumes. He became very popular in Drama writing. Short Story in Arabic and Different Approaches Introduction: A short story is a work of fiction, usually written in narrative prose. It depicts minimum number of characters and concentrate on a single effect or mood. It encompasses small frame of time. Short stories have been written in almost all the languages of the world. Origin: 1- This art was taken from the Iranian but then so much progress was made that the Arabs became the competitor of Iranians. 2- Thousand and one Night enormous addition was done by Arabs. 3- Kulia wa Damnta taken from Indian literature. It was translated by Inb -e-Mafqah. Growth: In 19th century much attention was paid to short story. It developed in Syria under the influence of European nations. From Syria it came into Egypt. Egyptian authors such as Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Mahmoud Taymour, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Yusuf Idris and others influenced the first modern Syrian Arabic short story. Under the influence of European writers as well as with the development of the printing press in the 19th century, Arabic short story Al Qisas Al Saghrah first appeared in 18 70 in newspapers and magazines. By the end of 19th century, Egyptian, Lebanese, and Syrian magazines increased the publication of short stories. Predominantly this was the era when the Arabs were impressed from the new ideas so they translated the western work in Arabic. Arabic short story began as a direct copy of Europeans, particularly of Maupassant, Poe, Chekhov and others through translation and by borrowing the characters and plot of a specific story and giving Arabic names to its characters and setting. In modern literature first Arabic short story was published by a Mahjar writer Mikhail Naema in 1914. In the 1960s, the short story achieved a distinguished level of grounding in specific artistic characteristics, including an insistence on being short in length, encompassing a short time frame, having critical and deep details, written in prose language, having a minimal number of characters, and conveying an ambiguous ending which leaves the reader to his own imagination and interpretation. Now Arabic short story has become universal in character maintaining its distinct

and local color. By the end of 19 th century, Egyptian, Lebanese, and Syrian magazines increased the publication of short stories. Predominantly this was the era when the Arabs were impressed from the new ideas so they translated the western work in Arabic. n Hekal Were the most prolific short story writers of this age? They not only translated the new work but also brought the old work in to new shape. Tofiq al Hakeem even brought the Quranic incident of seven sleepers into dramatic form. Objectives: The importance of short story has grown in recent years because of its ability to throw a concentrated beam of life on a specific target. The objectives of writing short story are as under: Firstly, the western influence in Arabic Literature was thought to be damaging, as leading to moral and sexual corruption and as destructive of impeccable standards of Arabic and Islam. So Arabic writers paid great attention to Arabic literature, specially short story to make it pure and in accordance of our religion. Secondly, the spread of Arab Nationalism was another objective of writing short story. Thirdly, Arab writers now long to give a lead to Arab world. They are not satisfied with their rulers who are unable to solve the problems of Arabic world. They urge an engaged literature, one critical of Arab regimes and leaders. Short story has the ability to fulfill this purpose also. Fourthly, In the modern world, where everyone has to run with time, none has as much spare time to read long novels. Short story conveys the message of the writer in lesser words consuming less time. Fifthly, after 1960 psychological development of readers was done through these stories. Main Stages: Largely under the influence of Chekhov and Maupassant, Arabic short story made great head way. It can be classified in three different periods. 1) The Embryonic Stage (From beginning to 1914): This time period extends from the beginning of short story in 1870 to the year of 1914. The work of Khalil Jabran, Mustafa Lutfi al Manfluti is the trade mark work of this stage. They adopted western way of narrating the short story. 2) The Trial Stage (1914 to 1925): This also called the traditional stage which starts from 1914 and extends up to 1925. This is the stage in which we find the authentic vices from the Arab world. 3) The Formative Stage (1925 to date): The third stage is the formative stage which starts from 1925 to present era. It is logical more sound as an obscure or vague tone in used in the story to let the reader interpret the story by himself after reading it. In 1960s it took new turn and

psychological development of readers was done through these stories. The short story was short in length with minimum number of characters and encompassing small time farm. Evolution of Novel in Arabic Literature and Its Specific Fields Introduction: Through the popularity of early translations into Arabic of works of European fiction and imitations of them by Arab writers, the novel in Arabic Literature rapidly established a place for itself within the currents of intellectual change during the 19th century. Among the earliest examples of the novel in Arabic were Gh bat al-aqq, an idealistic allegory about freedom that was published in Syria by Franss Marr sh, and Al-Huy m f jin n al-sh m, a work set during the 7th-century Islamic conquest of Syria, by Salm Al-Bustani. Evolution of Novel: Origin During the 19th century, a revival took place in Arabic literature, along with much of Arabic culture, and is referred to in Arabic as "al-Nahda", which means "the Renaissance". Two distinct trends can be found in the nahda period of revival. The first was a neo-classical movement which sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genressuch as the maqamaand works like One Thousand and One Nights. In contrast, a modernist movement began by translating Western modernist worksprimarily novelsinto Arabic. Individual Authors in Syria, Lebanon and Egypt created original works by imitating classical narrative genres: Ahmad Faris Shidyaq with Leg upon Leg (1855), Khalil Khoury with Yes... so I am not a Frank (1859), Francis Marrash with The Forest of Truth (1865), Salim al-Bustani with At a Loss in the Levantine Gardens (1870), and Muhammad al-Muwaylihi with Isa ibn Hisham's Tale (1907).[49] This trend was furthered by Jurji Zaydan, Khalil Gibran, Mikha'il Na'ima and Muhammad Husayn Haykal. According to the authors of the Encyclopedia of the Novel: Almost each of the above *works+ have been claimed as the first Arabic novel which goes to suggest that the Arabic novel emerged from several rehearsals and multiple beginnings rather than from one single origin. First true novel Zeinab by Mohamed Hussein Haykal, published in 1914, has often been seen as "the first true Arabic novel". It is combination of romantic protest against social pressures, derived from Rousseau, and introduction of broader social concerns into prose fiction, including issues of class structure and village life. Zeinab owes its charm and reputation to its romantic individualism and its supple use of language. Haykal took a daring step in using Egyptian dialect for the dialogue in his novel, showing how emotion is not separated from expression and borrowing from the simplified structures and vocabulary of the print culture of his time, achievements that were built upon by later writers, including Naguib Mahfouz. Mehfoozs role Najeeb Mehfooz represents in himself the entire development of the Arabic novel. Indeed, owing to his long career, impressive productivity and

ceaseless experiment he has succeeded in "rooting the novel in the Arabic language," firmly introducing it into the culture and both "enriching that culture and radicalising its connection with reality.""The vertiginous diversity of techniques, themes, characters and styles that Mahfouz has used in his works bears witne ss to this cultural enrichment. Experimental Novel In the latter half of 20th century many experiments were made in this genre. Companions and inheritors of Mahfouz such as Yehia Haqqi, Abdel-Rahman Al-Sharqawi and Youssef Idris broke with the classical novel and experimented with new forms i.e. "new kinds of writing, narrative and literary space" .The Experimental Arabic Novel places the modern and contemporary Arabic novel in the context of the modernist-postmodern culture debate in the West. Some of famous novels of 20th century are Al-Bb al-maft, Rijl f al-shams, Mawsim al-hijrah il al-shaml and Mudun almil, Specific Fields of Arabic Novel: Arabic novels are written specifically for Arab readers and they have noticeable effects on Arab culture, politics and status of Arab women. In his book Le Roman Arabe, Kadhim Jihad Hassan comments that the novel has, from uncertain beginnings, proven to be of decisive importance in Arab literary culture and that it is today "undergoing a kind of inflation". Arab women writers have written much to protest against male domination. Key themes in their novels are individualism, the drive to assert a personal and distinctly female identity, and demands for the social, sexual, and political rights of women. Iraqi, Palestinian and Lebanese novel are affected by war, exile and often appalling suffering, and this is reflected in fiction. The Palestinian novel has a special vocation, since it has had "to create a country in words" for a people long without a state of their own. A common theme in the modern Arabic novel is the study of family life with obvious resonances of the wider family of the Arabic world. Many of the novels have been unable to avoid the politics and conflicts of the region with war often acting as background to intimate family dramas. Arab writers also concentrated on the question of national identity and effected changes in the way the public viewed and acted on the threat to the Arab world. Famous Novelists: Some famous novelists in Arabic Literature are: 1) Khalil Gibran, 2) Mikha'il Na'ima 3) Muhammad Husayn Haykal 4) Salim al-Bustani 5) Najib Mehfooz 6) Muhammad al-Muwaylihi Taha Hussain Introduction: Taha Hussein (1889- 1973) was one of the most influential Egyptian writers and intellectuals. He was a figurehead for the modernist movement in Egypt and was

considered dean of contemporary Arabic literature and a pioneer of enlightenment. Life: Born in AI-Minya province, Upper Egypt, on November 14th, 1889 he became blind due to illness at a very early age of two years. He went to an Islamic kuttab (a traditional school where children learn to read, write, and recite the Quran), and then was sent to Al-Azhar University, where he was educated in religion and Arabic literature. He studied under Nalino and Javedi in criticism. He also learnt French language. In 1914 he got the degree of Ph.d by writing Zikraa Abi Al-Aalaa. He traveled to France on scholarship. He studied history and Greek literature and composed thesis on Ibne Khuldoon. He served as Arabic professor in jamia Al-ahlia. In 1950he became education minister. His Literary Works: Taha Hussein's works can be divided into three categories: 1) Scientific Study of Arabic Literature and Islamic History: In 1962, Taha wrote On Pre-islamic poetry () . In this book, he brought some different and opposite ideas and views against rigid and conservative ideas and became criticized by many literary persons namely Mustafa Sadiq Al -Rafie and Mamen Al-Aziz. After some time On Pre-islamic poetry () . was banned by Egyption Parliament due to its novel and odd ideas. A year later, he published a presumably softened version of the book under a different title, F al-adab al-j hil. 2) Creative Literary Works With Social Content Combating Poverty and Ignorance: He wrote many novels like The Tree of Misery, The Call of the Curlew , The True Promise etc. The true Promise is his famous and monumental novel in which he proved by historical incidents and evidences that Allahs promise is true. In his novels, he expresses an astounding sensitivity, insight and compassion in that age for a person with his background. His arguments for justice and equality are supported by deep and honest understanding of Islam. Equally remarkable are his sympathy with his downtrodden compatriots and his understanding of the deepest emotions and thoughts of woman as girl, lover, wife and mother. 3) Political articles: Taha Hussain became the editor-in-chief of a newspaper Al-Katib-al-Misri and wrote many political articles which were published in the same newspaper. He also produced The Sufferers: Stories and Polemics in which he wrote stories of suppression of Egyptions during political demise in Egypt. He also remained editor of newspaper ASSIASIAH . In 1925 he wrote Qadat ul Fikr(leaders of thought) and mentioned some western thoughts and behaviors. Greek Influence on Tahas Work: A great influence of Greek culture can be seen on Tahas works. He issued "Selected Pages" from Greek Dramatic poetry (1920), "The Athenian System" in 1921, and "Leaders of Thought" in 1925. The Athenian System was an incomplete attempt at an expose of Greek poets and their works. Leaders of Thought was a meticulous

translation of one of the most important texts of Greek history of civilization. He deals with the religious impact on thought in the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Modern Ages of multi influences. His Prominent Literary Works: Among his most prominent works are: ) a collection of essays on literary criticism -islamic poetry () and Polemics -Part Autobiography) Death: Taha Husain died in October 1973, immediately after witnessing his country's victory in its last war against Israel. He died in his home, alone with his "sweet voice"; Suzanne. She wrote: "We were together, alone, close to an extent beyond description. I was not crying - the tears came later. Each of us was before the other; unknown & united as we had been at the beginning of our journey. In this last unity, in the midst of this very close familiarity, I talked to him, kissing that forehead that was so noble and handsome, on which age and pain had not succeeded to carve any wrinkles, and no adversity had managed to cause to frown - a forehead that still emanated light. Ramatan: In recognition of all Dr. Taha Hussein's achievements for Egypt the State bought his residence in the Pyramids district after his death and converted it into a museum carrying the name "Ramatan" which literally means in Arabic the two oases where traveling caravans stop to take rest. As Dr. Taha Hussein was keen on having his son Dr. Moeniss share his residence, he designed the villa with two entrances to preserve each one's privacy and freedom. That is why he called it "Ramatan" or two places of rest for him and his son. The museum or "Ramatan" is made up of two stories. The ground floor houses Dr. Taha Hussein's study and a part of his 7,000 book library, a great reception hall where he received men of letters, politicians and artists every Sunday evening. In one of the corners of this hall stand a huge piano, a gramophone and records of rare musical works by Schubert, Verdi, Bach, Mozart, Schumann and others. The top floor has three bedrooms and a small hall where there is a closet enclosing all the decorations, medals and orders which the Doyen received during his lifetime. The garden has a bust for Dr. Taha Hussein by the noted Egyption sculptor Farouk Ibrahim. A smaller building designed in the same style of the villa has been converted into a cultural center which will be used for holding seminars and cultural exhibitions to keep Dr. Hussein's legacy alive . Ahmad Shouqi

Introduction: Ahmad shouqi was one of the greatest Arabic poet laureate. He was an Egyptian poet and dramatist who pioneered the modern Egyptian literary movement, most notably introducing the genre of poetic epics to the Arabic literary tradition. He was nicknamed Amir al- Sho'ara which literary means the prince of poets, Life: Crown of poets and poetry Ahmad Shawqi was born in 1868 at Cairo. He got his early education from Madrassa tul Haqooq in Cairo.Upon graduating from high school, he attended law school, obtaining a degree in translation. Shawqi was then offered a job in the court of the Khedive Abbas II, which he immediately accepted. After a year working in the court of the Khedive, Shawqi was sent to continue his studies in Law at the Universities of Montpellier and Paris for three years. While in France, he was heavily influenced by the works of French playwrights, most notably Molire and Racine. He returned to Egypt in 1894, and remained a prominent member of Arab literary culture until the British forced him into exile in southern Spain, Andalusia, in 1914. Shawqi remained there until 1920. After coming back , he again started his literary works with great zeal and zest. He died in 1932. Literary Works: 1) Poetry: Ahmad Shawqi was a momentous and worldwide famous poet. His poetry was filled with ripen thoughts, good political, patriotic and nationalistic approaches. He introduced new trends in poetry in the form of epic and wrote patriotic and general incidental long poems such as waddi neel. His style is very unique and common sense. His words are common and simple. His meaning extracting way is very graceful. His Poetry can be divided into two periods: 1. Before exile 2. After exile Before exile his basic object was to oblige the King and remained stuck with royal family. In this era he only praised kings and other royal members. After exile he began to write poems in nationalistic style. His focus became common interest of his country and its population. In the service of Islam , Ahmad wrote Al hamziah wa Nabwiyya and Nahj al-Burda. 2) Plays: Shawqi was the first in modern Arabic literature to write poetic plays. He wrote five tragedies:

-Kabeer And two comedies: -Set Huda (Madam Huda) -Bakhila (the Miser)

In addition to a prose play: the Princess of Andalusia. 3) Prose: Shauqi wrote symbolic and metaphorical prose. The only difference between poetry and prose was that in prose there was no rythm like the Markets of Gold. 4) Novels: Shawqi wrote several novels. A few survived among which: Conclusion: Ahmad Shawqis contribution in literature is great . During first world war he wrote poetry to evoke nationalism, patriotism and emotions for Jihad among the people of Egypt and other Muslim world. So he was called Ameer u Shuraa, Shair e Misar wal Mashriq and Shair ul Muslimeen. Khalil Bin Ahmad with Special Reference to Kitab ul in Introduction: His full name is Abu Ahmad or Abu Abdul Rehman Khalil bin Ahmad bin Ahmad Fraheedi and he was born at Basra. He was brought up in Basra and got education from Aaema-e-Arba in Ilm e Nahv, Qirat and Hadith. Then he got education from Abu Umer bin Al Uala and Essa bin Umro in Ilm-e-Rawat. Then went to villages for becoming proficient in the field of Lexicon. He accumulated great knowledge in the field of lexicon and then returns to Basra. He got such a fame then the Caliph called on him to teach his child but Khalil refuse to do so. He considered the poverty much endeared then getting subjugated to the royal court. Khalil bin Ahmad remained in the service of knowledge throughout his life and when he met his demise he was doing the same. He rendered invaluable service in the almost all the fields of knowledge. A cursory glance at his service would reveal the greatness of khalil bin Ahmad in a better way. 1- He was the only man who did not know the foreign language and nor he had formal education in the field of music yet he wrote a book on music Kitab ul Nagham. 2- Khalil bin Ahmad wanted to calculate such a easy method of calculation which would be comprehendible to a child even but the life span of his proved to be short to perform his task. 3- Khalil Bin Ahmad was a poet also. He invented 15 metres and divided them in five groups. 4- Khalil was efficient in sehat qiyas, Nahvi Tehlil o Tawaa and Istinbat. Saibovias book Al Kitab has been majority completed by Khalil bin Ahmad. Kitab ul Ain: During the time Khalil bin Ahmad was rendering service in all the fields of knowledge, Arabic was spread to the non-Arabic areas. People began to make mistakes and this presented a challenge to the scholars. Many tries were made to combat this problem but all in vain. It was Khalil bin Ahmad, who wrote Kitab ul Ain the first ever book on the Ilm-e-Lughat. He arranged the words composed of two three and four letters and then he arranged the words according to their pronunciation. He organized according to the following order:


Larynx Tongue Teeth Lips

Abubakar bin Duraid wrote a compendium of Kitab ul Ain which was presented to the Caliph of Spain. This compendium got more fame than the original book. Some other Books of Khalil: 1- Kitan ul Nagham 2- Kitab ul Arooz 3- Kitab ul Shawahid 4- Kitab ul Eeqah 5- Kitab ul Naqat wa Shakal 6- Kitab ul Ain Arabic Literature in Subcontinent Promotion of Arabic in Sub-Continent and Pakistan Introduction: Promotion of Arabic language in Sub-Continent is historical phenomenon because Arabic is the language of Quran and Islam. It is an established fact that Arabs had contact with the Indians even before the emergence of Islam. A verse of Amra ul Qais depicts a word Qarn Fil which is believed to be taken from Hindi language. There are many Ahadith in which language shows the words are used having roots in Hindi Language. Arabic in India: Arabic was introduced in India in different phases and through different process/ways. In northern India Muslims conquered it and held their sway from 712 to 1857 A.D. while the southern India was in touch with Arabic culture through the traders and trade activities of the Arabs. After 712 the Islam as a religion was accepted by the local population. Islam is inextricably intertwined with the Arabic language because understanding of Holy Quran, Hadith and Fiqh requires a good grip of Arabic language because without it comprehending Quran and Islam become impossible. Efforts of Sultan Mehmood: Many a literary figure were brought by Sultan Mehmood Ghaznawi with him who introduced the people with Arabic literature and history. This exchange was not one way rather it was two ways. The Arabs who come to India learnt a lot from their Indian counterparts. The Sultan also sent people to the Arabian region so that they could learn Arabic culture in better way. Some Prominent Figures: Abu Aflah and Abu Mehshar Sindhi are two prominent names. They contributed a lot in Arabic language. Abu Mehshar was a Muhadiss and when he passed away, his funeral prayer was offered by the people under Immamat of Caliph

Haroon Ur Rasheed. This shows the clas of the man named Abu Mehshar. Al Beruni came to India during the early period of introduction of Islam in Sub-Continent. He wrote a book kitab ul Hind which was a master piece. The work done by the Indian figure was also translated in to Arabic e.g. kulia wa Damnta, the incident of Adam (A.S) being arrived to cylon was also introduced in Arabic after being translated. The work in the field of medicine by Chirka and Sehserta was also translated in to Arabic. Some Noticeable Works on Arabic: Many Tafseer of Holy Quran were written in this content. The important names are:

Some other works in Arabic Much work was done in sub-continent in the field of Ilm ul Hadith and Ilm e Fiqh. Along with it Philosophy was another field where in Arabic work done by the natives cannot be ignored. Fatwa Alamgeiri and other treatise of Shah Wali Ullah are the illuminating example in this perspective. Poetry Some poet have also rendered invaluable service for the promotion of Arabic. Unfortunately, their work is confined to southern India. -e-Haq Khair Abadi

Are the prominent poets of Arabic in sub-continent. Arabic in Pakistan Arabic is the religious language of Muslims. The Quran, Sunnah, Hadith and Muslim theology is taught in Arabic with Urdu translation. The Pakistani diasporas living in the Middle East has further increased the number of people who can speak Arabic in Pakistan. Arabic is taught as a religious language in mosques, schools, colleges, universities and madrassahs. A majority of Pakistan's Muslim population has had some form of formal or informal education in the reading, writing and pronunciation of the Arabic language as part of their religious education. Promotion of Arabic in Modern era in Pakistan: After the emergence of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam said in his speech, Urdu will be the national language of Pakistan while it is the first and foremost duty of Pakistans people to lean and speech Arabic For promotion of Arabic following steps proposed are worth mentioning: 1- Jamiet Hizb Ullah arranged a conference in East Pakistan in 1951, for the promotion of Arabic language. 2- Majlis Rabita Islami supported Arabic language. 3- Co-ordination of Islam Rabica council. 4- Urdu, Bengali and Arabic would be taught up to Matric Level. 5- It is essential to facilitate the propagation of Arabic in Pakistan.

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973: According to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan: 1- Quran, Islam and Arabic compulsory. 2- From 1982, Arabic language has been taught as compulsory subject to higher secondary level. Syllabus of Azad Kashmir shows that it is even taught at Graduation level. 3- In our universities Arabic subject is also included in higher education 4- Arabic language is also taught in our medrassah system. Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami Introduction: The Indian continent did not participate to such an enormous extent as was done by other poet or non-Arabic areas such as Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and Syria. Whatever was the work done by the poets in Indian Sub-Continent was mostly lost unfortunately. Whatever poetry is available to us shows following are important figures who contributed in this genre of literature: 1- Syed Abdul Jalil Bilgrami 2- Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami 3- Molvi Fazl-e-Haq Khair Abadi 4- Ameer Khusru 5- Shah Ahmad Sharee 6- Qazi Abdul Muqtadar 7- Nasir-ud-Din Chiragh 8- Muhammad Bin Abdul Aziz 9- Syed Ali Khan Ibn-e-Masoom 10- Masood bin Saad Out of these Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz is the only poet whose life history is available to us. Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz is the one who saw the era when Vascode Gama invader the southern India and he had fought against Raja Samri. He explained all the incidents in a Razmia nazm composed of 503 verses. This is master piece in the literature of Arabic in Sub-Continent. Arabic Poetry with Special Mention of Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami Introduction: Gulam Ali Azad Bilgrami was born to a well to do family. In the age of 25, he went to Saudi Arabia for performing hajj and remained there for 2 years to learn Arabic. After his return to the home land he started writing poetry in Arabic. He is considered the greatest poet of Sub-continent. Hasan-ul-Hind: He was the greatest poet of Hindustan and was given the title of Hasan ul Hind like Khakani was given the title of Hasan Al Ajam. He got his education in Aahadith and Islamic law from Abdul Wahab Tantavi. He learnt the art of poetry from Syed Abdul Jalil Bilgrami who was also his maternal uncle. Azad as Use in Name: Ghulam Ali used Azad as his Takhalas and this was liked by his teacher Abdul

Wahab Tantavi. Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami has also written in Persian language. Dewans: He left many dewans behind him. Some scholars believe that he left 7 dewans behind him. In his book Subht ul Marjaan fi Asaar Hindustan he has mentioned about many Mufasreen and figures that have done some great service for the cause of Islam. In total he has mentioned about 150 people in his book. Subht ul Marjaan fi Asaar Hindustan: This book was published in 1885 and in one of its poem; Mirat Al Jamal the poet has praised all the body parts from starting head to the toe. This poem shows the class of the poet. This book can be divided into four chapters: 1) On the excellence and eminence of India 2) Biographies of Indian scholars 3) On rhetoric , both in Sansikrat and Arabic literature 4) On love, both from the Indian and Arabic point of view Another thing very interesting about Azad is the use of similes and metaphor. In one of his verse he has written a word sari which mean walk, but at the same time he has used this word to make an allusion to the word sahri which is the dress of Indian women. Azad has performed his immaculate work in all the forms of poetry i.e. Nazem, Masnavi, Rubai etc. Use of Poetic Techniques: Another very interesting thing about Azadis the use of similes and metaphor. In one of his verse he has written a word sari which means walk, but at the same time he has used this word to make an allusion to the word sahri which is the dress of Indian women. Azad has performed his immaculate work in all the forms of poetry i.e. Nazem, Masnavi,Rubai etc. His Views About Love: He was a great lover of Holy Prophet and about his feelings of love for this great personality, Azad said: Shan ul muhibbu ajeebun fi sabathu Al hijru yaqtuluhu wal waslu yuhyeehu Matter of lover is strange in love, separation kills him and linking makes him alive. At another place he says about his love: Lawaeemi qattat akbadahunna mata Raainahu fi kamal il husniwattiya Ashamer upon me cut off their hearts when they saw himin full bloom of beauty and adornation. His Work: 1- Subht ul Marjaan fi Asaar Hindostan 2- Dewan Azad 3- Mukhtarat Dewan Azad 4- Tasliya ul Lail 5- Shafa ul Lail 6- Al Sahjra Al Tabiya 7- Al Sabah Al Sariya

8- Shamamah Al Amber 9- Mazhar Al Barkat Miscellaneous Origin and Development of Arabic Language Introduction: The Arabic language is a very ancient language, to the point that makes some language-experts claim that it's the mother of all languages in the world and that they are all derived from this language and changed with time due to the process of development occured to each language. One of the great evidences for this opinion is the huge amount of the similar words and roots between the Arabic language & many languages of the world, for example this list of words :"algebra, rice, coffee, sugar, lemon, cotton, alcohol, arsenal etc..." are only a few of the many words found in Western languages which either are of Arabic origin or have been transmitted to the West through the medium of Arabic. Origin: Arabic is descended from a language known in the literature as Proto-Semitic. To this great family of languages belong: 1. The southern group: North Arabic (or Adanite); South Arabic (or Sabaean or Himyaritic) and Ethiopic (or Geer) 2. The northern group: Canaanaean (Hebrew and Phoenician); Asyrian and Babylonian; and Aramean, comprising Syriac, and many other dialects. To investigate about the initial stages of Arabic language is not possible because when it came to be known to history, it has been entered into the period of development. Even the inscribed words on stones that were found in the peninsula are unable to inform about the initial stages of this language. Development of Arabic: On the basis of regional differences, Arabic language was divided in two forms: 4) Qahtanite 5) Adanaite These two forms differ in style and diction from each other to the extent that Abu Umar bin Alaa said: Neither the language of Humair is ours, nor their diction 1) Qahtanite form: The Qahtanite form of Arabic, called Himyaritic, has almost disappeared; and if still spoken, is to be found only among the people of Mahrah, between Hadramaut and Uman. Inscriptions in the Himyaritic character are found on stones and columns in the ruins throughout Hadramaut and Yemen. This character the Arabs cal l al-khatt-al-musnad. Perhaps it is the language of the lost Arab tribes. 2) Adanite form: On the contrary adanite form got the lead over Qahtanite form and later became the language of Quraish. The Quraysh dialect of the Northern Adnanite Arabic Language has, since the Muslim conquests, prevailed over all other forms of Arabic speech.

Role of Markets and Fairs in the Development of Arabic: People of Arabia used to hold fairs and markets in for financial purposes. In these fairs people from far off places came for business. Here Arabic language had an opportunity to develop through interaction of people of different regions. Competitions in poetry were also held in these fairs which also helped in the development of this language. Impact of Islam on Arabic Language: Islam also made its contributions in the development of Arabic language and left an everlasting influence on it. Quran and Hadith made Arabic language more rich and expressive. The Holy Quran introduced new words in it e.g. Rakuh in the Arabic language. It became the language to communicate the divine message. Conclusion: The Arabic, until about the year 650 after Jesus, was the speech of the Adnanite tribes. By the 8th Century only 300 years after Arabic first developed as a unique language.It had become the official language of a vast world empire, spanning from Central Asia to the Atlantic Ocean to the Iberian Peninsula. In modern times, there are 12 different Arabic dialects spoken in 28 countries around the world. Literature of Al Mahjar With Special Reference to the Contribution of Jibran Khalil Jibran What is Mehjar Literature? The turn of new century witnessed the emergence of a New Look in Arabic literature. Its exponents were the emigrants from the Levant to the Americas. These emigrants form a distinct school of writing. The writings of these Mehjar poets were influenced by western romantic poetry and their own social, political, economic and cultural background. Mehjar literature was a revolt against old traditions of Arabic literature. When It Emerged? Mehjar Litrature or Adab ul Mehjar flowered to eminence between the two World Wars. The literary efforts of Mehjar poets received support and encouragement more markedly in the twenties from Pen Association, founded in New York in 1920 by emigrant writers. Prominent Features: Mehjar literature was a bridge between he East and the West, between old and new era. Its prominent features are: 1. Total freedom 2. Individual style 3. Nationalism 4. Humanity 5. Love of Nature 6. Simplicity and musical style 7. Religious freedom

8. Pictorial quality Eminent Poets: Jibran Khalil Jibran, Mikhail Nuaima, Abdul Masih Haddad, Amin Rehani, Iliya Abu Mazi and Nasib Arida were the most eminent poets of Mehjar literature. These poets revolted against all what was traditional in Arabic prose and poetry and demanded to express life as it is reflecting human emotions. Jibran Khalil Jibran: Jibran Khalil Jibran who inspired a whole generation of writers developing Mehjar literature was born of poor parents. He migrated to the United States in 1985. He was a wayward genius whose works have been translated in many other languages. He was the distinguished product of Al Hikma school in Beruit. His Contribution to Mehjar Literature: He was the driving force behind the formation of Pen Association and was elected its president. His output is wide and varied. He wrote eight books in Arabic and equal number in English. His famous works are: 1) Al Mawakeeb As love and yearning for the homeland, where simplicity and spiritualism were a way of life, was a prominent feature of Mehjar literature, the Mehjar poets depicted the flaws of urban life in their works. Jibran too, in this book, enumerates the flaws of urban life and ends by migrating to the woods. 2) Arais ul Murooj This is one of the first good collections of Arabic short stories. It contains three stories about life and social problems in Lebanon. Social disparity formed the main theme of his short stories. 3) Al Arwah ul Mutamarida This is his second collection of short stories in which Jibran lashes out against religious and political vested interests. 4) Al Ajniha tul Mutakasira This book is inspired by Jibrans love for the girl of his dreams whom he met on coming to the Lebanon from United States. 5) Dama wa Ibtisama Dama wa Ibtisama is a poetic prose. It is important for its contents that dwell on universal problems such as mans conflict with fate and the theory of transmigration of souls. Conclusion: Jibran was the most prominent figure of Adab ul Mehjar. He led the revolt against conventional style of Arabic prose and poetry. It is to his credit that he linked literature to life at a time when it was more or less ignored in Arab works. His contribution in Mehjar literature made him an outstanding man of letters. Development of Arabic in Spain Introduction: The Arab started their conquest of Spain during the Ummayad Dynasty but it was Abdul Rehman-I who fled the barbaric cruelty of Ibn-e-Safah and managed to hoist the flag of Ummayad Khilafat at Spain till 1492, when the Muslims were overpowered

by Christan a sad event in Muslim History. The time when Abdul Rehamn arrived at Spain, Yemni and Egyptian were at loggerheads with each other. It was charismatic Abdul Rehman-I who turned them into a big force by uniting them. This was the point from where the Arabic got its root for an immaculate performance in the centuries to come. The basic reason behind this progress was the transformed behavior of Arabs in Spain. In the East, Iraq, they did not like to get mixed up with the local population out of their Racial Prejudice but in Spain the situation was totally different. Now they were more in close contact with the common people. Europe was at that point of time in the shadow of darkness as for as the progress in all the fields of knowledge is concerned. This looks obvious that the people very soon adopted the customs, traditions, moors, norms and language of the Arabswho were superior in all the cases. Many a local people embraced Islam and thus an amalgam was created with the mixture of people from two different backgrounds. The civilization which took start in Spain was because of the Arabs a scenario contrary to the situation faced by Muslims when they conquered Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Iran. However, this contact of Semite people with the Aryans proved to be a blessing and life-line for Arabics development in Europe. However, the Arabs and Spanish population always kept on looking towards East for attaining guidance in the fields of Religion, language and cultural development. During the reign of Abdul Rehman-II and III Arabic language flourished with a rapid pace. They established huge madrassah and administrative offices. The jurisprudential material was in Arabic and it became a sort of National langu age of Spain. The era of Abdul Rehman-III witnessed such a marvelous growth in the propagation of Arabic culture, civilization and literature that during this time, Spain become equaling to Baghdad in magnificent. But soon after their reign, the control over Spain was not properly maintained by Muslims. Their disunity resulted in their weakness and their rule was challenged by Christians from the west. They put an end to the Muslim Rule in Spain in 1492 and thus Arabic was banned by the new rulers. In 1501 and 1510 laws were passed which forbade the possession of Arabic books. Thus Arabic after seeing a growth for more than 7 centuries was forced out of Spain but it left an inimitable and unreadable impact on Spanish language as thousands of words of Spanish language still find their roots in Arabic. Literature and Notable Figures of Spain: Spanish contribution in Arabic literature is very valuable. Two new asnaf were added in the Arabic poetry by the poets of Spain. 1- Mohshahaat 2- Zajal (it was more a local asnaf than being a transnational one) Other asnafs were Maddah, Ghazal, Maesiya, Tasawaf, Philosophy, Mazah, etc. in which these poet rendered in valuable services. Even political matters were also discussed in the poetry. However, in the style and format, Spanish poets always looked forward towards the East. Another field was Ilm-e-Lughat in which though less, work was done. Abu Bakar Ibn

Duraid wrote a compendium of Kitab ul Ain, a book of Khalil Bin Ahmad. This compendium got more fame then the original book even. Poets of Spain: 1- Ibn Aubdrba 2- Ibn Zaidoon 3- Ibn-e-Hani Undalsi 4- Lisan ud Din Ibn Khatib 5- Ibn-e-Hamd Las Saqli 6- Ibn-e-Khafafa Undalsi Features of Iraqi Poetry Introduction: The beginnings of early Iraqi poetry are found in the Bedouin culture which existed before the advent of Islam. For centuries, poetry was the first religion for many people. People's collective wisdom, their history and heritage, their values and ideals, their pride and achievements are all preserved in poetry lines. Poetry is so central in Iraqi people's sentiment and disposition that any glimpse of Iraq would be incomplete without some mention of it. Features of Iraqi Poetry: Modern Iraq is an important cultural powerhouse of the Arab world. Iraqi poets have been in the forefront of contemporary Arabic culture. Iraq has produced many great poets like Badr Shakir Al Sayyab, Nazik al-Malaika, Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayati etc. who wrote poetry which inspired not only the Iraqi people but also people of other countries. They also made great changes in the forms of poetry. Some of the features of Iraqi poetry are as under: 1) Free Verse: Poets used conventional Arabic poetical form which included rhyming and metric patterns but in the middle of the twentieth century, there had been a violation of the conventional Arabic poetical form, by three poets, Badr Shakir Al-Sayyab,Nazik Al-Malaika, and Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayati. These poets ended the rhyming and metric patterns in favour of the free verse or Tafila, launching the Arab Free Verse Movement or Tafila poetry. 2) Subject of oppression: One of the prime subjects treated by Iraqi poets is the oppressive regime that existed under Saddam Hussein. In Dragon, Abd al-Wahhab al-Bayyati reminds the world of the man and his reign. 3) Wide range in style: There is a variety of style in Iraqi poetry. The Iraqi poetic styles range from traditional to modernistic to experimental. 4) Theme of war: War is the major theme of Iraqi poetry as the country is war-stricken. War has its influence on the poetry too. The other themes covered in Iraqi poetry include love, fascism, sanctions, torture, prison, exile, communism, nationalism, feminism, homeland, exile, colonialism and selfhood. War and dictatorship are the dominant themes in Iraqi poetry.

5) Easy Language: Many Iraqi poets compose poetry in colloquial Arabic that many people enjoy. Their poetry is easily understood, even by people who cannot read, as it is only recited, never written. It fills radio and television broadcasts and has enthusiastic listeners. 6) Sufism: In modern Iraqi poetry and in modern Arabic poetry in general there has been a strong trend to use-or claim to use-Sufism. Sufism expresses an intense desire to reject the present world and to dream of a better one. 7) Historically informed: One of the inspiring features of Iraqi poetry is that it is both historically informed and critically powerful, expressed with a refreshing array of complex, compound, absolute and submerged metaphors, all of which undergird a powerfully alluring imagery. Conclusion: Iraqi Poetry has changed from the conventional style to modern with the changing conditions of Iraq and the Arab world. It represents the modern age and the problems faced by human beings in this age of science and technology. Different Types of Knowledge Ilm-i-Lughat: It helps in understanding the appropriate meanings of words. Mujahid says, One who believes in Allah and Day of Judgment should not open his lips in respect of Quran unless he is thoroughly conversant with the philosophy of Arabic Language. Quran often an Arabic world has several meanings. A person may know only one or two of them; though in a given content actual meaning may be quite different. Ilm-i-Nahv: Nahv i.e. syntax a branch of grammar which help in understanding the relation of a sentence with another and also of Irab (vowel sound) as change in Irab is a change in eanings. Sarf: Etymology a branch of grammar which helps in knowing the root words and conjugation. The meaning of a word change with the change in the root and with a change in conjunction. Allama Zamhashri says, One who loses the knowing of etymology loses a great deal. Ishtiqaq: It meaning is derivatives. It is necessary to have the knowing of derivatives and their roots words because if the word has been from two different root words it will be two different meanings e.g. The word Masih is derived from Masah which mean to touch or to move the wet hand and also from Masahat which mean measurement. Ilm-ul-Muani: Knowledge of semantics, because phrase construction are understood from their meaning. Ilm-ul-Bayan: Knowledge of figures of speech like similes and metaphors due to which expression

or shades of meaning or similes and metaphors become known. Ilm-ul-Badi: The knowledge of rhetorics which reveal the beauty of language and its implication. Ilm-ul-Qiraat: Knowledge of pronunciation of the Holy Quran. Ilm-ul-Aqaid: Knowledge of fundamental faith. This in necessary to explain certain analogy. Usul-e-Fiqh: Principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Asbab Al Anzaal: The knowledge of those conditions in which a verse of Holy Quran was revealed. Without the knowledge of those conditions, it is very difficult to understand the meaning of that verse. Commentary: The knowledge of those Ahadith which are related to some verses. Nasikh Mansukh: Knowledge of the commandments that have subsequently been abrogated or changed so that the abrogated commandment can be distinguished by standing ones. Arabic Lexicography Introduction: When Islam reached to the areas where Arabic was not understood or spoken before the emergence of Islam, there emerged problems and mistakes in the pronunciation of Arabic. As Arabic in the vast language and even slightest change in the pronunciation may alter the meaning to a great extent. Rather a slightest change may bring the opposite meaning then the intended ones. This problem necessitated the need to have the lexicography of Arabic Language. Initial Work: Initially small rasails containing the correct Arabic name of common thing were written by ulema e.g. some rasails containing the name of days of week, body parts, other common thing of day to day use. But the situation turned from bad to worse. Khalil Bin Ahmad: During this crucial time, a prolific figure, named Khalil bin Ahmad emerged on the scene. He wrote the first and most comprehensive book of lexicography in which the words consisted of one, two or more words mere arranged in order. He also arranged the words according to their pronunciation e.g. 1- Larynx 2- Tongue 3- Teeth 4- Lips This book was the first complete effort in this regard. Abu Bakar bin Dureed prepared the compendium of this book which collected more fame then the original book. This book of Khalil bin Ahmad remained incomplete during the life time of Khalil and this was completed by one of the pupil of Khalil. The part compiled by his pupil shows certain mistakes.

Lisan-ul-Arab by Ibn-e-Manzoor: Ibn-e-Manzoor was born on 1233, and was descendant of Governor of Tripoli. Ibn-e-Manzoor was a moderate shia and his work in Arabic Lexicography is second to none. He wrote Lisan ul Arab, a dictionary which was published in 18 th century and contains 20 volumes. This show how enormous was the work of Ibn-e-Manzoor. The comprehensiveness of this book is second to none in this regard. The book Liasan ul Arab follows a specific pattern. It follows the arrangement of roots. The headwords are not arranged by the author contrary to what is done in modern Lexicography of Semitic Language. The arrangement made by Ibn-e-Manzoor is according to the last radical which makes finding rhyming ending. In short the contribution of Ibn-e-Manzoor is the most valuable service done to Arabic Lexicography. Sources of Lisan ul Arab: 1- Tahdib ul Lugah by Al Azhri 2- Mukam of Ibn-e-Sedah 3- Nihaya of Al Dhabi