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# MODULE 5 - TWO-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (2-WAY ANOVA)

A two-way (or two factor) analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a procedure that designates a single dependent variable (always categorical) to gain an understanding of how the independent variables influence the dependent variable. A thorough grasp of one-way ANOVA is necessary before two-way ANOVA can be understood. Importantly, this also paves the way for three-way ANOVA and the influence of covariates. Although the two-way ANOVA can be regarded as an efficient design insofar as it allows two different independent variables to be incorporated into the study, its ability to identify interactions may be more important. An interaction is simply a situation in which the combined effect of two variables is greater than the sum of the effects of each of the two variables acting separately (Goodwin, 2008). When to use two-way ANOVA Two-way ANOVA, like other forms of ANOVA, are ideally suited to randomized experimental studies. ANOVA is very closely related to multiple regression which may be preferred for survey-type data. Data requirements for two-way ANOVA The independent (grouping) variables should consist of relatively small number of categories otherwise the data analysis will be exceedingly cumbersome. As usual, it is better if the scores approximate an equal interval scale of measurement. There does not have to be the same number of participants in each condition of the study though it is generally better if there are when the requirements of ANOVA are violated, such as when the variances of scores in each condition are different (Howitt & Cramer, 2008). 2-Way ANOVA 2 x 2 Independent Groups A 2-way ANOVA is used for a factorial design with two independent variables. If both variables are testing within subjects, an analysis similar to the 1-way ANOVA for repeated measures is completed. Finally, if the design is a mixed one, involving within-subjects and between-subjects factors, the analysis combines elements of independent groups ANOVA and repeatedmeasures ANOVA. Statistical Power Power is simply the probability of finding a significant difference in a sample, given a difference (between groups) of a particular size, and a specific sample size. Often power is calculated before conducting a study. If you know the expected magnitude of a difference between
Dr. Felicidad T. Villavicencio PSYSTA2 Module 4 2012

groups, you can (for example) calculate how large a sample you need to be 80% sure of finding a significant difference between groups. StatisticsPower AnalysisPower calculation (or sample size calculation)Several means, ANOVA, 2Way--Ok Steps: 1. In a 2-way ANOVA, three separate F ratios are calculated, one for each of the two main effects and one for the interaction. 2. Determine if the calculated F values are significant. 3. Perform subsequent analyses. As described previously in 1-way ANOVA, subsequent testing in factorial ANOVA can take two forms. If there is a subsequent main effect for a factor with more than two levels, then pairwise comparisons of the overall means would be done; perhaps using Tukeys HSD test again. If a significant interaction occ urred, simple effects testing could be done. Problem In an experiment, high and low self-esteem subjects did a concept formation task either alone or with an audience. Use the data below to determine the effects of level of self-esteem and the absence/presence of an audience on the number of errors committed in the concept formation task. Data Entry:
Self-Esteem High High High High High High High High High High High High Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Audience Without Without Without Without Without Without With With With With With With Without Without Without Without Without Without With With With With With With No. of Errors 3 6 2 2 4 7 9 4 5 8 4 6 7 7 2 6 8 6 10 14 11 15 11 11

PSYSTA2

Module 4

2012

STATISTICA Output
Statistics/Advanced Linear/General Linear Models/Factorial ANOVA/Ok/Variables/Ok/All effects (graph) (means) /All effects/graphs /click spreadsheet (unclick graph)

Univariate Tests of Significance for No. of Errors (Data two-way ANOVA) Sigma-restricted parameterization Effective hypothesis decomposition SS Degr. of MS F p Freedom Effect Intercept 1176.000 1 1176.000273.48840.000000 Self-Esteem 96.000 1 96.000 22.3256 0.000130 Audience 96.000 1 96.000 22.3256 0.000130 Self-Esteem*Audience 24.000 1 24.000 5.5814 0.028399 Error 86.000 20 4.300

Audience; LS Means (Spreadsheet1) Current effect: F(1, 20)=22.326, p=.00013 Effective hypothesis decomposition Audience Errors Errors Errors Errors N Cell No. Mean Std.Err. -95.00% +95.00% 1 Without 5.000000 0.598609 3.751322 6.24868 12 2 With 9.000000 0.598609 7.751322 10.24868 12

Audienc e; LS Means Current effec t: F(1, 20)=22.326, p=.00013 Effec tiv e hy pothes is dec ompos ition Vertic al bars denote 0.95 c onfidenc e interv als 11
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Self-Esteem; LS Means Current effect: F(1, 20)=22.326, p=.00013 Effective hypothesis decomposition Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals

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Errors
No. of Errors

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## 4 3 High Self-Esteem Low

PSYSTA2

Module 4

2012

Self-Esteem*Audience; LS Means (Data two-way ANOVA) Current effect: F(1, 20)=5.5814, p=.02840 Effective hypothesis decomposition Self-Esteem Audience No. of No. of No. of Errors Errors Errors Cell No. Mean 1 High Without 4.00000 Std.Err. 0.846562 -95.00% 2.23410 2 High With 6.00000 0.846562 4.23410 3 Low Without 6.00000 0.846562 4.23410 4 Low With 12.00000 0.846562 10.23410

## No. of N Errors +95.00% 5.76590 6 7.76590 6 7.76590 6 13.76590 6

Self-Esteem*Audience; LS Means Current effect: F(1, 20)=5.5814, p=.02840 Effective hypothesis decomposition Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals 16 14 12 10 8

Errors

## 6 4 2 0 High Self-Esteem Low Audience Without Audience With

PSYSTA2

Module 4

2012

Self-Esteem*Audience; LS Means Current effect: F(1, 20)=5.5814, p=.02840 Effective hypothesis decomposition Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals 16 14 12 10 8
Errors

## 6 4 2 0 Without Audience With Self-Esteem High Self-Esteem Low

Bonferroni test; variable No. of Errors (Data two-way ANOVA) Homogenous Groups, alpha = .05000 Error: Between MS = 4.3000, df = 20.000 Self-Esteem Audience No. of 1 2 Errors Cell No. Mean 1 High Without 4.00000 **** 3 Low Without 6.00000 **** 2 High With 6.00000 **** 4 Low With 12.00000 **** Tukey HSD test; variable No. of Errors (Data two-way ANOVA) Approximate Probabilities for Post Hoc Tests Error: Between MS = 4.3000, df = 20.000 Self-Esteem Audience {1} {2} {3} {4} 4.0000 6.0000 6.0000 12.000 Cell No. 1 High Without 0.3644890.3644890.000180 2 High With 0.364489 1.0000000.000507 3 Low Without 0.3644891.000000 0.000507 4 Low With 0.0001800.0005070.000507

PSYSTA2

Module 4

2012

LSD test; variable No. of Errors (Data two-way ANOVA) Probabilities for Post Hoc Tests Error: Between MS = 4.3000, df = 20.000 Self-Esteem Audience {1} {2} {3} {4} 4.0000 6.0000 6.0000 12.000 Cell No. 1 High Without 0.1103890.1103890.000002 2 High With 0.110389 1.0000000.000067 3 Low Without 0.1103891.000000 0.000067 4 Low With 0.0000020.0000670.000067 Scheffe test; variable No. of Errors (Data two-way ANOVA) Probabilities for Post Hoc Tests Error: Between MS = 4.3000, df = 20.000 Self-Esteem Audience {1} {2} {3} {4} 4.0000 6.0000 6.0000 12.000 Cell No. 1 High Without 0.4443770.4443770.000025 2 High With 0.444377 1.0000000.000837 3 Low Without 0.4443771.000000 0.000837 4 Low With 0.0000250.0008370.000837

Questions regarding results of analyses: 1 2 3 4 5 What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable? What are the null and alternative hypotheses for testing the main effect of self-esteem? What are the F, dfs, MS, and p-values for testing the above null hypothesis? Is there a significant main effect of self-esteem on number of errors? Explain the effect of self-esteem on the number of errors in terms that a person who has not had a course in statistics could understand. What are the null and alternative hypotheses for testing the main effect of audience? What are the F, dfs, MS, and p-values for testing the above null hypothesis? Is there a significant main effect of audience on number of errors? Explain the effect of audience on the number of errors in terms that a person who has not had a course in statistics could understand. What are the null and alternative hypotheses for testing the Self-Esteem X Audience interaction effect? What are the F, dfs, MS, and p-values for testing the above null hypothesis? Is there a significant interaction effect? Explain the presence or absence of an interaction effect in terms that a person who has not had a course in statistics could understand.
Dr. Felicidad T. Villavicencio PSYSTA2 Module 4 2012

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