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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I

AQUINAS UNIVERSITY OF LEGAZPI COLLEGE OF LAW 1ST Semester SY 2012-2013 Atty. Ledilla LIlibeth H. Llagas, Ed. D.

Course Outline
I.

Law Lecturer

General Principles A. Constitution Definition Classification Qualities Essential Parts B. The Philippine Constitution Definition History Supremacy Self-Executing and Non Self-Executing Provisions C. Preamble Object and Value Intent of Framers II. Principles and State Policies (Art. II) A. Principles Defined 1. Section 1 a. State Definition Case: Collector of Internal Revenue vs. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23 (1971) Elements * People Meaning * Preamble * Art. II, Secs 1, 4, 15, 16 * Art III, Secs 2, 7 * Art VII, Sec 4 * Art XIII, Sec. 1 * Art XVI, Sec 2 * Art XVIII, Sec 25 * Government Doctrine of Parens Patriae De Jure & De Facto Patterns of Government Cases: United States vs. Dorr, 2 Phil 332 (1903) Co Kim Cham vs. Valdez Tan Keh, 75 Phil 113 (1945) In Re Letter of Associate Justice Puno, A.M. 90-11-2697- CA, Jun 29, 1992 Republic vs. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 104768, Jul 21, 2003 * Sovereignty (or Imperium) Distinction from Dominion (or Dominium) Cases: People vs. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476 (Oct 26, 1973) Lee Hong Hok, et. al. vs. David, et. al., 48 SCRA 372 * Territory (Art. I) The Philippine Archipelago: The Archipelagic Doctrine Method of Determining Baselines * R.A. 9522 (The New Law on Determining Baselines) 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Case: Reagan vs. CIR, GR No. 26379 (1969) Inherent Powers Distinction from Nation Distinction from Government b. Manifestations of a Democratic and Republican State Separation of Powers Principle of Blending of Powers Principle of Checks and Balances Immunity from Suit: The Royal Prerogative of Dishonesty (Art XVI, Sec 3) Cases: SSS vs. CA, 120 SCRA 707, 1983 EPG Construction Co. vs. Vigilar, 354 SCRA 566 Republic vs. Sandoval, 220 SCRA 124 Mar 19, 1993 Shauf vs. CA, Nov 27, 1990 JUSMAG vs. NLRB, Dec 15, 1994 Minucher vs. CA, GR No. 142396, Feb 11, 2003 The Republic of Indonesia vs. Vinzon, GR No. 154705, Jun 26, 2003

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City of Caloocan vs. Allarde, et. al., GR No. 107271, Sep 10, 2003 Phil. Agila Satellite, Inc. vs. Josefina Trinidad-Lichauco, May 3, 2006 The Dept of Health, et. al. vs. Phil. Pharmawealth, Inc., GR No. 169304, Mar 13, 2007 DepEd, Div. of Albay, rep. by its Schools Div. Supt. vs. Oate, GR No. 161758, Jun 8, 2007 Professional Video, Inc. vs. TESDA, GR No. 155504, Jun 26, 2009 2. Deutsche Gesellschaftfur Techniche vs. Hon. CA, et. al. , GR No. 152318, Apr. 16, 2009 Section 2: The Doctrine of Incorporation Cases: Sec. of Justice vs. lantion, GR No. 139465, Jan 18, 2000 Phillip Morris, Inc., et. al. vs. Fortune Tobacco, GR No. 158589, Jun 27, 2006 Section 3: Civilian Supremacy over the Military (Art. VII, Sec. 18) Case: IBP vs. Hon. Ronaldo B. Zamora, GR No. 141284, Aug 15, 2000 Section 4: Prime duty of the government/Citizens Personal Military or Civil Service Section 5: Maintenance of peace and order, protection of life, liberty, and property Section 6: Separation of Church and State ( Art. III, Sec. 5; Art. IX-C, Sec. 2(5); Art. VI, Secs. 5(2) & 29(2)

3. 4. 5. 6. B.

State Policies Defined 1. Sections 7 & 8: Independent foreign policy and nuclear-free Philippines 2. Section 9: Social Order 3. Section 10 Promotion of Social Justice Definition of Social Justice a. under the 1973 Constitution and under the 1987 Constitution Case: Tondo Medical Center Employees vs. CA, GR No. 167324, Jul 17, 2007 4. Section 11:Personal dignity and Human Rights (Art. III, Art. XIII) 5. Section 12: The family 6. Section 13: Vital Role of the Youth 7. Section 14: Equality of women and men 8. Section 15: Right to Health (Art. XIII, Article III) 9. Section 16: Right to a balanced and healthful ecology Cases: Oposa vs. Factoran, Jr., GR No. 101083, Jul 30, 1993 Laguna Lake Development Authority vs. CA, GR No. 110120, Mar 16, 1994 Tano vs. Gov. Salvador P. Socrates, GR No. 110249, Aug 21, 1997 10. Section 17: Priority to education, science, technology, arts, culture, and sports Case: Guingona vs. Carague, 196 SCRA 221 11. Section 18: Labor (Art. XIII) 12. Section 19: Self-reliance (Art. XII) Case: Garcia vs. Board of Investments, GR No. 92024, Nov 9, 1990 13. Section 20: Role of private sector 14. Section 21: Comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform 15. Section 22: Indigenous cultural community 16. Section 23: Community-based private organizations (Art. XIII) 17. Section 24: Communication and information (Art. XVI) 18. Section 25: Autonomy of local governments 19. Section 26: Equal access of opportunities for public service Case: Pamatong vs. COMELEC, GR No. 161872, Apr. 13, 2004 20. Sections 27 & 28: Honesty and integrity in public service (Art. XI) Case: Chavez vs PEA & Amari, GR No. 133250, Jul 9, 2002

III. The Legislative Department (Art. VI) A. The Legislative Power a. Definition b. Where vested (Secs. 1 & 32) Exceptions: Initiative (R. A. 6735) Referendum Case: Garcia vs. COMELEC, GR No. 111230, Sep. 30, 1994

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c. Non-delegability Exceptions: Permissible Delegation Delegation to the President Tariff powers [Sec 28 (2)] Emergency powers [Sec 23 (2)] Delegation to the people Delegation to local government Delegation to administrative bodies Tests of Delegation Completeness test Sufficiency test Cases: Eastern Shipping Lines vs. POEA, 166 SCRA 533 (1988) Tablarin vs. Gutierrez, 152 SCRA 730 (1987) Free Telephone Workers Union vs. Minister of Labor, 108 SCRA 757 (1981) Cebu Oxygen & Acetylene Co., Inc. vs. Sec. Drilon, 176 SCRA 24 (1989) Tatad vs. Sec. of Energy, GR No. 124360, Nov. 5, 1997 People vs. Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989) Employees Confederation vs. National Wages Commission, GR No. 96169, Sep 24, 1991 Santiago vs. COMELEC, 270 SCRA 106, Mar 19, 1997 Review Center Ass. Of thePhil. Vs. Executive Secretary, et. al., GR No. 180046, Apr. 2, 2009 Congress [Sec 1] a. Composition [Sec 1] C. The Senate a. Composition [Sec 2] b. Qualifications of a Senator [Sec 3] Case: Social Justice Society vs. Dangerous Drugs Board, GR No. 158633, Nov. 3, 2008 c. Term and Tenure of Office [Sec 4] D. The House of Representatives a. Composition [Sec 5 ( 1 & 2)] District representatives Party-list representatives (R. A. 7941) Cases: Veterans Federation Party vs. COMELEC, GR No. 136781, Oct. 6, 2000 Ang Bagong Bayani vs. COMELEC, GR No. 147589, June 26, 2001 Ang Bagong Bayani OFW Labor Party, et. al. vs. COMELEC, et. al., GR No. 147589, June 25, 2003 Partido ng Mangagawa, et. al., vs. COMELEC, et. al., Mar 15, 2006 BANAT vs. COMELEC, GR No. 179271, Apr 21, 2009 b. Apportionment [Sec 5 (3 & 4)] Gerrymandering Cases: Tobias vs. Abalos, GR No. L-114783, Dec 8, 1994 Mariano, Jr. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 118577, Mar 7, 1995 Montejo vs. COMELEC, GR No. 118702, Mar 16, 1995 Bagabuyo vs. COMELEC, GR No. 176970, Dec. 8, 2008 c. Qualifications [Sec 6] Citizenship Age Residence Cases: Gallego vs. Verra, GR No. L-48641, Nov 24, 1941 Romualdez-Marcos vs. COMELEC, Zgr No. 119976, Sep 18, 1995 Aquino vs. COMELEC, GR No. 120265, Sep 18, 1995 Domino vs. COMELEC, GR No. 143015, Jul 19, 1999 Co vs. HRET, GR Nos. 92191-92, Jul 30, 1991 Perez vs. COMELEC, GR No. 133944, Oct 28, 1999 Bengzon vs. HRET & Cruz, GR No. 142840, May 7, 2001 Valles vs. COMELEC, GR No. 137000, Aug. 9, 2000 d. Term of Office [Sec 7] Case: Dimaporo vs. Mitra, Jr. GR No. 96859, Oc 15, 1991 Farinas, et. al. vs. Executive Sec., GR No. 147387, Dec. 10, 2003 B.

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E.

Common Provisions for both Chambers

a. Election and Filling vacancies [Secs 8 & 9] Regular Special Cases: Codilla vs. De Venecia,GR No. 150605, Dec. 10, 2002 Tolentino vs. COMELEC, GR No. 148334, Jan. 21, 2004 b. Salaries [Sec 10] c. Privileges [Sec 11] Immunity from arrest Privilege of Speech Cases: Jimenez vs. Cabangbang, GR No. L-15905, Aug 3, 1966 Antonino vs. Valencia, GR No. L-26526, May 27, 1974 People vs. Jalosjos, 324 SCRA 689, Feb 3, 2000 Crispin Beltran vs. People, et. al., GR Nos. 172070-72 & other Consolidated Cases, June 1, 2007 d. Disqualifications and Other Prohibitions [Secs 12, 13, & 14] Incompatible Office Forbidden Office Cases: Liban vs. Gordon, GR No. 175352, Jul 15, 2009 & Jan 18, 2011 Puyat vs. De Guzman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982) e. Sessions [Secs 15 & 23; Art. VII, Secs 4, 9, & 1; Art XVII, Sec 1; Art VII, Sec 18] Regular Special Joint Voting separately Voting jointly f. Recess/Adjournment [Sec 16(5)] g. Officers [Sec 16(1)] h. Quorum [Sec 16(2)] i. Rules of Proceedings [Sec 16(3)] Discipline of Members Cases: Avelino vs. Cuenco, GR No. L-2821, Mar 4, 1949 Santiago vs. Guingona, GR No. 134577, Nov. 18, 1998 Arroyo, et. al. vs. De Venecia, GR No. 127255, Aug 14, 1997 Osmena vs. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960) Paredes, Jr. vs. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 118364, Aug 10, 1996 Santiago vs. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 128055, Apr 18, 2001 ABAKADA vs. Ermita, GR No. 168056, Sep 1, 2005 Francisco, Jr. vs. House of Representatives, GR No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003 Honasan II vs. Panel of Investigating Prosecutors of DOJ, GR No. 159747, Apr 13, 2004 F. Legislative Journal and Other Congressional Records a. Record and Books of Accounts [Sec 20] Records and Books of Account Legislative Journal [Sec 16(4)] Entries Enrolled Bill Theory Journal Entry vs. Enrolled Bill Cases: US vs. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916) Casco Philippine Chemical Co. vs. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347, 1963 Astorga vs. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714 Congressional Record G. Electoral Tribunal a. Composition [Secs 17 & 19] b. Power: Identity separate from Congress Cases: Sanchez vs. COMELEC, 153 SCRA 67 Robles vs. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 181 SCRA 780 Abbas, et. al. vs. Senate Electoral Tribunal, 166 SCRA 651 Lazatin vs. COMELEC, 157 SCRA 337 Lazatin vs. House Electoral Tribunal, 168 SCRA 391 Bondoc vs. Pineda, GR No. 97710, Sep 26, 1991 Lerias vs. House Electoral Tribunal, GR No. 97105, Oct 15, 1991 Chavez vs. COMELEC, GR No. 105323, Jul 3, 1992 Arroyo vs. House Electoral Tribunal, GR No. 118597, Jul 14, 1995 Rasul vs. COMELEC, GR No. 134142, Aug 24, 1999 `

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Caruncho III vs. COMELEC, GR No. 135996, Sep 30, 1999 Perez vs. COMELEC, GR No. 133944, Oct 28, 1999 Garcia, et. al. vs. HRET, GR No. 134792, Aug. 12, 1999 Guerrero vs. COMELEC, GR No. 137004, Jul 26, 2000 Villarosa vs. HRET, GR Nos. 143351 & 144129, Sep 14, 2000

Sandoval vs. HRET, GR No. 149380, July 3, 2002 Pimentel, et. al. vs. HRET, GR No. 141489, Nov. 29, 2002 Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino vs COMELEC and Aquino, GR No. 161265, Feb 24, 2004 Barbers vs. COMELEC, GR No. 165691, Jun 15, 2005 Tantoy, Sr. vs. Abrogar, GR No. 156128, May 9, 2005 Liwayway Vinzons Chato vs. COMELEC, GR No. 172131, Apr 2, 2007 Abubakar vs. HRET, 517 SCRA 762, 2007 Limkaichong vs. COMELEC, GR Nos. 178831-32, Apr 1, 2009 H. Commission on Appointments a. Composition [Secs 18 & 19] b. Powers: Identity Separate from Congress Cases: Daza vs. Singson,180 SCRA 496 1989) Coseteng vs. Mitra, Jr., 187 SXCRA 377 Guingona, Jr. vs. Gonzales, GR No. 106971, Oct 20, 1992 Rufino, et. al. vs. Endriga, et. al., GR No. 139565, Jul 21, 2006 Matibag vs. Benipayo, GR No. 149036, Apr 2, 2002 Soriano III vs. Lista, GR No. 153881, Mar 24, 2003 Pimentel vs. ermita, GR no. 164978, Oct 13, 2005 Gudana & Balidan vs. Senga, et. al., GR No. 170165, Aug 15, 2006 Benwaren vs. COMELEC, GR No. 169393, Apr 7, 2006 I. Powers of Congress a. General (plenary) Legislative Power [Sec 1] Limitations Substantive * Express ( Art III; Art VI, Sec 25 & 29(1) & (2), Secs 28 & 29 (3), Sec 30; Art XIV, Sec 4 (3)) * Implied Procedural [Sec 26] * Title of Law: One subject, one title Cases: Tio vs. Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208 Phil. Judges Assn vs. Prado, GR No. 105371, Nov 11, 1993 Tan vs. Del Rosario, GR No. 109289, Oct 3, 1994 Tolentino vs. Secretary of Finance, GR No. 115455, Aug 25, 1994 Agripino A. De Guzman, Jr., et. al. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 129118, Jul 19, 2000 Cawaling vs. COMELEC, GR No. 146319, Oct 26, 2001 ABAKADA vs. Ermita, GR No. 168056, Sep. 1, 2005 Fabian vs. Desierto, GR No. 129742, Sep. 16, 1998 Schedule of Readings [Sec 26] Legislative Process Requirements * Riders * House of Origin [Sec 24] Cases: Garcia vs. Mata, 65 SCRA 517 Demetria vs. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 Procedure * Bicameral Conference Committee Approval of Bills [Sec 27(1) & (2)] * Signed by the President * Vetoed by the President, Congress overrides veto * Failure to act 30 days after transmittal Cases: Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs. CTA, 185 SCRA 329 Gonzales vs. Macaraeg, GR No. 87636, Nov 19, 1990 PHILCONSA vs. Enriquez, GR No. 113105, Aug 19, 1994 Monteclaros vs. COMELEC, GR No. 152295, Jul 9, 2002 Arroyo vs. De Venecia, GR No. 127255, Aug 14, 1997 b. Power of Appropriation [Sec 29] Definition Classification General Appropriation Law Special Appropriation Law [Sec 25(4)] Limitations [Secs 29(2), 25(1, 2, 3, 6 & 7)]

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Cases: Guingona, Jr. vs. Carague, GR No. 94571, Apr. 22, 1991 Osmena vs. Orbos, GR No. 99886, Mar 31, 1993 c. Power of Taxation Policy [Sec 28(1)] Limitations [Sec 28(3 & 4); Art XIV, Sec 4(3)] Special Fund

d. Limitations

Cases: Gerochi vs. Department of Energy, GR No. 159796, Jul 17, 2007 Garcia vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 101273, Jul 3, 1992 Systems Plus Computer College vs. Caloocan City, Central Mindanao University vs. DAR, GR No. 100091, Oct 22, 1992 Osmena vs. Orbos, GR No. 99886, Mar 31, 1993 Commissioner of BIR vs. CA, GR No. 124043, Oct. 14, 1998 Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs. Santos, GR No. 119252, Aug. 18, 1997 John Hay peoples Alternative Coalition vs. Victor Lim, GR No. 119775, Oct. 24, 2003 Power of Legislative Investigation [Sec 21] Cases: Negros Oriental II Electric Cooperative vs. Sanggunian, 155 SCRA 421 Bengzon, Jr. vs. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, GR No. L-89914, Nov 20, 1991 Standard Chartered Bank vs. Senate Committee, GR No. 167173, Dec 27, 2007 Senate of the Phil. vs. Ermita, et. al., GR No. 169777, Apr. 10, 2006 Sabio vs. Gordon, et. al., GR No. 174340, Oct. 17, 2006 Question Hour/Executive Privilege [Sec 22] Cases: Senate vs. Ermita, GR No. 169777, Apr 20, 2006 Neri vs. Senate Committee, GR No. 180643, Sep 4, 2008 War Powers [Sec 23(1)] Power to act as Board of Canvassers in election of President [Sec 4, Art. VII] Power to call a special election for President and Vice-President [Sec 10, Art. VII] Power to judge Presidents physical fitness to discharge the functions of the Presidency [Sec 11, Art. VII] Power to revoke or extend suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or declaration of martial law [Sec 18, Art. VII] Power to concur in Presidential Amnesties [Sec 19, Art. VII] Power to concur in treaties or international agreements [Sec 21, Art. VII] Power to confirm certain appointments/nominations made by the President [Sec 9, Art. VII] Power of Impeachment [Sec 2, Art. XI] Power relative to small-scale utilization of natural resources [Sec 2, Art. XII] Power to propose amendments to the Constitution [Secs 1 & 2, Art. XVII ]

e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p.

J. Other Constitutional Provisions a. Ban on Increasing the Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court [Sec 30] b. Ban on Royal Titles [Sec 31] VI. The Executive Department (Art. VII) A. The President a. Qualifications [Sec 2] Case: Tecson vs. COMELEC, GR No. 161434, Mar 3, 2004 b. Executive Immunity [Sec 5] Cases: Soliven vs. Judge Makasiar, 167 SCRA 393 Gloria vs. CA, GR No. 119903, Aug 15, 2000 Estrada vs. Desierto, GR No. 146710-15, Mar 2, 2001 Romualdez vs. Sandiganbayan, GR No9. 152259, Jul 29, 2004 c. Official Residence [Sec 6] B. The Vice-President a. Qualifications [Sec 3] b. Vacancy C. Common Provisions to Both Offices a. Term/Election/Canvassing Procedure [Sec 4] b. Prohibitions/Inhibitions [Secs 6 & 13]

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Case:

Macalintal vs. COMELEC, GR No. 157013, Jul 10, 2003 Congressman Lopez vs. Senate and House, GR No. 163556, Jun 8, 2004 Pimentel vs. Joint Canvassing Committee, Jun 22, 2004 Fernando Poe, Jr. vs. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, PET Case 002, Mar Doromal vs. Sandiganbayan, 177 SCRA 354 Civil Liberties Union vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 83896, Feb 22, 1991 De la Cruz vs. COA, GR No. 138489, Nov. 29, 2001 Bitonio, Jr. vs. COA, GR No. 147392, Mar 12, 2004

29,2005

Macalintal vs. Presidential Electoral Tribunal(PET), GR No. 191618, Nov. 23, 2010; Motion for Reconsideration, June 7, 2011 c. Rules on Succession [Secs 7-12] Temporary and Permanent Vacancy Beginning of the Term During the Term Cases: Estrada vs. Desierto, GR Nos. 146710-15, Mar 2, 2001 Estrada vs. Desierto, GR Nos. 146710-15 & 146738, Apr 3, 2001 Estrada vs. Arroyo, GR Nos. 146710-15, Mar 2, 2001 D. Powers of the Presidency a. The Executive Power [Secs 1 & 17] Cases: US vs. Nixon, 418 U. S. 683 91974) Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 Marcos vs. Manglapus, 178 SCRA 760 The Province of Cotabato vs. The Govt. of the Republic of the Philippines, et. Al., GR No. 183591, Oct. 14, 2008 b. The Power of Appointment [Sec 16] Classification * Permanent or Temporary * Regular or Ad Interim Cases: Flores vs. Drilon and Gordon, GR No. 104732, Jun 22, 1993 Sarmiento vs. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 (1987) Bermudez vs. Executive Secretary, G. R. No. 131429, Aug. 4, 1999 Quintos-Deles, et. al. vs. Commission on Appointments, 177 SCRA 259 91989) Calderon vs. Carale, GR No. 91636, Apr 23, 1992 Matibag vs. Benipayo, GR No. 149036, Apr 2, 2002 Rufino vs. Endriga, GR Nos. 139554, 139565, Jul 21, 2006 Special Limitations * Appointments of Family Members & Relatives * Appointments made by Acting President * Appointments two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to end of term Case: De Rama vs. CA, GR No. 131136, Feb 28, 2001 In Re Mateo Valenzuela, A. M. No. 98-5-01, Nov. 9, 1998 c. The Power of Control [Sec17] The Alter Ego Principle Cases: Lacson-Magallanes Co., Inc. vs. Pano, L-27811, Nov 17, 1967 Ang-Angco vs. Castillo, 9 SCRA 619 (1963) De Leon vs. Carpio, 178 SCRA 457 (1989) Dadole, et. al. vs. COA, GR No. 125350, Dec. 3, 2002 Pimentel vs. Aguirre, GR No. 132988, Jul 19, 2000 Solar Team Entertainment vs. Judge How, GR No. 140863, Aug 22, 2000 Bito-Onon vs. Hon. Fernandez, GR No. 139813, Jan 31, 2001 National Electrification Adm. vs. COA, 377 SCRA 223 (2002) DENR vs DENR Reg. 12 Employees, GR No. 149725, Aug 19, 2003 d. The Military Powers [Sec 18] Commander-in-Chief Suspension of writ of habeas corpus Martial Law * Procedure Case: IBP vs. Zamora, GR No. 141284, Aug. 15, 2000 Lacson vs. Perez, GR No. 147780, May 10, 2001 Sanlakas, et. al. vs. Reyes, et. al. (Consolidated cases), GR Nos. 159085.., Feb. 3, 2004 David, et. al. vs. Arroyo, et. al. (Consolidated cases), GR Nos. 171396., 2006

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e.

The Pardoning Power [Sec 19] (i) Executive Clemency in general * Pardon * Commutation * Parole * Amnesty Cases: Monsanto vs. Factoran, Jr., 170 SCRA 190 (1989) Torres vs. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 (1987) In Re: Torres vs. Director of Bureau, GR No. 122338, Dec 29, 1995 Garcia vs. COA, GR No. 75025, Sep 14, 1993 Llamas vs. Orbos, GR No. 99031, Oct 15, 1991 Drillon vs. CA, GR No. 91626, Oct 3, 11991 People vs. Patriarca, GR No. 135457, Sep 29, 2000

(ii) Limitations Cases: People vs. Salle, Jr.,GR No. 103567, Dec 4, 1995 People vs. Nacional, GR No. 11294, Sep 7, 1995 Echegaray vs. Secretary of Justice, GR No. 132601, Jan. 19, 1999 f. The Borrowing Power [Sec 20] g. The Diplomatic Power [Sec 21] Treaty vs. Executive Agreement Case: Commissioner of Customs vs. Eastern Sea Trading, 3 SCRA 351 Bayan vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 138570, Oct 10, 2000 Lim vs Executive Secretary, GR No. 151445, Apr 11, 2002 h. Budgetary Power [Sec 22] i. The Informing Power [Sec 23] State of the Nation Address j. Other Powers Call Congress to a special session [Sec 15, Art. VI] Power to approve or veto bills [Sec 27, Art. VI] Consent to deputation of government personnel by the COMELEC [Sec 2(4), Art. IX-C] Discipline such deputies [Sec 2(8), Art IX-C] Emergency Powers [Sec 23(2), Art VI] and tariff powers [Sec 28(2), Art VI], as delegated by Congress General Supervision over local governments and autonomous regional governments [Art X] Case: Pimentel vs. Aguirre, GR No. 132988, July 19, 2000 V. The Judicial Department (Art. VIII) A. Judicial Power a. Where vested [Sec 1(1)] b. Scope [Sec 1(2)] Cases: Santiago vs. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970) Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989) Echegaray vs. Secretary of Justice, GR No. 132601, Jan. 19, 1999 Infotech Foundation, et. al. vs COMELEC, G. R. No. 159139, Jan. 13, 2004 c. Congress and Judicial Power. [Sec 2] Case: PHIVIDEC vs. Velez, GR No. 84295, Jul 18, 1991 Malaga vs. Penachos, Jr., GR No. 86695, Sep 3, 1992 Villavert vs. Desierto, GR No. 133715, Feb 13, 2000 B. Fiscal Autonomy[Sec 3] Cases: Radiowealth, Inc. vs. Agregado, 86 Phil. 429 (1950) Bengzon vs. Drillon, GR No. 103524, Apr 15, 1992 C. The Supreme Court (Sec 4) a. Composition [Sec4(1)] b. Constitutional Challenge of Treaties and Laws [Sec 4 (2)] c. En Banc/Division Cases [Sec 4(2) & Sec 4 (3)] Cases: Fortich vs. Corona, GR No. 131457, Aug 19, 1999 MMDA vs. Jancom, GR No. 147465, Apr 10, 2002 People vs. Dy, GR No. 115236-37, Jan. 16, 2003 People vs. Ebio, GR No. 147750, Sep. 29, 2004 D. Powers [Sec 5] a. Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court [Sec 5(1)] b. Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court [Sec 5(2)] c. Review power over decisions of administrative bodies Case: People vs. Mateo, GR No. 147678-87, Jul 7, 2004

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d. Judicial Inquiry or Review a. Definition b. Requisites for exercise of Judicial Inquiry/Review actual controversy proper party/locus standi earliest possible opportunity issue raised determinative of the case Cases: Tolentino vs. Sec. of Finance, GR No. 115455, Aug 25, 1994 Pacu vs. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil 806, 1955 Board of Optometry vs. Colet, GR No. 122241, Jul 30, 1996 Montesclaros, et. al. vs COMELEC, GR No. 152295, Jul 9, 2002 Solicitor General vs. MMA, GR No. 102782, Dec 11, 1991 Joya vs. PCGG, GR No. 96541, Aug 24, 1993 Macasiano vs. National Housing Authority, GR No. 107921, Jul 1, 1993 Mariano,Jr. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 118577, Mar 7, 1995 Kilosbayan vs. Guingona, Jr., GR No. 113375, May 5, 1994

Tatad vs. Garcia, Jr., GR No. 114222, Apr 6, 1995 Kilosbayan vs. Morato, GR No. 118910, Jul 17, 1995 TELEBAP vs. COMELEC,GR No. 132922, Apr. 21, 1998 Gonzales vs. Narvasa, GR No. 140835, Aug 14, 2000 Del Mar, et. al. vs. PAGCOR, GR No. 138298, Nov. 29, 2000 Oliver Lozano, et. al. vs. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, GR No. 146631, Feb. 6, 2001 Bayan vs. Zamora, GR No. 138570, Oct 10, 2000 IBP vs Zamora, GR No. 141284, Aug 15, 1000 Cruz vs. Flavier, GR No. 135385, Dec 6, 2000 Sanlakas, et. al. vs. Reyes, et. al. (Consolidated cases), GR Nos. 159085.., Feb. 3, 2004 David, et. al. vs. Arroyo, et. al. (Consolidated cases), GR Nos. 171396., 2006 Senate of the Phil. vs. Ermita, et. al., GR No. 169777, Apr. 10, 2006 Francisco, Jr. vs. Fernando, 507 SCRA 173 (2006) White Light Corp. vs. City of Manila, GR No. 122846, jan. 20, 2009 e. Political Questions Cases: Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 688, 1989 Daza vs. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989) Santiago vs. Guingona, GR No. 134577, Nov. 18, 1998 Francisco, et. al. vs. House Speaker (The Davide Impeachment), GR No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003 f. Temporary Assignment of judges g. Order change of venue h. Rule Making Power Cases: Bustos vs. Lucero, GR No. L-2068, Oct. 20, 1948 In Re: Cunanan, 94 Phil 534 (1954) Javellana vs. Department of Interior, GR No. 102549, Aug 10, 1992 In Re: Request of Accused for Creation of Special Division, AM No. 02-1-09-SC, Jan 21, 2002 i. Bar Integration (The Integrated Bar of the Philippines) Cases: In Re: Edillon, 84 SCRA 554 Tucay vs. Tucay, AC No. 5170, Nov. 17, 1999 Aguirre vs Rana, Bar Matter No. 1036, Jun 10, 2003 In Re: Petition to Disqualify Atty. De Vera, E. Power of Administrative Supervision [Sec 6] Cases: Maceda vs. Vasquez, GR No. 102781, Apr 22, 1993 People vs. Gacott, Jr., GR No. 116049, Jul 13, 1995 Caoibes vs. Ombudsman, GR No. 132177, Jul 19, 2001 F. Qualifications (Sec. 7) Case: In Re: JBC vs. Judge Quitain, JBC Case No. 013, Aug. 22, 2007 G. Judicial and Bar Council (Sec. 8) H. Power of Appointment (Sec. 9) I. Salary (Sec. 10) Case: Nitafan vs. Commission of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 (1987) J. Tenure ((Sec. 11) Cases: Varvas vs. Rilloraza, 80 Phil 297 (1948) De La Llana vs. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 (1982) K. Prohibited Designation (Sec. 12) L. Consultations/Decisions (Time Frame) [Secs 13 , 14, & 15]

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Cases: Air France vs. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 (1956) Valdez vs. CA, GR No. 85082, Feb 25, 1991 People vs. Lizada, GR Nos. 143468-71, Jan 24, 2003 Asiawest vs CA, GR No. 110263, Jul 20, 2001 Velarde vs. Social Justice Society, GR No. 159357, Apr. 28, 2004 RE: Problem of Delays of Cases before the Sandiganbayan, A. M. No. 00-8-05-SC, Nov. 28, 2001 Court Administrator vs. Quinanola, A. M. No. MTJ-99-1216, Oct 20, 1999 M. Annual Report (Sec. 16) N. Constitutional Safeguards to insure the independence of the Judiciary VIII. Constitutional Commissions (Art. IX) A. Common Provisions [Art IX-A] a. Composition [ Art IX-A,Sec 1] Case: Macalintal vs. COMELEC, GR No. 157013, Jul 10, 2003 b. Aspects of independence [Art IX-A, Secs 3 - 6] Cases: Aruelo vs. CA, GR No. 107852, Oct. 20, 1993 Antonio vs. COMELEC, GR No. 135869, Sep. 22, 1999 c. Disqualifications/Inhibitions [Art IX-A, Sec 2]

Decisions [Art IX-A, Sec 7] Cases: Cua vs. COMELEC, GR No. L-80519-21, Dec. 17, 1987 Mison vs. COA, 187 SCRA 445 (1990) Mateo vs. CA, GR No. 113219, Aug 14, 1995 Ambil vs. COMELEC, GR No. 143398, Oct. 25, 2000 Dumayas vs. COMELEC, GR No. 141952-53, Apr 20, 2001 B. The Civil Service Commission [Art IX-B] a. Composition and Term of Office [Art. IX-B, Sec 1] Case: Gaminde vs. COA, GR No. 140335, Dec 13, 2000 b. Objectives/Functions [Art. IX-B, Sec 3] c. Scope of Civil Service [Art. IX-B, Sec 2(1)] d. Classes of Service Career Non-Career e. Appointments in the Civil Service Qualifications [Art IX-B, Secs 2(2)] Exceptions: * Policy-determining * Primarily confidential * Highly technical Disqualifications/Prohibitions[Art IX-B, Secs 2(4), 6 - 8] Rights and Security of Tenure [Art IX-B, Sec 2(3, 5, 6)] Right to Self-Organization [Art IX-B, Sec 2(5)] Protection to Temporary Employees [Art IX-B, Sec 2(6)] Standardization of Compensation [Art IX-B, Sec 5] Double Compensation [Art IX-B, Sec 8] Oath of Allegiance [Art IX-B, Sec 14] Cases: EIIB vs. CA, GR No. 129133, Nov. 25, 2998 CSC vs. PAGCOR, GR No. 123708, Jun 19, 1997 Canonizado vs. Aguirre, GR No. 133132, Jan 25, 2000 Secretary Gloria vs. CA, GR No. 119903, Aug 15, 2000 Buklod ng Kawaning EIIB vs. Executive Secretary, GR Nos. 142801-802, Jul 10, 2001 Dimayuga vs. Benedicto II, , GR No. 144153, Jan 16, 2002 Miranda vs. Carreon, GR No. 143540, Apr. 11, 2003 Seeres vs. COMELEC and Robles, GR No. 178678, Apr. 1, 2009 NASECO vs. NLRC, 168 SCRA 122 (1988) Samson vs. CA, 145 SCRA 654 (1986) Hernandez vs. Villegas, 14 SCRA 544 (1965) Achacoso vs. Macaraig, GR No. 93023, Mar 13, 1991 Briones vs. Osmena, 104 Phil 588 (1988) Mayor vs. Macaraig, GR No. 87211, Mar 5, 1991 Binamira vs. Garrucho, Jr., GR No. 92008, Jul 30, 1990 Luego vs. CSC, 143 SCRA 733 (1989) Santiago, Jr. vs. CSC, 178 SCRA 733 (1989) Astraquillo vs. Manglapus, GR No. 88183, Oct. 3, 1990 SSS Employees vs. CA, 175 SCRA 686 (1989)

d.

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Aquino vs. CSC, GR No. 92403, Apr 22, 1992 PNOC vs. NLRC, GR No. 100947, May 31, 1993 Lapinid vs. CSC, GR No. 96298, May 14, 1991 Flores vs. Drilon and Gordon, GR No. 104732, Jun 22, 1993 C. The Commission on Elections [Art IX-C] a. Composition and qualifications of members [Art IX-C, Sec 1] Cases: Brillantes vs. Yorac, GR No. 93867, Dec 18, 1990 Cayetano vs. Monsod, GR No. 100113, Sep 3, 1991 b. Powers [Art IX-B, Sec 2] General Powers [Art IX-C, Sec 2(1)] * Nature * Power to annul * Power to call special elections Exclusive Original Jurisdiction [Art IX-C, Sec 2(2)] * Limitations Exclusive Appellate Jurisdiction * Power to issue writs of certiorari, mandamus and prohibition * Execution pending appeal Adjudicatory functions [Art IX-C, Sec 2(3)] Registration of Parties [Art IX-C, Secs 2(5), 6, 7] Exclusive and sole prerogative to prosecute violations of election laws [Art IX-C, Sec 2(6)] Recommendatory Powers [Art IX-C, Sec 2(7 - 9) & Sec 5] Cases: Galido vs. COMELEC, GR No. 95346, Jan. 18, 1991

People vs. Hon. Delgado, GR Nos. 93419-32, Sep 18, 1990 People vs. Judge Inting, 187 SCRA 788 (1990) Corpus vs. Tanodbayan, 149 SCRA 281 (1987) Tan vs. COMELEC, GR No. 112093, Oct 4, 1994 Reyes vs. RTC, GR No. 108886, May 5, 1995 Kilosbayan vs. COMELEC, GR No. 128054, Oct. 16, 1997 Alvarez vs. COMELEC, GR No. 142527, Mar 1, 2001 Buac and Bautista vs. COMELEC, GR No. 155855, Jan. 26, 2004 LDP vs. COMELEC, GR No. 161265, Feb. 24, 2004 Mananzala vs. COMELEC, c. Decision-Making Procedure [Art IX-C, Sec 3] Case: Salazar vs. COMELEC, 184 SCRA 433 (1990) Baytan vs. COMELEC, GR No. 153945, Feb 4, 2003 Balindong vs. COMELEC, GR Nos. 153991-92, Oct 16, 2003 d. Elections (Art IX-C, Secs 4, 9, 10) Period Cases: Sanidad vs. COMELEC, 181 SCRA529 (1990) ABS-CBN vs. COMELEC, GR No. 133486, Jan 28, 2000 Social Weather Stations, Inc. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 147571, May 5, 2001 Failure of elections Funding (Art IX-C, Sec 11) D. The Commission on Audit [Art IX-D] a. Composition and Term [Art IX-D, Sec 1] b. Powers and Functions [Art IX-D, Secs 2-3] General audit Post-audit Special audit c. Report [Art IX-D, Sec 4] Cases: Dingcong vs. Guingona, Jr., 162 SCRA 782 (1988) Danville Maritime, Inc. vs. COA, 175 SCRA 701 (1989) Ramos vs. Aquino, 39 SCRA 256, (1971) Mamaril vs. Domingo, GR No. 100284, Oct 13, 1993 Sambeli vs. Province of Isabela, GR No. 92279, Jun 18, 1992 Osmea vs. COA, GR No. 98355, March 2, 1994 Bustamante vs. COA, GR No. 103309, Nov. 27, 1992 Orocio vs. COA, GR No. 75959, Aug 31, 1992 CALTEX Phil vs. COA Polloso vs. Gangan, GR No. 140563, Jul 14, 2000 DBP vs. COA, GR No. 88435, Jan 16, 2002 Parreo vs. COA, GR No. 162224, June 7, 2007

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IX. Local Government (Art. X) A. General Provisions a. Territorial and Political Subdivisions/Local Autonomy (Secs. 1-2) Cases: San Juan vs. CSC, GR No. 92299, Apr. 19, 1991 LLDA vs. CA, GR No. 110120, Mar 16, 1994 Magtajas vs. Pryce properties, GR No. 111097, Jul 20, 1994 Phil. Petroleum Corp. vs. Mun. of Pililla, GR No. 90776, Jun 3, 1991 Lina vs. Pao, GR No. 129093, Aug 30, 2001 Dadole vs. COA, GR No. 125350, Dec. 3, 2002 John Hay Peoples Alternative Coalition vs. Victor Lim, GR No. 119775, Oct. 24, 2003 Leynes vs. COA, GR No. 143596, Dec. 11, 2003 Batangas CATV vs. CA & Batangas City, GR No. 138810, Sep 29, 2004 b. Local Government Code (Sec 3) Cases: Sanchez vs. COMELEC, GR No. 94459-60, Jan 24, 1991 Garcia vs. COMELEC, GR No. 111511, Oct 5, 1993 c. Power of the President: General Supervision (Sec 4) Cases: Drilon vs. Mayor Lim, GR No. 112497, Aug 4, 1994 . d. Powers/Rights of Local Government Units , LGUs (Secs 5-7 & 13) *Power to Create Own Sources of Revenues (Sec 5) *Share in the National Taxes (Sec 6) *Share in national resources (sec 7) *Local Groupings (Sec 13) Cases: Manila Electric vs. Province of Laguna, GR No. 131359, May 5, 1999 Batangas Power vs. Batangas City, GR No. 152675, Apr 28, 2004 NPC vs. Cabanatuan City, GR No. 149110, Apr 9, 2003

Petron Corporation vs. Mayor Tiangco, GR No. 158881, Apr. 16, 2008 Pimentel vs. Aguirre, GR No. 132988, Jul 19, 2000 Province of Batangas vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 152774, May 27, 2004 e. Term of Office of Elective Officials Cases: Borja, Jr. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 133495, Sep 3, 1998 Lonzanida vs. COMELEC, GR No. 135150, Jul 28, 2999 Adormeo vs. COMELEC, GR No. 147927, Feb 4, 2002 Socrates vs. COMELEC, GR No. 154512, Nov 12, 2002 Latasa vs. COMELEC, GR No. 154829, Dec 10, 2003 David vs. COMELEC, GR No. 127116, Apr 8, 1997 f. Sectoral Representation Case: Supangan, Jr. vs. Santos, GR No. 84663, Aug 24, 1990 g. Creation, abolition, mergers of LGUs (Sec 10) Cases: Tan vs. COMELEC, 142 SCRA 727, Jul 11, 1986 Padilla, Jr. vs. COMELEC, GR No. 103328, Oct 19, 1992 League of Cities vs. COMELEC, GR no. 176951, Nov 18, 2002, Aug 24, 2010 h. Special Metropolitan Political Subdivisions (Sec. 11) * Limitations Case: MMDA vs. Bel-Air Village Association, GR No. 135962, Mar 27, 2000 i. Classification of Cities (Sec. 12) Case: Abella vs. COMELEC, GR No. 100710, Sep 3, 1991 j. Regional Development Councils (Sec 14) Case: Cordillera Broad Coalition vs. COA,, GR No. 82217, Jan 29, 1990 B. Autonomous Regions a. Two Autonomous Regions: Muslim Mindanao and Cordilleras (Sec 15) b. Power of the President (Sec 16) c. Powers not given to Autonomous Regions (Sec 17) d. Enactment of Organic Act/Creation of Autonomous Region (Sec 18-19) Cases: Abbas vs. COMELEC, 179 SCRA 287, 1989 Cordillera Regional Assembly vs. COMELEC, GR No. 93054, Dec 4, 1990 Leonor vs. Cordillera Bodong Administration, GR No. 92649, Feb 14, 1991 Cordillera Broad Coalition vs. COA, GR No. 82217, Jan 29, 1990 e. Powers Granted by Organic Act (Sec 20) Case: Pandi vs. CA, , GR No. 116850, Apr 11, 2002 f. Peace and Order/ National Defense (Sec 21)

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X. Accountability of Public Officers (Article XI) A. Nature of Public Office (Sec 1) Case: Hipolito vs. Mergas, A. M. No. P-90-412, Mar 11, 1991 B. Impeachable Officers (Sec 2) C. Initiation of Impeachment/Impeachment Rules (Sec 3) a. Where vested : House of Representatives b. Requisites/Limitations Cases: Romulo vs. Yiguez, 141 SCRA 263, 1986 In Re: Gonzales, 160 SCRA, 1988 Francisco, et. al. vs. House Speaker, et. al. The Davide Impeachment), GR No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003 D. The Sandiganbayan (Sec 4) Cases: Nuez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433, 1982 Mayor Lecaroz vs. Sandiganbayan, 128 SCRA 324, 1984 E. The Ombudsman/Officials and Employees (Sec 5-6) F. The Special Prosecutor/Ombudsman and his Deputies (Sec7 14) a. The Ombudsman and the Tanodbayan b. Qualifications c. Appointment and Rank d. Term of Office e. Powers Cases: Zaldivar vs. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843, 1988 BIR vs. Ombudsman, GR No. 115103, Apr 11, 2002 Laurel vs. Desierto, GR No. 145368, Apr 12, 2002 Azarcon vs. Guerrero, GR No. 121017, Feb 17, 1997 Azarcon vs. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 116033, Feb 26, 1997 Honasan II vs. The Panel of Investigating Prosecutors of the DOJ, GR No. 159747, Apr 13, 2004 Garcia vs. Miro, GR No. 148944, Feb 5, 2003 D. Recovery of Ill-Gotten Wealth (Sec 15) E. Prohibitions and Obligations (Secs 16 18) Cases: Caasi vs. CA, GR No. 88831, Nov. 8, 1990

XI. National Economy and Patrimony (Article XII) A. The National Economy : Goals (Sec 1) B. Development of Natural Resources (Sec 2) a. Regalian Doctrine b. Limits imposed on jura regalia Case: Cruz vs. Sec. of DENR, et. al., GR No. 135385, Dec. 6,2000 c. Filipinization of Natural Resources d. Alienation of Natural Resources Cases: Sta. Rosa Mining Co. vs. Leido, Jr., Dec. 1, 1987 San Miguel Corporation vs. CA, 186 SCRA 722 (1990) Chavez vs. PEA and AMARI, GR No. 133250, July 9, 2002 Laurel vs. Garcia, GR Nos. 92013 and 92047, Jul 25, 1990 e. Utilization of Natural Resources Cases: Miners Ass. vs. Factoran, Jr., GR No. 98332, Jan. 16, 1995 Republic vs. Rosemoor, GR No. 149927, March 30, 2004 La Bugal BLaan Tribal Ass. Vs. DENR (recon), GR No. 127882, Jan. 27, 2004 PGI vs. NAPOCOR, GR No. 144302, May 27, 2004 C. Land of the Public Domain (Sec. 3) a. Classification Cases: Director of Lands vs. Judge Aquino, GR No. 31688, Dec. 17, 1990 Republic vs. CA, 160 SCRA 228 (1988) b. Disposition and exploitation of agricultural lands of public domain c. Right of corporation to acquire land Cases: Director of Lands vs. ICA, 146 SCRA 509 (1986) Ten Forty Realty vs. Lorenzana, GR No. 151212, Sep. 10, 2003 d. Acquisition by private individuals D. Forest lands and national parks (Sec. 4) a. Safeguards E. Rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities (Sec. 5) a. Ancestral lands Cases: Cruz and Europa vs. Secretary of the DENR, GR No. 135385, Dec. 6, 2000 F. Social character of property (Sec. 6) a. Free Private Enterprise

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G. Capacity to acquire private lands (Sec. 7) a. Condition H. Former Filipinos (Sec. 8) a. Private lands b. Aliens and private lands Cases: Ramirez vs. Vda. De Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704, (1982) Republic vs. CA, GR No. 108998, Aug. 24, 1994 c. Recovery of invalidly sold private land Cases: Halili vs. CA, GR No. 113539, Mar 12, 1998 Frenzel vs. Catito, GR No. 143958, Jul 11, 2003 d. Right of former Filipinos I. Economic Planning Agency (Sec. 9) a. Role of NEDA (National Economic Development Authority) J. Filipinization of investments (Sec. 10) a. Foreign investments Cases: Garcia vs. Board of Investments, GR No. 92024, Nov. 9, 1990 b. Nationalism Cases: Manila Prince vs. GSIS, GR No. 122156, Feb. 3, 1997 Taada, et. al. vs. Angara, GR No. 118295, May 2, 2997 K. Franchises (Sec . 11) a. Public Utilities b. Limitations Cases: Albano vs. Reyes, 175 SCRA 264 (1989) Tatad vs. Garcia, Jr., GR No. 114222, Apr. 6, 1995 Iloilo Ice and Storage vs. Public Utility Board, Gr No. 19857, Mar 2, 1923 Associated Communications vs. NTC, GR No. 144109, Feb. 17, 2003 JG Summit Holdings., Inc. vs. CA, GR No. 124293, Sep. 24, 2003 L. Preferential Use of Filipino labor and materials: The Filipino First Policy (Sec. 12) M. Trade Policy (Sec 13) N. Practice of professions (Sec. 14) O. Cooperatives (Sec. 15) P. Formation of Corporations (Sec. 15) a. Formation of private corporations Cases: National Dev. Co. and New Agrix, Inc. vs. Phil. Veterans Bank,

GR Nos. 84132-33, Dec. 10, 1990 Q. Emergency Takeovers (Sec. 17) R. Expropriation of public utilities (Sec. 18) a. Telephone interconnections Cases: Republic vs. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 (1969) PLDT vs. NTC and Cellcom, Inc., GR No. 88404, Oct. 18, 1990 b. The NTC Interconnection Order Cases: Agan, Jr. et. al. vs. PIATCO, GR No. 155001, Jan. 21, 2004 S. Monopolies (Sec. 19) Cases: Eastern Assurance vs. LTFRB, GR No. 149717, Oct. 7, 2003 T. Central Monetary Authority (Sec. 20) a. The Central Bank of the Philippines U. Foreign Loans (Sec. 21) a. Restrictions on contracting of foreign loans V. Circumventions (Sec. 22) XII. General Provisions (Article XVI) A. The Philippine Flag (Sec. 1) B. Name of anthem and seal (Sec. 2) C. State Immunity from Suit without its consent (Sec. 3) D. The Armed Forces (Sec. 4) E. Oath of Affirmation of Armed Forces (Sec. 5) F. The National Police (Sec. 6) Cases: Quiloa vs. The General Court Martial, GR No. 9660, Mar 4, 1992 Carpio vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 96409, Feb. 14, 1992 D. War Veterans (Sec. 7) E. Retirees (Sec. 8) F. Consumer protection (Sec. 9) G. Communication structures (Sec. 10) H. Ownership of mass media and advertising agencies (Sec. 11) I. Indigenous Cultural Communities (Sec. 12)

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XIII. Amendments or Revisions (Article XVII) A. Amendment or revision (Sec. 1) B. Amendment by initiative a. Requirements for peoples initiative Cases: Santiago vs. COMELEC, GR No. 127325, Mar 19, 2997 Lambino vs. COMELEC, GR No. 174153, Oct 25, 2006 C. Constitutional Convention (Sec. 3) a. Amendment, Revision b. Proposal of amendments Cases: Tolentino vs. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (1971) Del Rosario vs. COMELEC, 36 SCRA 367 (1970) Imbong vs. COMELEC, 35 SCRA 28 (1970) Tolentino vs. COMELEC, L-34150, Nov. 4, 1971, (Recon) D. Ratification (Sec. 4) Cases: Planas vs. COMELEC, 40 SCRA 105 (1973) Javellana vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 36142, Mar 31, 1973 Mitra, Jr. vs. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 59, Apr. 4, 1981