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Propertiesoffusionwelds

VIJAYANMG

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Weldingvcasting
Weldmustadheretomouldwall Heatisaddedcontinuallytowelds
q

Weldssolidifymuchfasterthancastings Inwelds,thesurfaceshapeisconstant Thereisstrongmixingofweldpools

Hightemperaturegradient

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Fusionweldstructure
Fusionline Weldpreparation Base metal Weldmetal

HAZ

HAZ

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ThermalgradientsinHAZ
Temperature Fusionline Fusionline+2mm Fusionline+5mm

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HAZstructure
Highpeaktemperature Hightemperaturegradient
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SuperimposedHAZsinmultipasswelds Weldingstressesaffecttransformation

Variablecoolingrate

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Multipassfusionweld

Lastweldrun Previousweldrun

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Weldproperties
Weldmetalhasdifferentcomposition& thermalhistorytobasemetal Weldingheatmodifiesadjacentbasemetal (HAZ) Variationinstrength,ductility&corrosion resistanceacrosswelds

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Weldingprocedure
Selectionofprocessconditions& consumablesforaweld Designedtomatchbasematerialproperties ascloselyaspossible&avoidwelddefects Needstoconsiderserviceconditionsofthe weld

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Definitionofweldability
Thecapacityofamaterialtobewelded undertheimposedfabricationconditions intoaspecific,suitablydesignedstructure& toperformsatisfactorilyinintendedservice.
(ANSI/AWSA3.0)

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Factorsaffectingweldability
Weldabilityisoftenconsideredtobea materialproperty,howevertheeffectofother variablesshouldnotbeignored. Designofweldment Itsserviceconditions Choiceofweldingprocess

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Materialproperties
Melting&vaporisationtemperatures Electrical&thermalproperties
q

AffinityofweldmetalforO,N&H
q

Conductivity,expansioncoefficient,thermal capacity,latentheat Susceptibilitytoporosity,embrittlementorwetting problems Oxide,paintormetallicsurfacecoating

Presenceofasurfacefilmonbasemetal
q

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Serviceenvironment
Extremeenvironments
q q q q

Themoreextremetheenvironment
q q

Corrosive Lowtemperature(brittlefailure) Hightemperature(oxidation,creep,embrittlement) Others(wear,fatigue,nuclear) Themoredifficultitistofindsuitablematerials Themorerestrictedtheweldingprocedurebecomesto avoidservicefailure

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WeldingDefects
Cracks
q

Porosity
q

InweldmetalorHAZ Gasbubblesentrappedinweldmetal

Incompletefusion(interrunoratpreparationedge) Inclusions
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Defectiveprofile
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Slagorothermatterentrappedinweld

Underweld,overweld,lackofpenetration,overlap, undercut
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Causesofwelddefects
Poordesignofweldment
q

Mistakesbywelder
q q q

Lackofaccesstomakeweld Lackofskill Poorplacementofweldmetal Inadequatecleaning

Poorweldingprocedure

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Welddefects

Slag inclusion

Wormhole porosity Incomplete fusion

Overlap

Solidificationcracking
Contractionstrains causeruptureofthe weldatthepointwhere thelastmaterial solidifies.
q q

Solidificationrange Weldpoolsize&shape

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Residualstress&distortion
Unevenheatingleadstoconstrainedthermal expansion Atcompletionoftheweldthermalcyclethe weldmenteitherdistortsorifrestrainedwill containresidualstress Residualstressfieldsarecomplex,but stressesashighasyieldoftenoccur Stressesmayneedtoberemovedbyastress reliefheattreatment
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Residualstressinabuttweld
sy X sx X
Compression y 0

sx
Tension

Tension

X
Compression

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Welddetailing

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Weldpositionsplate

Flat (1G)

Horizontal (2G)

Vertical (3G) UporDown

Overhead (4G)
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Weldingpositionspipe

Axisvertical 2G

Axishorizontal 5G

Axisinclined45 6G

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Welddetails
JointsArrangementsofmembersbeing joined
q

WeldsGeometryofwelddetailselectedto makethejoint
q

Butt,tee,lap,corner,flare

Butt,fillet,plug&slot

Jointtypes

Butt

Tee

Edge Lap Corner


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Weldtypes
Buttweld
q q q

Filletweld
q q

Betweenmatingmembers Bestquality Highweldpreparationcost Easypreparation Asymmetricloads,lowerdesignloads Modifiedfilletweldsinlapjoints,using holesthroughonemember


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Plug&slotwelds
q

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Filletwelds
Simple&cheaptoassemble&weld Stressconcentrationsattoes&root Notchatroot(fatigue,toughness) Criticaldimensionisthroatthickness Rootgapaffectsthroatthickness Radiography&ultrasonictestingisof limiteduse Largefilletsusealotofweldmetal& thereforeareuneconomic

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Filletweldterms
Toe Weldface

Root

Toe Gap

Throat thickness

Apparentleglength

Buttwelds
Types:
q q q

Lowerstressconcentration Easierultrasonictestingorradiography Expensivepreparation


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Doubleweldedbutt Permanentortemporarybacking Singleweldedbutt

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Buttweldtypes

Singlevee canbesingle ordoublewelded

Singlebevel

Doublevee

Backedbutt(permanentortemporary)

Buttweldterms
Fusionface Includedangle Bevelangle

Reinforcement Rootface Root gap Toe Toe

Rootrun

Weldpreparationdimensions
Compromise
q

Weldcrosssectionalarea

Standardpreparations
q

Cost Easeofwelding(riskofdefects)

Fabricatorsrisk

AS1554,AWSD1.1,ANSIB31.3

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Singleweldedbuttjoints
Accesstoonesideonly
q

Rootrunformsinsidesurface Highfituptolerancesrequired Highskillrequired


q

Pipe&hollowsectionbuttjoints

Rootmaybecontaminated Insideisdifficulttoinspect

Specialwelderqualification

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J&UPreparations
Upreparation

Rootradius Land

DoubleUbutt Qualmet Services


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AS1101.2drawingsymbols
OTHERSIDE Tail ARROWSIDE Referenceline Arrowpointstoweld location

Weldtypesymbol

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TypicalAS1101.2symbols
6 6mm CJP

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