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Part 2: Midterm Period:

Philippine History with Politics, Governance, and Constitution

HANDBOOK OBJECTIVES: 1.1.5 The Transitional Society: The American Period (1898-1946) 1.1.6 The Philippines as Independent State 1.1.7 The State as a Political Organization 1.1.8 Government 1.1.9 Constitution

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Chapter 2: Philippine History with Politics, Governance, and Constitution 1.1.5 The Transitional Society: The American Period (1898-1946) Introduction After a long history of underdevelopment, oppression and injustice under Spain, the Filipinos chance to decide for their own future and to rule their own country seemed to be at hand. But after the end of Spanish rule in the Philippines, the excitement felt by the Filipinos was quashed as the Americans did not support the independence long awaited by the Filipinos, and instead seized the opportunity to grab the island as part of its expansionist idea to rule the Asia pacific region. The vulnerability of the Philippines to invasion of any foreign country is also a deciding point for the American government to commit to rule the country and the belief that Spain did not train the Filipinos to run their own state of affairs; the United States government decided to keep the island for their political and economic interests. The Filipinos believed that the United States alliance with them in the battle against Spain was the start of a formidable partnership and friendship that was built on the same common struggle; however that belief was crushed when the American government decided to stay in the country even after the defeat of Spain. The Treaty of Paris signaled the start of another colonial society under a different colonial power. Though at first, the US government did not reveal the real intention of their continued presence, it was after the proclamation of Benevolent Assimilation that the Americans wanted to reform the Philippine society. The Americans introduced an entirely new transitional society that was patterned to that of their own. Though at first the reformation was resisted, the Americans were successful in introducing a new status quo, and Filipinos learned to embrace the new set up. Though the relationship between two countries was marked with betrayal and one sided interest, it was evident that the United States vision of benevolent assimilation was forever embedded on the Filipino way of life. Today, we still see the legacy of the Americans in the political, social and economic aspects. This part of the module will examine the political, economic and social transition of Philippine society under the US rule and the transition to independence.

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Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:

1. Identify the events that led to the assimilation of the Philippines of the United States of America. 2. Illustrate the implications on the social, political and economic aspects on the Filipinos the type of government implemented by the US in the Philippines. 3. Compare and contrast the governments imposed by Spain and the US in terms of its social, political and economic implications on the Philippines. 4. Formulate a description of the political, economic and social state of the Philippines under the rule of the US. Events That Led the US to Declare War against Spain

The United States was sympathetic to the cause of Cuba which at that time was under Spain The publication of a stolen letter from Spains ambassador to the United States to a friend in Havana Cuba, the letter said that US President William McKinley was a weakling and a low politician The sinking of an American war ship, the USS Maine docked in Havana Cuba, American public accused Spain of blowing up the ship on purpose Did America Enter into War between Spain and the Philippines Without the Knowledge of the Filipinos?

Agents of the United States government approached Aguinaldo in Hong Kong and informed him of the impending war against Spain and the United States and advised him to seize the opportunity to lead the Filipinos again against Spain.

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Why Did America Participate in the War between Spain and the Philippines?

The entry of America in the war between Spain and the Philippines was the consequence of the war in Cuba, whom the United States had supported. The entry of the United States in the war between Spain and the Philippines was formalized when Commodore George Dewey sailed to the Philippines and bombed the Spanish fleet in Manila; with that the entry of America was formalized though the intention was not yet evident.

The proclamation that set clear the intention of the US government in the Philippines

United States President William McKinley proclaimed the intention of his government to stay in the Philippines and exercise sovereignty over the Filipinos through his issuance of the so called Benevolent Assimilation.

Why Did the US Decide to Stay in the Philippines?

The fear that other countries might subject the Philippines for colonization America believed that Filipinos were incapable of self-government Military expansion Commercial expansion and development Vital for Territorial defense To establish control in the Asia Pacific Region The strategic location of the Philippines is a natural stepping stone to the vast markets of China

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Stuart Creighton Miller States: American altruistically went to war with Spain to liberate the Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and the Filipinos from their tyrannical yoke. If they lingered on too long in the Phil. It was to protect the Filipinos from European predators waiting in the wings for an American withdrawal and to tutor them in American-style democracy.

What Influenced America to Extend Its Political Dominion and Hegemony in Other Parts of the World?

1. The Concept of Manifest Destiny The destiny of the white race to rule the world America should assume the role as a world power Assume the role as a mentor and liberator of oppressed people 2. The Monroe Doctrine Direct warning of the US to European powers Western Hemisphere should be free from the domination of European powers Independent nations should not be subjected for further colonization The Roosevelt Corollary Justification of the US for intervention The US as a civilized nation has the right to intervene if there is chronic wrongdoing on the part of other countries The Malolos Republic under America After the collapse of Spains rule in the Philippines, Aguinaldo declared the Malolos republic, believing that American government would support in paper the declaration of independence, however the anticipation of support from the US did not materialize as Spain and the United States did not even recognize the independence declared by Aguinaldo and his men, instead Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States, and that was the beginning of American control in the archipelago.
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Important Events that took Place after the Defeat of Spain

Aguinaldo declared a dictatorial government Proclaimed the independence of the Philippines from Spain and the establishment of Philippine sovereignty under the protection of the US The Philippines was ceded to the US The Americans set up a military government Aguinaldo called his cabinet to draft a constitution Aguinaldos first decree: to free all Spanish civilians Another decree: giving Spaniards and foreigners the right to conduct business in the Philippines American authorities allowed Aguinaldo to form a cabinet and draft a constitution President McKinley Formed the First Philippine Commission To spread the message of the United States good intentions towards the Philippines To conduct research on the state of the Philippines To advise the US president on the proper form of government to be established The Philippine-American War

The Filipinos fought a war against the United States whom they thought were sympathetic to the cause of the Filipino people and a war that from the beginning was believed to be won by the US because of the sophisticated weapons as against the ill equipped Filipino soldiers. Though it was believed to be a war between two nations joined through common struggle against Spain, the interests of one nation prevailed over the other, nevertheless, the Filipinos engaged the Americans in a fight that was long remembered in Philippine history; a battle that signified the tenacity of the Filipinos to fight for freedom and independence and a repercussion of a war that formally legalized the United States control in the archipelago.

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Reasons Why the Filipinos Waged a War against the US

The betrayal of the Americans Fear of another colonial power Shooting incidence between an American soldier and Filipino soldier The proclamation of Benevolent Assimilation

The war between the US and the Philippines was marred with controversy not only because of the casualties on the side of the Filipinos but the manner to which the war was executed and the way the American government handled the situation. Some reports that the war was initiated by the US in order for the Treaty of Paris to be accepted by those who were skeptical to accept Americas commitment to stay in the Philippines; the war was a turning point for some American officials to accept the colonization of the Philippines. Aguinaldo on his part did everything to avert the war by asking a joint conference to be attended by American officials and Filipino representatives, however that effort went to naught when American soldiers shot dead Filipino soldiers. The incident marked the beginning of another painful experience in the Philippine colonial history.

The War

The Philippine-American war would cost far more money and took lives more than the Spanish-American war Famine and disease had resulted to more deaths Civilian casualties were severe Children and women were killed Filipino soldiers engaged American soldiers in guerrilla fight Prominent revolutionary leaders were captured Aguinaldo called on the Filipino soldiers to surrender

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The Philippines under American Sovereignty

The defeat of the Filipinos against the Americans was the beginning of total American control in the archipelago. Though sporadic fights were still felt in some areas, the US forces had enormous control of the island including the islands which had not been controlled by the Spaniards. The American government established in the Philippines a set-up that is entirely new to human history, as they attempted to rule the island with the idea of benevolent assimilation, the imposition of a republican state where leaders are selected on the basis of election with definite term of office and to which people where considered supreme over their leaders. The US in establishing sovereignty in the Philippines did not impose a strict colonial rule but tutelage in self-government or guardianship; a protection of a mentor for an eventual self-rule.

Government Imposed by the US The US imposed two types of government in the Philippines, the first one was to curb the insurgency that threatened the American forces after the war and the second was the training for a transition to political independence. The military government headed by military governor Arthur MacArthur Jr. This government was established while the US was engaged in war against the Philippines and right after the defeat of the Filipinos. The Civilian government where the governor general acted as head of the Philippine Commission. The commission passed laws to set-up the fundamentals of the new government. Philippine Political Institutions under American Ruled Society The US government initiated new political institutions that will set up the fundamentals of the new government and will cater the needs of the population. In contrast to Spains absolute control of the entire government and total disregard for not allowing the Filipinos to participate, the US equally shared to the Filipinos the chance to experience ruling their own country, though the role is minimal at first, their involvement in executive, legislative and judicial departments served as a training ground for eventual political independence.
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First Philippine Commission Appointed by the president of the US Exercises legislative and limited executive powers Acted as the upper house of a bicameral legislature Created to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations

Recommendations of the First Philippine Commission Acknowledged the Filipinos aspirations for independence Filipinos Were Incapable For Self-Rule Immediate establishment of civilian government Establishment of a bicameral legislature Autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels Creation of public elementary schools Second Philippine Commission Granted legislative but limited executive power Judicial system was established including the Supreme Court and a legal code was drawn up

Established the Civil Service Commission Created the Philippine Organic Act of July 1902, thus creating the Insular Government of the Philippines Created the Philippine Assembly The formation of the Philippine Assembly The first legislative body in Asia The lower house of the legislative branch Shared legislative power with the Philippine Commission

Members were elected from single member districts The Philippine Legislature (Created under the Jones Law) Philippine Commission was abolished Replaced by the Philippine Legislature The Senate and House of Representatives was established
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The Creation of the Political Party System

The Americans patterned every political institution in the Philippines to that of their own. The idea of political party system was adopted by the US government in the beginning of the creation of the Philippine legislature. The political party was formed for the candidates to channel their respective platforms and objectives for the country; and it served as the breeding ground of the elites and politicians to venture in the political arena.

Two Political Parties in the Philippines

The Federal or Federalista Party backed by the US, the party stressed cooperation with the colonial power, thus it lost appeal to the Filipino people. it was later renamed the Nationalista Progressive Party. The Nationalista Party- the party advocated independence from the United States but its leaders collaborated with the US as well. It dominated Philippine politics until independence. Osmea and Quezon were members of the Nationalista party. Today, our political party system has evolved into multiple party systems as defined in the 1987 constitution. But the purpose to which the Americans conceptualized the two party systems has changed as politicians changed from one party to another, thus questioning the loyalty to the party and the idea to which the party was founded. Philippine Socio-Economic State under the Americans The US was the main economic partner, economy was heavily dependent on the United States Philippine trade rose dramatically Health care system was established Educational system was also established, the Thomasites were the first American educators in the Philippines, and English was the national language Literacy rate doubled in just thirty decades of rule Half of the population could speak English
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Roads, irrigation works and communication system were built Electoral system was introduced Redistribution of the land properties Reestablishment of the catholic church Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops

Nationalistic State of the Filipinos under American Rule

Nationalistic sentiments were high in the beginning of the American rule particularly at the height of Philippine-American war, but as the outcome of the war was clear, support of civilians to those who wanted to continue the fight waned. The capture of Aguinaldo was the end of hope for the Filipinos as he announced his willingness to support American rule and convinced the soldiers to surrender and accept the sovereignty of the United States. Though there were Filipino commanders to continue the armed struggle, the arrest of many leaders critical to the rule of the US had ended the conflict. Thus, submission and collaboration of people particularly the elites who sided with the Americans from the beginning had started.

Illustrados sided with the US, they were used to substantiate the claim of the US that Filipinos accepted American rule Illustrados acted as intermediaries between the colonial power and the people The elites who supported Spain were quick to support the Americans Prominent people who occupied positions in the Spanish regime also occupied position under Aguinaldo and under American regime Educated Filipinos like Arellano, Tavera and Legarda belittled the capability of the Filipino for independent government Support of the masses for political independence was reflected in the election of pro-independence political party

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The Co-Optation of Philippine Nationalism

If Spain used force and religion to mold the Filipinos into the Hispanic image, the US used tutelage for self-government to co-opt the people who were not willing to participate. In addition, the proclamation of Benevolent Assimilation was another idea to integrate the people into the American culture, and then implementation of political institutions; allowing the colonial power to create an avenue where Filipino elites could maneuver position themselves in the political arena so they could lessen the support for resistance to American rule. The use of force Establishment of political institutions where Filipino elites could participate The use of the illustrados as intermediaries between the colonial government and the people The establishment of electoral system The promise of political independence The passage of friendly acts to allow political transition The use of democratic ideals The creation of educational system The compulsory use of English as the national language The building of roads, irrigation works and communication system Resistance to American colonial rule From the onset of American colonization in the Philippines, Filipinos had raised the flag of resistance to another colonial power. The avenue of despising the US was clearly seen in the American-Filipino war. The defeat suffered by the Filipinos did not end their aspirations to have ruled their own country, as insurgents continued to threaten the hold of the US. Many collaborators were executed by members of the resistance There were constant uprising in towns and villages with the support of the populace The continued support for independence The rally of some Filipino politicians for independent rule The rejection of some acts stipulated by the US
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The independence mission to the United States American Legislative Measures in the Philippines for Political Independence The American governments concept of tutelage for self-government in the Philippines was reflected in the legislative acts passed by the Unites States Congress. These legislative measures set the path for the Philippines political transition into an independent state. The US governments commitment to mentor the Filipinos in the field of governance and the ideals of republicanism was clearly evident in the political institutions they have established and to which the Filipinos have dominated.

1. The Jones Law also known as the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 The Philippine Legislature was created under the Jones Law creating a 24member senate wholly elected; the law also abolished the Philippine Commission. The Jones Law would have set the date of Philippine independence but the US House of Representatives prevented such a move.

2. The Hare-Hawes Cutting Act The law passed by the US congress to decolonize the Philippines, the act was voted by US President Herbert Hoover however the veto was overrode by US Congress. The law promised the independence of the colony within ten years but stipulated the reservation of the United States naval bases and the imposition of tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports; the US at the time was hit by the Great Depression. Also included was that the law should be ratified by the Philippine Senate. The law was rejected by the Philippine Senate as Quezon urged the Senate not to ratify it. 3. The Tydings-McDuffie Act or the Philippines Independence Act The act provided self-government and independence under a ten-year transition period which became known as the Commonwealth of the Philippines and allowed the drafting of the constitution.

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The Commonwealth of the Philippines

The commonwealth period was the result of a series of missions and dedication of the Filipinos to create a state and government of their own. The commonwealth was the actualization and realization of our capability for self-government and to have control of our internal sovereignty.

Political Conditions set by the US under the Commonwealth

The US will retain jurisdiction over defense and foreign affairs Filipino were to draft their own constitution subject to the approval of the US President Election of Philippine president and vice president Transition of the Philippines from plural the Philippine island to the singular Philippines Japanese Occupation of the Philippines

The independence that has sought for by the Filipinos was disrupted by the sudden attack and eventual occupation of the Philippines by Japan. The newly built government was not prepared for military defense neither did the US was prepared for the attack. As the United States scrambled to defend the colony, the Filipinos cooperated with the US in trying to avert a potential set back to their newly found independence, however the efforts of the combined allied forces did not deter the Japanese imperial army from occupying the Philippines. The Filipinos watch in horror as their newly found government crumbled and see another horrifying years of painful experience.

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Repercussions of the Attack on the US and the Philippines

The destruction of pearl harbor Japan launched a series of attacks to US military installations in the Philippines General MacArthur retreated his troops to Bataan The Commonwealth government retreated to Corregidor and later to the US Commonwealth government in exile Manila declared an open city General MacArthur was recalled US forces surrendered The Bataan Death March Commonwealth government was disrupted The Philippines under Japan

After the defeat of the combined Filipino and US forces, Japan imposed martial law in the Philippines and established the Japanese Military Administration. The newly formed commonwealth republic was in exile, Quezon instructed the remaining Philippine officials in the Philippines to cooperate with Japanese to spare the people and country from further destruction. The existing bureaucratic set-up of the Philippine government was maintained by Japan but served the interests of the Japanese imperial army.

The structure of Philippine government under Japan

The Philippine Executive Commission The formation of a political party, the KALIBAPI or Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas The creation of the Second Republic Problems faced the Filipino people and the occupiers
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Severe Lack of Food and Prime Commodities Disrupted the farming cycle Japanese policy of self-sustenance Transportation and communication were difficult The importation of oil and other products ceased Guerrilla raids made it difficult for the Japanese to reconstruct roads and maintain transportation routes Men, women and children were forced to render labor under the promises of food and wages Economic Woes of the Filipinos and the Japanese

Rice imported from Taiwan did not produce well Filipinos did not accept Japanese issued military bank notes The bills had no value, Filipinos resorted to bartering and crime rose Reaction to the Japanese rule

The Existence of Guerrilla Groups Civilians were supportive of the guerrilla groups, they gave them food and other supplies The Rise of the HUKBALAHAP People provided information to the guerrillas

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Philippine Liberation

Japanese occupation in the Philippines was marred with atrocities and inhuman acts, thus for almost three years, the Filipinos only hope to freedom was the help that would be extended by the Americans as promised by General Douglas MacArthur. Though the US government was fighting another war in Europe, General MacArthur argued the cause of the Philippines to then US President Roosevelt as the latter wanted Manchuria to be liberated first.

The liberation was not easy for the Americans. Japanese soldiers staged a valiant defense in order to drive away the Americans but MacArthurs men were fully prepared to liberate the country with the help of the Filipino soldiers, thus on July 5, 1945, General MacArthur announced the liberation of the Philippines. The commonwealth government was restored in Leyte and later in Manila.

The Aftermath of the War

The Japanese did not declare Manila an open city the way the Americans had done in 1942, thus Manila was extensively damaged and many people were killed. The destruction prompted the US President to announce that Manila was second to Warsaw in Poland in terms of destruction. Many historical documents and artifacts were lost. 1.1.7 The Philippine Independent State The commonwealth government designed by the US government to prepare the Philippines for political independence was disrupted by the Japanese occupation, however, the commitment of the Americans to honor the agreement and the tenacity of the Filipinos to gain control of Philippine sovereignty was instrumental in the continuation of the process and the eventual independence of the Philippines from the US.

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The independence gave the Filipinos control of the internal sovereignty of the country and a status of a state in the international community. However, the destruction suffered during the war had added to the problems faced by the people and the leaders. In rebuilding the country and rehabilitating the economy, Filipino leaders banked on the support of the American government in order to keep the economy going.

The relationship of the United States and the Philippines did not end after the granting of independence. The Filipinos continued to rely on the support of the American government particularly in the economic aspect. If American and Britain had a very special relationship according to former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the Philippines and America had built a relationship based on political, economic and even military interests. Though the relationship is one sided, America proved to be a good ally and friend. Thus, even after the independence, American influence is still dominant in the political, social and economic aspects.

Total autonomy from the US gave the Filipinos a chance to practice the ideals of democracy and understanding of the real concept of a state, government and nation. This module will discuss the state of the Philippines as a free nation, its political and economic structure, the issue of collaboration and the challenges faced as an independent republic. Objectives: Examine the Neo-Colonial Relations of the Philippines and The US. 1. Relate the policies and actions taken by the presidents of the Philippines to the present condition of the country. 2. Justify how the colonial experience of the Philippines affects the policies initiated by the political leaders. 3. Relate how the experience of martial law re-engineered the Philippine institutions. 4. The restoration of the commonwealth government

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The death of President Quezon paved the way for Vice-president Osmea to succeed the presidency. His presence together with General Douglas MacArthur signaled the return of the commonwealth government-in exile. General MacArthur acknowledged the succession of Osmea in a turned over ceremony of liberated area in Tacloban.

The full restoration came into effect in February 27, 1945. Though the restoration signaled the beginning of a new era of political autonomy, the war severely damaged the economy of the country, there were no resources to left to start with, the country was in ruin, and the tasked of rebuilding the country was left to the president. Osmea made several trips to the United States to rally the cause of the Philippines. He convened the commonwealth congress, the Congress elected Roxas as Senate president.

The Inauguration of the Third Republic

The commonwealth government headed by President Osmea was due to end as the term of office of the President and Congressmen were due to expire. One year after the commonwealth was restored; the fate of president Osmea and other elected leaders in the commonwealth era would be decided again by the people in the scheduled April 27, 1946 elections. Roxas decided to run against Osmea and overwhelmingly defeated the incumbent. He became the third president of the commonwealth. The victory of Roxas was also the end of American sovereignty in the Philippines. The US withdrew its total control of the island and recognized the finally recognized the independence of the Philippines; the withdrawal was complete when the representative of the then US President Harry Truman read the proclamation of independence at the oath taking ceremony of President Manuel Roxas.

Issues and Problems Faced by the Roxas Administration Rehabilitation of the economy and the rebuilding of the country The issue of collaboration
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The HUKBALAP Movement Filipino-American neo-colonial relations Programs created to rehabilitate the economy and rebuild the country Creation of RFC or Rehabilitation Finance Program provided capital funds for stimulation and recovery of the economy Establishment of the Central Bank of the Philippines The National Power Corporation Industries were heavily regulated by the government The policy of protectionism was adopted by the government Steps Taken to Address the Collaboration Issue

Peoples Court was created The decision of the Supreme Court that positions held by the collaborators were not tantamount to treason Roxas gave the collaborators amnesty Amnesty resolved the issue of collaboration Steps Taken By the Government to Counter the Insurgency Waged By The HUKS

Granted amnesty by Roxas but reversed the decision Harsh suppression through military campaigns Filipino-American neo-colonial relations

The destruction and devastation suffered by the country and the problem of rehabilitation and reconstruction shaped the continued relations of the U.S. and the Philippines. The two governments entered into several agreements or treaties that continued the dominance and influence of America in the political and economic aspects of the country. These agreements were designed to keep the country wholly dependent on the US and for the Philippines to be a continued ward of the US.

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Neo-Colonial Agreements, Treaties and Programs

The Philippine Rehabilitation Act passed by the US Congress to compensate institutions and individuals for any damages suffered during the war. Under the act, the Philippine War Damage Commission was formed. The Philippine Trade Act of 1946 also known as The Bell Trade Act allowing reciprocal trade between the two countries until June 3, 1954. Under this act, the Parity Amendment was included. The Signing of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement an agreement which gave the US control of strategic places in the country for military use. The Quirino Administration

Issues, Programs and Developments During His Term

His term was marred with controversy of graft and corruption Rebuilding the country, stabilization of the agricultural and industrial sectors Expanded the irrigation system Roads were improved and built Set up the Central Bank and rural banking Signed the Magna Carta of Labor and the Minimum Wage Law Stabilized the currency and balanced the national budget through new tax laws RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty was approved on August 30, 1951 The Magsaysay Administration

The Legacy of Magsaysay Administration


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Positive nationalism the use of native attire for formal or informal affairs Promoted historical research Filipinization laws were passed by Congress the limit of the practice of profession to Filipino citizens Retail Trade Nationalization Law no alien was allowed to engage in retail trade Agricultural Tenancy Act was passed Health services in the rural areas was established Philippine sovereignty over American bases in the country was returned The Garcia Administration

Issues, Programs and Developments during His Term

Inherited a nearly bankrupt treasury Initiated the Filipino first policy First oil company owned by Filipino was established The use of dollar for importation of goods of Filipino entrepreneurs was controlled He revived the Philippine Culture through the arts The signing of the reparation agreement between Philippines and Japan

The Macapagal Administration

Issues, Programs and Developments During His Term

Controlled the sale of foreign exchange and stabilize the peso against the dollar
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The Philippine Veterans Bank and the Asian Development Bank were established Miracle rice was developed at the International Rice Institute in Los Baos, Laguna Construction of tenement houses for the masses was initiated Brokered a peace between the US and Cambodia and Federation of Malaysia and Indonesia Attempted to get Sabah by declaring the sovereignty of the Philippines over the territory The Marcos Administration

Issues, Programs and Developments During His Term

Marcos was regarded as a kleptocrat Marcos, his family and his associates were involved in a massive graft and corruption Violation of human rights The issue of electoral fraud Massive foreign borrowing that resulted in the huge amount of foreign debt Curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties Closed down Congress and other media establishments Instituted peoples assemblies for constitutional change without explaining to the people the objectives Jailed, killed or banished his political rivals or people critical to his rule Instituted constitutional authoritarianism Proclaimed Martial Law Promulgation of the 1973 constitution replacing the colonial constitution of 1935 Adopted a parliamentary form of government with executive and legislative powers vested on him Nepotism and despotism He built roads and health centers and schools He built more schools that all his predecessors combined He help founded the ASEAN
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He initiated the concept of New Society based on new social and political values The country experienced overproduction and oversupply of basic needs The country experienced self-sustenance He pioneered the construction of LRT The country reached a steady economic growth from 1970 to 1980 Tourism rose resulting in economic growth The Rationale of Martial Law

The threat of insurrection in the South and other violent incidents allegedly done by the Communist , the ineligibility of Marcos to run another term under the 1935 constitution and the dream of instituting a new society to replace the existing one that is influenced by colonialism were just some reasons of the imposition of Martial Law. Marcos saw the weakness of the 1935 constitution and the strength of powers of the president under the same constitution. He seized the opportunity of the conflict in Mindanao and the incidents that took place in other parts of the country to impose his constitutional authoritarianism.

Marcos Constitutional Authoritarianism

With the ratification of the revised constitution, Marcos no longer ruled by decree but on the basis of the powers granted to him under the 1973 constitution. The powers executed by Marcos were constitutionally mandated, thus the authoritarian rule that Marcos had imposed was constitutionally legal. His right to govern was no longer based on proclamation 1081 but on the provisions of the constitution which gave the president full authority.

Political Issues under Marcos Constitutional Authoritarianism

The fusion of executive and legislative powers under the president Elections were canceled
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Congress was abolished Marcos lifted Martial Law

Reports of human rights violation of the regime had drawn the attention of the international community, to erase the negative impression of the world against his rule, Marcos lifted Martial law, but retained the power to legislate and all proclamations issued were still in effect. With martial law lifted, travel restrictions were abolished; print and broadcast media were allowed to operate.

The People Power Revolution

The electoral fraud allegedly committed by President Marcos and his associates in the snap elections has inflamed the people who were tired of President Marcos regime. The canvassing of ballots done by the members of Batasan Pambasa declared Marcos the winner, while the opposition did not accept the result of the election, leaders of the opposition called on the people to unite against Marcos.

Events that Led to People Power Revolution

The electoral fraud allegedly committed by Marcos in the snap elections Militarys withdrawal of support to the president Civilian protest Americas withdrawal of support to the president

The Aquino Presidency


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After the collapse of the Marcos regime, the Filipino people were filled with hope in the Aquino administration. They expected political and economic stability and unity and cooperation within government agencies. The Filipinos believed that the Aquino government could offer something new to the Filipino people and could change the image of the Philippines in the international community particularly after the ratification of the new constitution. However, they were disappointed, the administration was viewed as weak and unstable; the president does not have a command of a strong leader. The Aquino presidency was challenged with military adventurism; it crippled the economy and return to political normalcy was impossible.

Issues, Programs and Developments Under The Aquino Administration

Military adventurism Corruption Bankrupt economy Political instability Energy crisis Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) Amnesty granted to military adventurist The ratification of the 1987 Constitution The end of US military bases in the country

The Ramos Administration

The Ramos administration inherited a weak and fractious government. Foreign investors financial confidence on Philippine economy were at its lowest, the country was plagued with many problems and was considered the sick man of Asia. Ramos
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government embarked on national reconciliation, he tried to unify the divisiveness that plagued the country for decades. His administration focused on getting back the separatist group into the negotiating table. He allowed the involvement of a Muslim country to act as mediator. During his term, the country experience social and political stability; the economy started to improve.

Issues, Programs and Developments under Ramos Administration

Bataan power plant PEA-AMARI deal Frequent travels abroad The attempted Charter Change Solved the energy crisis Construction of some infrastructure projects Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development (SPCPD) Signed an Amnesty Signed the Death Penalty Bill Rehabilitation of Smokey Mountain

The Estrada Administration

President Estrada election was the result of a high political and leadership confidence and trust of the masses on him. However, Estradas ineptness in handling the economy has affected his popularity. The inability of the Estrada
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administration to deliver the promise that catapulted him to the presidency and the allegations of cronyism and corruption has contributed to his downfall.

Issues, Programs and Developments under the Short Lived Estrada Administration

Cronyism Corruption Execution of the death penalty law Kidnap cases ballooned under his term Midnight cabinet The issue of the presidents work ethics

The Arroyo Administration

The political and economic turmoil that besieged the country under Estrada presidency was the reason of President Arroyos accession to the position. The Filipino people entrusted the presidency to Arroyo as the constitutions legal successor and believed that under her command, the executive branch tarnished by her predecessor will bring back confidence and trust of the people. However, her government was also tainted with allegation of corruption, bribery and electoral fraud. Issues, Programs and Developments under the Arroyo Administration ZTE deal Corruption involving her family Invoked executive privilege Electoral fraud Manila Mutiny Charter Change Midnight Appointment Preemptive Calibrated Response Proclamation 1959- Martial Law in Maguindanao

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Reelection to the House of Representatives Infrastructure projects Increase in GNP Increase in foreign investments

1.1.7 The State as a Political Organization Introduction

The Philippine state evolved in different various forms before it was granted sovereignty given only to a state. The granting of independence has signaled the beginning of the evolution of the country into a full member of the community of nations. As a state, the Philippines has internal and external sovereignty over its citizens, it has control over its borders and territorial domains; it has the power and authority to use force if her existence is threatened by other states. However, as a political organization, it must create its own set of laws significant to its development and well-being and its leaders must have a mandate of the people to govern.

The term state is sometimes use synonymously when referring to a nation and government. But these two are only under the authority of the state and are part of the elements of the state. A state has inherent powers that can be used to exercise it powers and authority, these inherent powers are important for the development and existence of the state. The citizens are governed under these powers.

As a political entity, the state has the right to use force to compel its subjects to respect and follow the laws; it can curtail the freedom and civil liberties of the people. The political ideology of the state is reflected on its government, laws, and foreign relations. This module will discuss the theory of the origin of the state, inherent powers and the meaning of nation, state and government.

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Objectives: At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:

Breakdown the ideas presented in the module. Point out the main points in the lesson. Present a summary of the lesson.

What is a State?

A state is a community of nations more or less numerous permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience and enjoying freedom from external control (De Leon, Hector).

Elements of a State

States are created based on the elements mentioned below. If these requirements are not followed or if there is a conflict or issue in one of the elements, the legitimacy of the state is always challenged. It is important that a state is recognized by the international community, because without recognition, its existence, authority and power are always in doubt. People refers to the group of people living within the state Territory it refers to the territorial domains over which the state exercises control or sovereignty Government it is an agency to which the political ideology of the state is expressed and carried out Sovereignty it is the power of the state to enforce the law over its subjects within its jurisdiction and demand obedience from them

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Two Types of Sovereignty

Internal Sovereignty the power of the state to command authority within its jurisdiction External Sovereignty the power and freedom of the state to carry out its activities without foreign domination or control Duties of the State

Peace and order and national security Political harmony or good laws Social justice Economic development Individual and collective development of people

Theories of the Origin of the State

Political Scientists have postulated many theories as to the origin of the creation of the state. Beginning from the history of ancient civilizations, the concept of a state has already been practiced. The following theories will give us an idea of the possibilities on how the origin of the state is created.

Divine Right Theory this theory postulates that the state is of divine creation and the ruler is ordained by God to govern the people Force Theory this theory embarks on the belief that some powerful group of people or great warriors imposed their will upon the weak Paternalistic Theory this theory attributes the concept of a state to the enlargement of the family Social Contract Theory rests on the idea that people voluntarily submitted themselves and their right to an organization for the purpose of establishing a society

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The Three Inherent Sowers of the State

A state is a very powerful entity. Even from the earliest history, the state commands supreme authority to enforce its will upon the people. These powers are inherent in nature and the foundation of its existence. No state can exist without these powers, because it through these powers that state derive its authority.

1. Eminent Domain the power of the state or of those to whom the power is delegated to take or expropriate private property for public use upon payment of just compensation Conditions for or Limitations of the Exercise of Eminent Domain

Existence of public use Payment of just compensation Observance of due process of law in the taking Police Power the power of the state to enact laws or regulations in relation to persons and property

2. Police Power the power of the state to enact laws or regulations in relation to persons and property Basis of Police Power

The welfare of the people is the supreme law So use your own so as not to injure anothers property Illustrations of Police Power Public health Public morals Public safety General welfare and convenience

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3. Power of Taxation the power of the state to impose charge or burden upon persons or property or property rights for the use and support of the government What is a Nation?

A nation is a group of people bound together by certain characteristics and shares the same history, ancestry, culture, and language.

Benedict Anderson asserted that nations were imagined communities it is imagined because even though people do not know each other or do not meet all the members, they share the same common history, culture, language and tradition that are practiced by every member. They have the same feelings of belongingness and talk the same events that were part of their history even though they were miles away from one another.

Government Defined

The government is an agency of the state to which its will and ideology is expressed. A state cannot exist without a government as it is one of the elements of the state. It is through the government that the states political ideology is reflected.

The Philippine State has adopted various forms of government. However, the provocative challenge to the Philippine governmental structure was adopted during the rule of Ferdinand Marcos, when he fused together the executive and legislative department.

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1.1.8 Government Introduction

One of the reasons why the Americans stayed in the Philippines was the belief that the Filipinos do not know how to govern themselves. Throughout our history, our concept of government has been influenced by colonial powers and after they left that influence has never been wavered. However, that influence has been changed when President Marcos imposed his constitutional authoritarianism; that was the time that we deviate from the American governmental structure. Marcos explored an experiment as to the best form of government that would suit the culture and history of the Filipinos.

Political Maturity of the country and its people are always measured through the strength and stability of the government they have. An unstable government represents immaturity. Our past and present governments are testaments of our inability to move to the cradle of political civilization. We have been mentored by one of the best governments in the world, and yet we have continued to struggle as a nation, government and state.

Rizal once said that people and government are correlated. The reason why we have stupid government it is because we have stupid people, stupid people do not form good government and good government does not stem from stupid people. Government and people are reflection of both.

Every government is founded on the political ideology of the people. If the government is not formed based on the ideals of the governed, that government will not last long. It is important that the subjects must consent to the morals of their government. This section of the module will discuss the purpose and necessity of government, forms of government and the government of the Philippines.

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Objectives: At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:

Identify the different types of government. Describe the different types of government experienced by the Filipinos under colonial powers. Compare and contrast the past governments of the Philippine to the present. What is Government?

A government is an apparatus to which a governing body functions and exercises authority. It is through government that the will of the state is reflected and enforced.

Purpose and Necessity of Government

Advancement of the Public Welfare it is the duty of the government to protect and safeguard the sanctity of life and property for the perpetuity of society. Consequence of Absence - without government, anarchy and chaos will prevail. Forms of Government

As to the number of persons exercising sovereign powers:

Monarchy authority is vested on one single person; the duration of the rule is indefinite and power is inherited
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Classification of Monarchy

Absolute Monarchy all powers are vested on the monarch without the participation of any other government agencies or departments Limited Monarchy- the power of the monarch is defined in the constitution Aristocracy or Oligarchy political power is exercised by few, privilege class Democracy - political power is exercised by the majority of people and decision-making is not only exercised by a single ruler but distributed to different branches of government

Classification of Democracy

Direct or Pure Democracy is a form of democracy where people are directly exercising sovereignty through citizens assembly Indirect or Republican Democracy a form of democracy where people elect their representatives to represent them in the execution and legislation of laws, these select body of people act on behalf of the people Political Actions of People Allowed In an Indirect Democracy

Initiative Referendum Recall As to the extent of power exercised by the central or national government

Unitary Government the power is vested on the national government Federal Government there is a power sharing between the two governments, the national and the local. Powers are defined in the constitution. In the US, the power is divided between the federal and the state government.
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As to the relationship between the executive and legislative branches of government:

Parliamentary Government the executive is also a member of the legislative branch, and the legislative has the power to terminate the tenure of office of the executive.

Presidential Government the independence of the three branches of government is constitutionally defined.

Other Forms of Government

Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law as prescribed by the constitution?

A government is considered constitutional or operating within the blanket of the constitution if it has four limitations: The legislature convenes as stipulated in the constitution and cannot be dissolved or dismissed by political parties other than itself Courts are appointed and independent from the influence of the legislative branch The power of the executive to appoint is shared with the legislative branch Only the legislature can make laws, but the veto power can be exercised by the executive Authoritarianism is a form of leadership where the leader has absolute control over his/her people. It imposes strict adherence to authority. Authoritarian regimes are strongly hierarchical.

Characteristics of Authoritarian Government


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Citizens are strictly subject to state authority Limited civil liberties Curtailment of freedom Strict adherence to hierarchy Limitation on the freedom of expression There is frequent use of force or military participation Opposition is not allowed

Forms of Authoritarian Government

Absolute monarchy Communist states are authoritarian Dictatorships are always authoritarian fascist nations are authoritarian Despotisms are authoritarian Theocracy is authoritarian

Liberalism the idea of liberalism supports the inculcation of individual freedom and less governmental control. Liberalism emphasizes equality of opportunity of all people and encourages freedom of expression. This idea wants a limit in the role of government when it comes to individual choice such as birth control or religion.

Principles that Liberals want the State to Adopt

Political Liberalism the idea that society exists for the benefit of every individual. Political liberalism does not adhere to the differences of race, sex and economic status instead embraces every one as equal. Cultural Liberalism liberals do not want the government o intrude into individual choice such as sex, religion or lifestyle.
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Economic Liberalism it advocates individual rights of property and freedom of contract. The Government of the Philippines in Transition

Government during the Spanish period

Colonial Government 1565-1821- indirectly governed by the King of Spain through Mexico 1821-1898- ruled directly from Spain through the Kings representative in the Philippines The Extent of Power of the Government

The Philippine Colonial Government under Spain is unitary. Its centralized in structure and national in scope which means that the central government does not delegate the powers and that the authority is concentrated on the national government. All laws are promulgated by the central government as well as the execution. Branches of government do not exist, and all the powers are vested on the governor-general.

Governments during the revolutionary Era

The Biak-na-Bato Republic The Dictatorial Government The Revolutionary Government The First Philippine Republic These governments were proclaimed under the leadership of Aguinaldo. However, these governments were never recognized by the international community
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nor did the United States and Spain. These governments had only existed in writing but have never been exercised full sovereignty that is common in all governments.

Governments during the American Regime

The Military government Proclaimed the day after the capture of Manila The existence of war gave the US legal basis to establish military government Civil government Inaugurated in Manila on July 4, 1901 Signaled the end of the war and the imposition of Benevolent Assimilation Signaled the neutralization of the natives Started the imposition of civil liberties Commonwealth government A ten-year transition period for political independence Partial autonomy granted to the Filipinos The three branches of government were under the control of the Filipinos Sovereignty still resides in the US government

Governments during the Japanese Occupation

The Japanese Military Administration Established one day after its occupation Composed of the Military imperial army with limited participation from the Filipinos The Philippine Executive Commission Composed of Filipinos organized by the military forces of occupation Exercised both the executive and legislative powers Subject to the commander of the Japanese forces The Japanese sponsored republic The same character as the Japanese executive commission Authority rests on the Japanese military
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The Provisional Government of 1986

The provisional government of 1986 was instituted not in accordance with the constitution. The circumstances surrounding the institution of the provisional government made it unfounded in the eyes of the law and the international community but it has the support of the majority of people, thus even though the democratic transition of power provided for under the constitution was not followed, the people accepted it as their true government.

Most governments were established under the existing laws of transition of power particularly in a democratic state, but there are instances where the established government is founded not in the procedure provided for by the constitution. These governments are viewed as de facto or not constituted under the law but has the general support of the populace. The provisional government of Cory Aquino is de facto, however, its status has changed when the international community recognized it, the government in practice became government in principle meaning it achieved the legal status of de jure. 1.1.9 Constitution Introduction

The constitution is regarded as the fundamental law of the land. It is in the constitution that the political ideology of the state is expressed as well as its form and the boundary that separates the state and the people. The constitution embodies the political and social ideals of the nation. It is also in the constitution that powers and authority of a political entity are defined.

The constitution serves as a contract between the state and the people; a document that binds the state and its subjects. It is where the power of the powerless is guaranteed and it also in the constitution that governments reach is limited.

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Objectives: At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:

Identify the importance, the form, content of the constitution and the manner of amending it. Compare and contrast the differences of the 1935, 1973 and 1987 constitution in terms of the power of the president Point out the strengths and weaknesses of each constitution Constitution Defined

A constitution is the fundamental law of the land. It refers to that body of rules and principles in accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised.

Nature and Purpose Of Constitution

Serves as the supreme fundamental law Establishes basic framework and underlying principles of government

Though the constitution is viewed as a document that guarantees the rights of the people, that guarantee can be twisted by some rulers or leaders. Every constitution has its own strengths and weaknesses; that is why it can be amended or revised; not only to serve the interests of the people but to adapt to the changing times. A constitution should not be dormant just like culture but it must be futuristic. It must answer future political, legal, and social issues.

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A constitution is not written to address present issues or situations but written to address potential problems that may arise in the context of the agreement between the state and the people and the ruler and the ruled. This module will discuss the nature and purpose of constitution, its different types, advantages and disadvantages and the constitutions of the Republic of the Philippines. Constitutional Law

A branch of public law which focuses on the study of the constitution, its nature, formation, amendment and interpretation. It also concerns on the principles that have derived from the interpretation and application done by the court particularly the Supreme Court.

Kinds of Constitution

How it is Created?

Conventional or Enacted one which is enacted by a constituent assembly or granted by a monarch to his/her subjects Cumulative or Evolved a product of the evolution of society and usually originates in the tradition, customs and judicial decisions

As to their form:

Written a type of constitution that is enacted by select body of people at a particular time and expressed in a codified format Unwritten a type of constitution that is a product of political evolution and mainly based on customs, traditions and judicial decisions

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Manner of Amendment

Rigid or Inelastic cannot be amended or revised except in the manner provided for in the constitution Flexible or Elastic can be amended or revised in the same way that ordinary laws are amended or repealed

Advantages and Disadvantages Of A Written Constitution

It is clear and definite It can be read just like an ordinary book It is accessible It cannot be amended or revised without the necessary requirements stipulated in the constitution Only exceptional procedures can amend or revise the constitution As to the contents Constitution of government Constitution of liberty Constitution of sovereignty

Constitution Distinguished from Statute


1. A legislation submitted to the people 2. States the framework of the law and the government 3. Intended not only to meet existing conditions but to address future conditions 4. Supreme fundamental law of the state

Constitution

A legislation from the peoples representative Provides the details of the subject of which it treats Intended to meet existing conditions Statutes and other laws must conform

Statute

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Authority to Interpret the Constitution

A private individual may interpret or ascertain the meaning particular provisions in the constitution Only those charged with official duties can give authoritative interpretation of the constitution Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

While nations in other parts of the world enjoy the protection of a constitution, the Philippines being a colony of Spain did not have the protection stipulated under the provisions of a constitution. Spain did not bother to extend the civil liberties enjoyed by her people to the people of the Philippines.

The Filipinos chance to define the framework of their government and outline the civil liberties of the people only started after the collapse of the rule of Spain in the Philippines.

The 1898 Constitution

A constitution promulgated under the watch of Aguinaldo A constitution patterned to that of Mexico, Cuba and other former colonies of Spain Created under the revolutionary government of Aguinaldo A constitution that outlines the branches of government but does not specifically invoke the principle of checks and balances Not ratified by the Filipino electorate The 1935 Constitution
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Drafted by the Filipino representatives Enacted by the US Congress Approved by the President of the US Created under a constitutional convention Ratified by the Filipino electorate The constitution did not contain the original ideas of the government Dominating influence was the US Constitution Amended three times Amendments

Establishing a bicameral legislature Allowing the reeligibility of the president and vice-president to seek second term in office Creating a separate Commission on Elections The insertion of the Parity Amendment

The 1973 Constitution

Proposed by the 1971 constitutional Convention Ratified by the Citizens Assemblies Promulgated under martial law Introduced a parliamentary style of government Unlimited reelection of the President The president holds tremendous power

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Amendments

Making the incumbent president the president and prime minister Given the president the power to legislate Permitting natural-born citizens who have lost their citizenship to be transferees of private land for use by them as residence Allowing the grant of lands of the public domain to qualified citizens Providing for urban land reform and social housing program

The 1987 Constitution

Dubbed as the freedom constitution Drafted by a constitutional commission appointed by the president Ratified by the Filipino people Limited the power of the president to impose martial law Consistent with the doctrine of separation of powers and the principle of checks and balances

The Difference between Amendment and Revision Amendment a change effected in some parts of the constitution without considering the whole document. Revision is a re-writing or substantial changing in the constitution

The Importance of Amendment or Revision

Mechanism for responding to changing conditions To address political, economic and social problems A safety valve against the use of force or revolution in order to change the constitution
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Methods that can be used to Amend or Revise the Constitution

By Congress as a constituent assembly upon a vote of of its members By a constitutional convention By the people directly through initiative upon petition of the required number (12 percent of the registered voters)

What is a Constitutional Convention?

A body assembled for the purpose of framing, revising or amending the constitution for the approval of the electorate.

Methods that can form a Constitutional Convention Congress by 2/3 vote of all its members Congress by a majority votes of all its members Requirements of Amendments Proposed by the People through Initiative A petition of at least 12 percent of the total number of registered voters Peoples initiative is limited only to amendments not revision Legislative district must be represented by at least 3 percent of the registered voters

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