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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific


Research
Teacher Training School of Constantine

A Distant Course In Written Expression


(LMD)

Semester one

Prepared by: Mrs. Leila Djouimaa

2007- 2008
Sentence constructions

I- Phrases :
A phrase is a group of words which contains neither a subject nor
a verb. (It may, however, contain a verbal form such as an infinitive, a
participle or a gerund).
They are considered as the second level of classification as they tend to
be larger than individual words, but are smaller than sentences.
There are nine generally accepted classifications for phrases.

1- Noun phrases:
They may serve as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of
prepositions.
Example: My coach is happy (noun phrase as subject).

2- Verb phrases:
They are composed of the verbs of the sentence and any
modifiers of the verbs, including adverb, prepositional phrases or
objects. Most verb phrases function as predicates of sentences.
Example: Henry made my coach very proud.( Predicate verb phrase)

3- Adjectival phrases:
They are composed of the adjectives that modify a noun and any
adverbs or other elements that modify those adjectives. They always
occur inside noun phrases or as predicate adjectives.
Example: Dad bought a blue and green sweater.

4- Adverbial phrases:
They are composed of the adverbs that modify verbs, adjectives,
or clauses. Adverbial phrases may occur with more than one word. The
extra adverb is called an intensifier.
Example: He scored the goal very quickly.

5- Prepositional phrases:

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They are composed of the preposition and a following noun
phrase. They are used either adjectivally to modify nouns or adverbially
to modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses.
Examples:
- The man in the house rented it. (prepositional phrase, modifies a
noun adjectivally)
- He went in the arena. (prepositional phrase, modifies a verb
adverbially)
- Dad was happy about the goal. (prepositional phrase, modifies
an adjective adverbially)
- On reflection, I believe that she was correct. (prepositional
phrase, modifies a clause adverbially)

6- Gerundive phrases:
They may function in any way in which nouns may function:
subject, object, object of a preposition, or even nouns functioning as
adjectives.
Gerundive phrases may contain gerunds, adjectives, objects, adverbs, or
other main verb elements.
Example: Dad talked about winning the game.
7- Participial phrases:
They begin with a participle. Participles are adjectives formed
from verbs. They come in two tenses: present and past.
Present participle: an ing word like : singing, analyzing, sharpening…
Past participle: usually an ed word like: believed, analyzed, but
sometimes an irregular form like written, sung, lost, wept, frozen….
Example: Racing around the corner, he slipped and fell.

8- Absolute phrases:
They are composed of a subject noun phrase and a participial
phrase. The absolute phrase is formally independent of the main clause.
The subject of the absolute phrase does not have to appear in the main
clause because the absolute phrase has its own subject.
Example: (My chores)( completed for the week), I went on a walk.

9- Infinitive phrases:
They consist of an infinitive (to dance, to fly…) plus an object.
They perform three functions: nouns, adjectives, adverbs.
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Examples:
- My duty as a coach is to teach skills. (as a noun)
- My sister wanted a cat to love. (adjective)
- Bill is eager to work on his skating. (infinitive phrase, functions
adverbially, modifying an adjective)

II-Clauses:
A clause is a group of related words containing at least a subject
and a verb (the baby ate), and frequently it may contain a complement as
well (the baby ate the gold fish)
There are two kinds of clauses: Independent and dependent.

Independent clauses:
An independent clause can stand alone.
Example: I shall haunt you till your dying day.
It may, however, become part of a larger sentence if it is connected to
other clauses and phrases by a semicolon, or by a coordinating
conjunction.
Examples: - I shall haunt you till your dying day; I shall haunt your
friends and relations after that.
-I shall haunt you till your dying day, and I shall haunt your friends and
relations after that.

The coordinating conjunctions that join independent clauses include


and, but, or, nor, neither, yet, for, or, and, so.
The coordinating conjunction does not belong in either clause,
but merely joins them together. Put a comma before the coordinating
conjunction (but note that this particular punctuation rule is so
commonly ignored.-particularly in short sentences- that it is in danger of
disappearing).
Examples:
Fanny Dooley likes sunbathing, but she loves mooning.
The cat had broken their Ming Vase, yet he did not seem to care.

Dependent clauses:
A dependent clause has a subject and a verb, and looks exactly
like an independent clause except for one small thing: it is introduced by

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either a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction, which makes
the clause grammatically ”dependent” on the rest of the sentence.
Example: If you are very sweet to me, I’ll let you see my collection of
cars.

Relative pronouns:
They include who, whom, which, that, what, whoever,
whatever, and whichever. They relate the material in the clause to an
antecedent that appears elsewhere in the sentence.
Example: In the sentence “the bag of potato chips that I ate, the “that”
introducing the clause relates back to “bag of potato chips”.

Subordinating conjunctions:
They are best classified according to the relationship they express
between clauses:
Time: before, after, when, until, while, as soon as, as long as.
Place: when, whenever.
Purpose: so that, in order that, so.
Cause: because, since.
Condition: if, unless, provided that, except.
Contrast: although, though, even though, despite, in spite of.

Dependent may act as: nouns, adjectives, or adverbs within their


sentences.

Dependent clauses as nouns:


They can be introduced either by a relative pronoun or by a
subordinating conjunction (that, whether).
Examples:
- I wonder whether Ontology recapitulates Phylogeny. (direct
object)
- Whatever is lurking under the bed has started to snore.
(subject)
- She knew that her fiancé had an irrational fear of
accordions.(direct object)

Dependent clauses as adjectives:


They can be introduced by relative pronouns.
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Fred, who had long adored her from a distance, finally proposed to
marry her.

Dependent clauses as adverbs:


A dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction
can act the same way as a one word adverb. Put a comma after the
dependent clause if it precedes the main clause; do not use a comma if
the dependent clause comes after the main clause.
Time: As soon as they were married, she began to miss her dog.
Place: The salesman swore to follow Egbert wherever he might go.
Purpose: He only ate the strawberries so I wouldn’t eat them myself.
Cause: She married him because he looked just like her bulldog.
Condition: If our guests hear loud screams coming from the tower,
they may begin to suspect that uncle Hurbert is still alive.
Concession: Although Stanley believed he had taken every possible
precaution, he had forgotten to clean the blood stairs from the boat
house floor.

Restrictive vs Non- restrictive clauses:


An adjective clause can be either « restrictive » or “non-
restrictive”.

A restrictive clause gives information needed to identify the person or


thing. Do not use commas to set off a restrictive clause from the rest of
the sentence.
Example:
The old woman who is ogling the waiter is my aunt Edna. (the clause
tells us which old woman is aunt Edna).

A non- restrictive clause gives information which is not strictly


essential. The information may be very interesting but the reader does
not need it to be able to identify the person or thing that the clause
modifies. You must use commas to set a non- restrictive clause off from
the rest of the sentence.
Example:

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Anastasia, who has started to go bald, was passing out deviled eggs
and cocktail franks to the refugees.(modifies Anastasia, but you do not
need the clause to know which Anastasia)

Compare the following restrictive and non-restrictive clauses:


Non-restrictive: The saxophone player, who wore spats, launched into a
big cadenza.
Restrictive: The saxophone player who wore spats was chosen to appear
in GQ.

Sentences:
1- Simple sentences:
They contain one independent clause.
Example: Mary went to the store.

2- Compound sentences:
They are constructed using two independent clauses joined in one of two
ways:
-a comma and coordinating conjunction:
Examples:
-Fred hit the ball well, but he only walked to first base.
- Computer technologies are more sophisticated and today’s technicians
are better trained.
-a semicolon:
Example:
Mary went to the store; she bought some bread.

3- Complex sentences:
They are constructed using an independent sentence and a
dependent or subordinate clause.
Example:
The motion, which the commons narrowly passed, was defeated by the
senate. (adjective clause introduced by a relative pronoun)

4- Compound complex:

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They are constructed using two independent sentences or clauses
and a dependent clause.
Example:
When the jets fly by, the windows rattle noisily and the whole house
shakes.

EXERCISES

Exercise one:
Read the sentences carefully then identify the function of the dependent
clause.

1- Although Americans love to travel to foreign countries, they


seldom learn to speak other languages.
2- My sister, who teaches Spanish and Italian in New York, says
that she had more students twenty years ago.
3- She wrote a book about what she has learned over the years.
4- What she worries about is the general decline in American
language learning skills.
5- The internet, which has become such a global phenomenon, has
contributed to the predominance of English.

Exercise two:
Choose the appropriate answer and justify your choice.

1- The doctor told Charlie to lose weight and exercise vigorously for
forty- five minutes a day.
a- this sentence has two independent clauses.
b- this sentence has no independent clause.
c- this sentence has one independent clause.

2- The doctor was worried that Charlie was putting on too much
weight.
a- the underlined section is an independent clause.
b- the independent clause is “the doctor was worried”.
c- this sentence has no independent clause.

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3- Charlie has a hard time sticking to diet; he really loves rich, sweet
desserts.
a- this sentence has two independent clauses.
b- this sentence has one independent clause.
c- this sentence has no independent clauses.

4- In fact, the last time he tried to lose weight, he ended up actually


gaining weight.
a- “he ended up ….weight “ is the only independent clause.
b- the underlined section is the independent clause.
c- this sentence has two independent clauses.

5-Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer because he is


worried about his heart.
a- the underlined section is an independent clause.
b- this sentence has two independent clauses.
c- “Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer” is the
independent clause.

-Phrases:

ExerciseThree:
Combine each group of sentences by using participial phrases.
Example: I lost six pounds this month. I swim four times a week.
- Swimming four times a week, I lost six pounds this
month.
1- The professor was frustrated by the puzzle. The puzzle was
spread before him.
2- Alice stumbled across the finish line. She won the race
3- The car careened around the corner. It skidded on two wheels.
4- The nurse gestured forcefully and spoke firmly. She took control.
5- The horse was overloaded with heavy packs. It collapsed. It
whinnied mournfully.

Exercise Four :
Write two sentences for each of the following words, using the word in a
gerund phrase and a participial phrase.
Example: Diving.
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- Diving from the ten meter board is thrilling. ( gerund
phrase).
- Diving beneath the surface, he saw a world of splendid
color. (participial phrase).

1- Swimming- 2- Studying- 3- Camping- 4- Smoking- 5-


Dancing-

Exercise Five: Noun clauses.


Study the following examples :
His return is certain. - That he will return is certain.
Express your thought clearly. – Express clearly what you think.

Now do the same.


1- He spoke of his feelings.
2- This is my opinion.
3- The report of his failure is false.

Note: A noun clause is joined to the main clause by the conjunction


“that”, or by one of the following interrogative words: who, whom,
whose, what, which, when, where, why, how.
Now: Expand the following simple sentences into complex sentences
containing a noun clause. The words to be changed are underlined.
1- Tell me your address.
2- Bring your necessities with you.
3- His arrival tomorrow is impossible.
4- He was angry at my conduct.
5- The story of the king’s defeat is false.
6- This is my writing.
7- Leave your possessions to the poor.
8- I was glad to hear of your success.
9- His words can be believed.
10- We know the maker of the chair.
11- Do not forget the time and place of the examination.
12- Tell me the use of this instrument.
13- Your illness was very unfortunate.
14- The importance of his work can now be seen.
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15- He stated the time of his departure and arrival.

Exercise Six: The adjective clause.


Note: An adjective may be in the form of a word, a phrase or a clause. In
a complex sentence, only the clause is to be considered. The clause,
therefore, may take the place of a word , a phrase. The work of an
adjective is that of qualifying a noun, the work of the adjectival clause is
the same as that of the adjective.
Examples:
1- The rich man spent his money foolishly.(simple sentence).
-The man who is rich spent his money foolishly.( expanded into a
complex sentence).
2- The garden , surrounding my house, contains many flowers.
-The garden which surrounds my house contains many flowers.
3- The clock in the kitchen is five minutes slow.
-The clock which is in the kitchen is five minutes slow.

Now: Expand the following simple sentences into complex sentences.


1- The boat on the river has no sails.
2- Stones, lying on the road, are dangerous.
3- Books written by hand are now preserved in museums.
4- His clear voice could be heard through the building.
5- Every boy in this class must work hard.
6- The government wishes to educate the poor men’s sons.
7- I like to sit in a garden surrounded by trees.
8- There is no one blamable for his deeds.
9- Writers of books must pay great attention to facts.
10- Railway travelers are forbidden to lean out of the window of the
train.
11- Very fierce storms blow over the Atlantic ocean.
12- Extravagant men often come to poverty.
Note: From the above examples you may have noticed that in every
case, certain words were used to expand or join sentences.
Example: who, whose, that, what. These words are relative pronouns and
have two duties to perform:
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- they refer to a word in a previous clause called an antecedent.
- They join two sentences together.

Exercise Seven: Adverbial clauses.


Note : An adverbial clause does the work of an adverb and may refer to a
verb, adjective or adverb. To form a complex sentence containing an
adverbial clause, certain conjunctions are used, each of which implies
that the adverbial clause has a certain meaning with regard to the main
clause. An adverbial clause may be:
1- a clause of purpose (that, so that, in order that).
2- A clause of consequence or result (so that, such that)
3- A clause of time (when , since, until, till, before, after, as soon as)
4- A clause of cause (because, since, as, for)
5- A clause of comparison ( as- as, than, so- as)
6- A clause of manner (as) he lives as his salary allows him.
7- A clause of concession or contrast ( although, though, whatever,
however)
8- A clause of condition (if, unless).
Now: complete the following by adding a clause.
1- If I had seen him……………………………
2- Although he grew older……………………
3- When I return from school……………….
4- My brother is as tall as……………………
5- Unless you run quickly……………………
6- He has gone home in order that………….
7- He told us such an amusing story ……….
8- The ship left the harbor (though)………
9- You must wait here till…………………..
10- Whatever books he reads………………..

Exercise Eight:
Write sentences according to the following directions:
1- Write a simple declarative sentence that states a fact about your
work.
2- Write a compound sentence about a friend using the coordinating
conjunction “or”.
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3- Write an interrogative sentence directed to a politician.
4- Write a declarative compound complex sentence directed to a
parent.
5- Write an imperative sentence that gently directs a child.

Coordination – Subordination

I- Coordination- Subordination:
Coordination and subordination are two strategies for showing the
relationship between ideas in a sentence.
Coordination combines two ideas that are equally important.
Subordination combines two ideas in a way that makes one idea more
important than the other. The less important idea is -dependent on- or
subordinate to- the more important idea.
Both strategies use conjunctions to combine independent clauses into a
single sentence.

II- Coordination:
Coordination joins clauses that are equally important.
Coordination uses a comma plus one of the seven coordinating
conjunctions to join independent clauses.

Independent clause , and Independent clause

Coordinating
conjunctions
for
and
nor
but
or
yet
so

Each of the seven coordinating conjunctions clarifies a specific


relationship between equally important ideas.

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Conjunction Relationship Example

For Cause Margaret bought an iron with an


automatic shut-off, for she was
always forgetting to unplug it.
And Addition The temperature has fallen
rapidly this afternoon, and the
roads are beginning to freeze.
Nor Alternative(negative) Neither his mother nor his father
finished college.
Note that in this sentence, the
coordinating conjunction joins
equal phrases rather than equal
clauses. Both applications of
coordination are correct.
But Contrast His car is not running right now,
but he intends to repair it before
week- end.
Or Alternative We can eat dinner now, or we can
wait and eat after the movie.
Yet Contrast He always arrives late, yet he
expects everyone else to arrive
on time.
So Consequence My mom was born in Italy, so
I’ve always wanted to visit that
country.

Note: You can easily remember these seven coordinating conjunctions


by remembering the acronym FANBOYS.

Excessive coordination:
Faulty coordination gives equal emphasis to unequal or unrelated
clauses.

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Example: Alice Adams has published four novels, and she lives in San
Francisco.(no connection is apparent between living in San Francisco
and publishing four novels). Depending on the writer’s purpose, one of
the ideas should be subordinated.
To avoid faulty coordination, we put part of the sentence in a dependent
clause , modifying phrase, or appositive phrase.

Example:
-Alice Adams, who lives in San Francisco, has published four
novels (dependent clause).
-Alice Adams, from San Francisco, has published four novels
(modifying phrase).
-Alice Adams, a San Francisco writer, has published four
novels. (appositive phrase).

Excessive coordination –stringing main clauses together with


coordinating conjunctions for no apparent purpose- can become
monotonous for the reader. Excessive coordination also fails to show the
proper relation between clauses.
Example:
Alice Adams is a successful writer, and she lives in San Francisco, and
she has received grants from the Guggenheim Foundation and the
National Foundation for the Arts.

Observe the excessive use of the coordinator “and”. This


example could be revised and excessive coordination avoided by
rewriting the sentence, using dependent clauses, modifying phrases, or
appositive phrases.
Alice Adams, a successful San Francisco writer, has received grants
from the Guggenheim Foundation and the National Foundation for the
Arts.

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III- Subordination:
Subordination joins clauses that are unequal in importance.
Subordination uses conjunctions to make one clause dependent on
another. The dependent clause is subordinate to the independent clause.

Independent clause

Dependent clause

The list of subordinating conjunctions is long, but here are some of the
more common ones:

Relationship Conjunction Examples


Time When -Whenever the afternoon bell rings,
Whenever a teeming horde of children rush
After eagerly out of the school building.
Until - I never knew what love meant
Before until I met you.
After - My uncle always calls after he
watches the news.
Place Where -I know a place where blackberries
Wherever grow wild all along the roadside.
-Wherever you can find an empty
spot, just drop your luggage there.
Cause/Effect Because - Since you have to leave early, why
Since don’t you arrive a few days earlier
So that too?
- The cat took off in a panic because
the dog started barking and
growling.
Condition IF - If my ticket doesn’t arrive today, I
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Unless won’t be able to fly out tomorrow.
If only - He won’t listen to you unless you
make him turn off the radio and
look at you.
Contrast Although -Although I have called repeatedly,
Even the credit card company has not
Though corrected my account.
- He still brings her roses even
though he knows she is allergic to
them.

If you look carefully at the example sentences, you will notice an


important punctuation rule that applies to subordination: Place a comma
after but not before a dependent clause.

Examples:
After the final touchdown, the fans stormed out onto the field.
The fans stormed out onto the field after the final touchdown.
(depending on the order of clauses in the sentence, you can or not use a
comma)

Faulty/Excessive subordination:

Faulty subordination occurs when the more important clause is placed in


a subordinate positioning the sentence or when the expected relation
between clauses is reversed.
Example:
Although she easily won the Olympic trial, she had been training for
only six months. (this sentence seems to say that she trained in spite of
the fact that she easily won the Olympic trial)
To correct the faulty subordination change the position of the
subordinating word or phrase.
Although she had been training for only six months, she easily won the
Olympic trial.
Excessive subordination occurs when a sentence contains a series of
clauses, each subordinate to an earlier one.
Example:

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The lonesome trapper, who was a retired railroad man who lived in a
small cabin , enjoyed the rare occasions when a group of hikers
wandered by his place, which is inaccessible for most of the year.
To correct excessive subordination, break the sentence into two or more
sentences or change some of the dependent clauses to modifying phrases
or appositives.
- The lonesome trapper, a retired railroad man, lived in a
small cabin. Because his place was inaccessible for most
of the year, he enjoyed the rare occasions when a group of
hikers wandered by.

IV- Combining Sentences through Coordination and Subordination:


Why should we use coordination and subordination?
Study the following paragraph:
The first wife of England’s King Henry VIII was Catherine of
Aragon. She had a daughter named Mary. Mary eventually became
Queen Mary. She is better known today as Bloody Mary. Catherine had
no sons. Henry had no male heir to the throne. The pope wouldn’t give
Henry permission to divorce Catherine. Henry declared himself the head
of the English church. He divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn.
Ann gave Henry another daughter, Elizabeth. Elizabeth later became
Queen Elizabeth I. Ann was accused of adultery. Henry had her
beheaded.

This paragraph contains a lot of information, but its style is horrible! The
sentences are choppy, and the relationships between ideas are not
explained.

Now study the revision below. The sentences in the paragraph have been
combined using coordination and subordination to make the sentences
flow more smoothly and to show relationships between ideas.

The first wife of England’s King Henry VIII was Catherine of


Aragon. She had a daughter named Mary who eventually became Queen
Mary, although she is better known today as Bloody Mary. Catherine had
no sons, so Henry had no male heir to the throne. When the pope
wouldn’t give Henry permission to divorce Catherine, Henry declared
himself the head of the English church. He divorced Catherine and
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married Ann Boleyn. Ann gave Henry another daughter, Elizabeth who
later became Queen Elizabeth I. After Anne was accused of adultery,
Henry had her beheaded.

Use coordination and subordination to make your writing flow


more smoothly and to clarify the relationships between your ideas.
-Decide whether the ideas are equally important or whether one idea is
more important than another. Use coordination to join equal ideas; use
subordination to join unequal ideas.
- Insert the appropriate coordination or subordination conjunction, when
you use subordination, be sure to place the subordinating conjunction at
the beginning of the less important clause.
- Punctuate correctly.

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Exercises
Exercise one:
Read the following sentences and decide whether the clauses have been
joined using coordination or subordination.
1- Although George. H. BUSH made a lot of money in the oil
industry, his greatest success was being elected to the United
States presidency.
2- Effective web pages use high contrast between text and
background so that readers can easily distinguish the words on
the page.
3- Heart transplants are performed by teams of highly trained
specialists, but the high risk procedure is not always effective.

Exercise two:
Read the sentences below and decide which of the 4 sentences uses
coordination to combine clauses into a single sentence.
1- The Welsh terrier is native to Wales and was bred specifically to
hunt foxes.
2- The Welsh Springer, a much larger dog, is also a hunter.
3- The Welsh is smaller than the terrier, and its name means “dwarf
dog”.
4- These dogs are favourites with farmers and hunters because of
the dogs’ ability to withstand extreme temperatures.

Exercise three:
Read the sentences below and decide which of the four sentences uses
subordination to combine clauses into a single clause.
1- The play Cyrano de Bergerac was written by Edmond Rostand, a
19th century French writer.
2- Cyrano, the play’s hero, has an uncommonly large nose.
3- Cyrano loves Roxanne, but Roxanne loves Christian, a more
handsome man.

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4- Cyrano speaks for Christian since Christian lacks the gift of
poetry.

Exercise four:
Read the sentences below and decide which sentence is correctly
punctuated.
1- Albert Einstein was a United States citizen when he died but he
was born German.
2- In 1900, he became a citizen of Switzerland where he studied
math and science.
3- When he joined the faculty at the university of Berlin he resumed
his German citizenship.

Exercise five:
Revise the following sentences by using coordination to combine them
into a single sentence. Be sure to punctuate correctly.
-Henry VIII ruled England for nearly forty years.
-He declared himself the supreme head of the English church.

Exercise six:
Revise the following sentences by using subordination to combine them
into a single sentence. Be sure to punctuate correctly.
- Henry VIII had six wives.
- He had only one male heir.

Exercise seven:
Choose the best method –coordination or subordination- to combine the
following pairs of sentences into single sentences. Be sure to punctuate
correctly.
-Americans are highly susceptible to peer pressure.
-We spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic surgery.

- Billy Graham was ordained a Baptist minister in 1939.


- He began his work as an evangelist about 10 years later.

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Exercise eight:
The sentences in the following paragraph are choppy, and the
relationship between ideas is unclear. Revise the paragraph by using
coordination and subordination to combine sentences.

The dating of Stonehenge is uncertain. Scholars believe it


was built between 2500B.C and 1500 A.D. The inner circle consists of
about 80 bluestones weighing up to 4 tons each. The outer circle of
Sarsen stones weigh up to 50 tons each. The heel stone in the center
catches the first rays of the sun on the summer solstice. Modern
scientists believe that Stonehenge may be an early observatory. Literary
sources suggest that the monument may have been built as a memorial.
Three hundred noblemen were killed by Hengest, a treacherous Saxon.
Modern day Stonehenge is commercialised by souvenir shops and snack
bars. A major highway crosses the plain within 100 yards of the
monument.

Exercise nine:
Use the following conjunctions to write sentences of your own.
And, but, or, so, then, yet, not only… but also, either…or, neither…nor,
whether.

Exercise ten:
Revise the following sentences to correct faulty or excessive
coordination.
1- Eugene O’Neill was an American playwright, and he won a
Nobel Prize for literature in 1936.
2- O’Neill had an unhappy childhood, and he told the story of his
childhood in a play entitled A Long Day’s Journey into Night,
and he said it was “written in tears and blood”.
3- O’Neill’s daughter Oona married Charlie Chaplin, but she
married against her father’s will.

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4- One of O’Neill’s plays, The Iceman Cometh, is full of symbols
and hidden clues about its meaning, and it has probably been
written about more than any other American play.
5- Louis Shaeffer wrote a biography of O’Neill, and he spent
sixteen years researching and writing it, and his book won a
Pulitzer Prize.

Exercise eleven:
Revise the following sentences to achieve unity by way of effective
subordination.
1- Jean Henri Dunant was a citizen of Switzerland, and he felt
sorry for wounded Austrian soldiers in the Napoleonic wars;
therefore, he started an organization, and it was later named the
Red Cross.
2- Yesterday I was daydreaming, so I did not hear the Physics
assignments, but anyway I passed the test today.
3- First he selected a lancet and sterilized it , and then he gave his
patient anesthetic and lanced the infected part.
4- Father Latour was a friend’s horse, and he saw two horses, and
he induced the owner to part with them
5- I graduated from high school, and then I worked in a bank, and
so I earned enough money to go to college.
6- The president of the bank walked in his office promptly at nine,
anfd just then he saw the morning paper, and the headlines
startled him.
7- We had just reached the bend in the road, for we were on our way
home, and we saw a truckload of laborers crowded off the
highway by an oncoming bus.
8- The Spanish started the custom in America of branding cattle,
and the Mexicans kept it going, and Americans still brand cattle
to show ownership.
9- Daniel Fahrenheit made a thermometer, and he used mercury in
it; however, René Réaumur devised one too, but he used alcohol
instead of mercury.
10- A wife wears a ring on the third finger of the left hand, for a vein
runs from it to the heart, according to an old tale; therefore, the
ring symbolizes the giving of the heart with the hand.

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Exercise twelve:
Revise the following sentences as necessary to eliminate awkward or
illogical subordination.
1- Louise has had great success but which has not gone to her head.
2- Although David slept soundly, the deafening noise continued.
3- Mr. Dunbar is a good lawyer and who nearly always wins his
cases.
4- As soon as wa ate the turkey, Thanksgiving arrived.
5- My father is an electrician and whom his customers depend on.
6- Even though I will not cut the ragweed, I have hay fever.
7- Bruce found a lost hound and which needs a home.

Exercise thirteen:
Revise the following passage to achieve proper subordination.
I was walking down the street when I found a purse containing
fifty dollars . It was just noon. Thousands of people were on the streets. I
could not find the owner. I went into the neighboring stores, and I
inquired of the shopkeepers whether anyone had lost the money, and I
approached the policeman with the same question. No one could say
who had lost the money, and so I thought I was the rightful owner,
having found the purse myself. But my father did not approve my
keeping the purse . He asked me to advertise it. He said I might use the
daily paper. Next day I ran an advertisement in the paper, and now a
week has passed and I have had no answers, and so I think the money is
really mine.

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