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Waste Management

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What are Wastes?


Definition of Wastes substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law Disposal means any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct reuse or alternative uses.

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Kinds of Wastes
Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc.
E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants
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Classification of Wastes according to their Properties


Bio-degradable
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)

Non-biodegradable
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, styrofoam containers and others)

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Classification of Wastes according to their Effects on Human Health and the Environment
Hazardous wastes Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal.

Non-hazardous Substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal.
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What Is Integrated Waste Management?


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Integrated Waste Management


The IWM demonstrates that collection and sorting are at the centre of any successful waste management system

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Integrated Waste Management


Waste managers need to create sustainable systems that are: Economically affordable Socially acceptable and Environmentally effective.
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Sources of Wastes
Households

Business and Industry

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Sources of Wastes
Agriculture

Hotels
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Effects of Waste if Not Managed Properly


Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate
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Waste minimization
Significant reduction of the waste generated in health-care establishments and research facilities may be encouraged by the implementation of certain policies and practices, including the following:
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Waste minimization
Source reduction: measures such as purchasing restrictions to ensure the selection of methods or supplies that are less wasteful or generate less hazardous waste. Recyclable products: use of materials that may be recycled, either on-site or off-site.
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Good management and control practices: apply particularly to the purchase and use of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Waste segregation: careful separation of waste matter into different categories helps to minimize the quantities of hazardous waste.

Waste minimization

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What is hazardous waste?


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Hazardous Waste
A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. There are four factors that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous:
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Sources of Hazardous Waste


Sources of hazardous wastes include: Research and academic laboratories Shops and repair facilities Art and theater departments Facility maintenance and grounds Power Plant operations Experimental Farm operations
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Characteristics
Hazardous Wastes are defined as wastes that exhibit the following characteristics: Ignitability Corrosivity Reactivity Toxicity.

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So is your waste a hazardous waste?


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Universal wastes include the following materials that are commonly found in the workplace Batteries Fluorescent lamps Pesticides Thermometers (containing mercury) Used oil

Universal Hazardous Wastes

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Recycling and Reuse

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Recycling & Reuse


The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include a) Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc. b) Collection of waste from community dumps. c) Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites
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Recycling of Wastes

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Recycle
1.It reduces waste materials.
2.It decreases the cost of waste disposal by reducing the volume of material to be collected, transported and dumped. 3.It reduces the requirement for landfill sites. 4. It maximized the value of natural resources.

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Recycle Contd.
5. It often produces materials with a lower energy cost than the original product. Example : recycling aluminum requires only 5 per cent of the amount required to extract aluminum from natural sources. 6. It often produces materials with a reduced amount of air pollution compared with the original production of that material. 7. Some recycled products have a cash value.

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Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms. Benefits of recycling: -Reduce environmental degradation -Making money out of waste -Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufacture
Saving through recycling: -When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost -Making paper from waste saves 50% energy -Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil

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Recycling not a solution to all problems!


Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material

For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe In some cases, cost of recycling is too high.

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What Should be Done


Reduce Waste - Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically.
- Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength.

- Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program.


- Switch to reusable transport containers. - Purchase products in bulk.
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What Should be Done


Reuse
- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally. - Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper.

- Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses. - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. - Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones.

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What Should be Done


Employee Education - Develop an office recycling procedures packet.

- Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles.


- Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs. - Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.

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What Should be Done?


Preventing Waste
- packaging waste reductions and changes in the manufacturing process - use biodegradable materials

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Who should do it?


All institutions like colleges, hostels, hotels, hospitals, clubs, marriage-halls, jails, zoos. Apartment-complexes, bungalows, Govt and city offices.
All city-owned parks and sites. Many individuals enjoy doing it voluntarily.
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Where it should be done


In garden strips along apartment walls, on terraces or in flower-pots or window-boxes In local parks, traffic islands, road dividers
In conventional large street-bins

In sewage-farm premises
On temple lands or private farms
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Wastes: containers and storage


Only use containers that are compatible with the materials to be collected. Always label containers with a description of their contents. Dont store incompatible materials together. Do not store wastes in the fume hood. Store in the appropriate storage cabinet (e.g., flammable, acid). Provide secondary containment for liquid wastes.

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Wastes: containers and storage


ALWAYS keep the container closed (lid firmly secured). A funnel in an open bottle is NOT a lid. Check waste storage areas regularly (weekly). Inspect containers to make sure they arent getting brittle or starting to crack. If you need waste containers, contact EHS&RM or your Chemical Hygiene Officer to inquire about availability.
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Waste Disposal Methods

Advantages & Disadvantages

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Ocean Dumping
Advantages: convenient inexpensive source of nutrients, shelter and breeding Disadvantages: ocean overburdened distruction of food sources killing of plankton desalination

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Sanitary Landfill
Advantages: volume can increase with little addition of people/equipment filled land can be reused for other community purposes Disadvantages: completed landfill areas can settle and requires maintenance requires proper planning, design, and operation42

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Open Dumping
Advantages: inexpensive Disadvantages: health-hazard - insects, rodents etc. damage due to air pollution ground water and run-off pollution
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INCINERATION
Advantages: requires minimum land can be operated in any weather produces stable odor-free residue refuse volume is reduced by half Disadvantages: expensive to build and operate high energy requirement requires skilled personnel and continuous maintenance unsightly - smell, waste, vermin

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Recycle
Advantages: key to providing a liviable environment for the future Disadvantages: expensive some wastes cannot be recycled technological push needed separation of useful material from waste difficult.

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What Should be Done?

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What Should be Done?

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Presented By: MHM-Final

THANKS
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