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MT 2012/2013 João Vaz MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED MIXERS Prof. João Vaz Wireless Integrated Circuits and Systems Group

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED

MIXERS

Prof. João Vaz

Wireless Integrated Circuits and Systems Group Instituto de Telecomunicações

Instituto Superior Técnico Technical University of Lisbon

§   Mixer Introduction MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Circuit whose function is the frequency translation of

§Mixer

Introduction

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Circuit whose function is the frequency translation of a given signal.

§Working behavior

To perform the frequency translation a nonlinear or a time variant behavior must exits.

Only a circuit like this will produce new frequencies at the output that do not exist at its inputs.

If the required translation is to a multiple frequency of the input, it is only necessary to use one of the output signal harmonics.

Introduction MT 2012/2013 João Vaz However if the required frequency is not harmonically related with the

Introduction

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

However if the required frequency is not harmonically related with the input, an auxiliary oscillator must be used (local oscillator – LO) to perform the translation.

§Transceiver application

In the emitter (up-conversion): frequency translation from a baseband (BB) or low frequency signal IF 1 (intermediate frequency - IF) to a higher frequency signal, like transmission frequency (RF) or IF 2 .

In the receiver ( down-conversion ): frequency translation from RF or IF 1 to a lower frequency signal, IF 2 or BB.

Classification mixers MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   diodes on/off •   transistors on/off non switched

Classification

mixers
mixers

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Classification mixers MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   diodes on/off •   transistors on/off non switched

switched

diodes on/off transistors on/off

non switched

forward bias diodes active region transistors

Characterization RF MIST FI OL §   Conversion gain MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Power (or voltage,
Characterization RF MIST FI OL
Characterization
RF
MIST
FI
OL

§Conversion gain

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Power (or voltage, current, etc) gain between input and output signals. Receiver example:

G C =P IF /P RF or G C =v IF /v RF . The power gain can be transducer, available or power gains.

§Ports matching

Some of the mixer ports, RF, LO or IF, can be matched to a certain impedance value. In this case their matching is usually characterized with reflection coefficient.

Characterization §   Conversion gain compression MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Like in an amplifier, 1dB compression

Characterization

§Conversion gain compression

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Like in an amplifier, 1dB compression point for the conversion gain can be obtained. It is desirable that the mixer does not reach that point in order to avoid the output signal amplitude distortion. In systems with phase modulated signal G C phase distortion must be analyzed also.

§Conversion efficiency

Ratio between the mixer output power (P IF ) and the total power (AC+DC) supplied to the mixer (P RF +P LO +P DC ).

§LO power

Required local oscillator power, P LO , at LO port. The higher its value, harder to design LO will be.

Characterization §   Noise factor MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Ratio between the input SNR (at input

Characterization

§Noise factor

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Ratio between the input SNR (at input frequency) to the output SNR (at output frequency). Receiver example: NF=SNR RF /SNR IF .

§LO-IF isolation

Is the LO attenuation when it reaches the value must be as high as possible.

IF port. This

§LO-RF isolation

Is the LO attenuation when it reaches the RF port. This value must be as high as possible.

•   One-tone excitation Analysis MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Assuming that the nonlinearity is i=f(v) type

One-tone excitation

Analysis

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Assuming that the nonlinearity is i=f(v) type and memoryless (without

reactive

elements)

an

analytical

Assuming that v is applied.

analysis

can

Example: NL is a PN junction

i I exp

S

v

nV

T

v V

=

DC

+

V cos

lo

(

ω

t

LO

)

i

=

I exp

S

V

+

V cos

lo

(

ω

t

)

DC

LO

nV

T

=

be easily made. i v OL v NL V DC
be
easily
made.
i
v
OL
v
NL
V
DC

i

=

I exp

S

⎛⎞

V

⎜⎟

nV

DC

V cos

lo

(

ω

t

)

LO

exp

nV

⎝⎠

TT

=

I exp

S

⎛⎞

V

⎜⎟

nV

⎝⎠

T

DC

I x

0

(

LO

)

+

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

ω

t

LO

)

n 1

=

where the n-order modified Bessel functions I n (x) were used and

x

LO

=

V

lo

nV

T

8

Analysis MT 2012/2013 João Vaz The current is i =+ I I cos ω t +

Analysis

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

The current is

  • i =+

I I cos ω t + I cos 2 ω t + ⋅⋅⋅

0

1

LO

2

LO

(

)

(

)

DC component
DC
component
1 st harmonic
1 st harmonic
2 nd harmonic
2 nd harmonic

where

I

0

=

I x

0

(

LO

)

I exp

S

⎛⎞ DC ⎜⎟ nV ⎝⎠
⎛⎞
DC
⎜⎟
nV
⎝⎠

VV

I 2 I exp

1

=

S

⎛⎞ DC ⎜⎟ nV ⎝⎠
⎛⎞
DC
⎜⎟
nV
⎝⎠

TT

I x

1

(

LO

)

I 2 I exp

2

=

S

⎛⎞ V DC ⋅ ⎜⎟ nV ⎝⎠ T
⎛⎞
V
DC
⎜⎟
nV
⎝⎠
T

I x

2

(

LO

)

Note: All the components depend on V DC and V LO .

•   Two-tone excitation Analysis MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Assuming that both signals can produce harmonics,

Two-tone excitation

Analysis

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Assuming that both signals can produce harmonics, i.e., they are not

small signals.

Example 1: Both signals are large

i I exp

S

i I exp

=

v

nV

T

V

DC

+

V cos

lo

v V

=+

DC

V cos

lo

(

ω

LO

(

)

ω

t V cos

+

rf

LO

(

ω

RF

)

t V cos

+

rf

(

ω

t

)

t

RF

i ) v RF v NL v OL V DC
i
)
v RF
v
NL
v OL
V DC
 

S

=

I

V

DC

nV

T

V cos

lo

(

ω

t

LO

)

⎞⎛

V cos

rf

(

ω

t

RF

)

S

exp

=

I

S

exp

exp

nV

nV

TT

⎟⎜

exp

⎠⎝

V

DC

nV

T

I x

0

(

LO

)

+

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

n1

=

where

x

RF

=

V

rf

nV

T

x

nV

T

ω

t

LO

)

⎤⎡

⎥⎢ ⋅

⎦⎣

LO

=

V

lo

nV

T

(

I x

0

RF

)

+

+

2 I x cos n

RF

n

(

)

(

n1

=

ω

RF

t

)

10

Analysis Example 2: One of the signals is small MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Now, assuming that

Analysis

Example 2: One of the signals is small

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Now, assuming that one of the signals is weak and can be considerer

a small signal. An equation for the current i can written using Taylor

series up to 1 st order:

(

i fv

=

)

vV

=

strong

+

v

weak

⎫ ⎪

⎪ ⎭

v

strong

df v ( ) ⇒ i fV ≈ ( ) + ⋅ v strong weak d
df v
(
)
i fV
(
)
+
v
strong
weak
d
v
V
strong
=Vv+
∴ v
= v
DC
LO
weak
RF

f V

(

strong

)

=

d f v d v (
d f v
d v
(

)

V

strong

⎛⎞ V ⎛ DC lo exp ⎜⎟ ⎜ nV ⎝⎠ ⎝ I ⎛⎞ V S DC
⎛⎞
V
DC
lo
exp
⎜⎟
nV
⎝⎠
I
⎛⎞
V
S
DC
exp
⎜⎟
nV
⎝⎠

nV

(

ω

t

)

Vv

DC

+

lo

V cos

I exp

S

I exp

S

=

LO

nV

T

=

nV V cos

lo

(

TT

exp

I

S

exp Vv nV

DC

+

lo

t

)

ω

LO

=

nV

T

nV

T

TTT

Analysis Using Bessel functions: MT 2012/2013 João Vaz ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ + ∞ f V (

Analysis

Using Bessel functions:

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

 

+

f V ( ) strong df v ( ) d v V
f V
(
)
strong
df v
(
)
d v
V

=

I exp

S

strong

=

I

S

nV

T

V

DC

nV

T

exp

I x

0

(

LO

)

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

n 1

=

ω

t

LO

)

V

DC

nV

T

I x

0

(

LO

)

+

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

ω

LO

n 1

=

t

)

   

+

 
  • i

I exp

S

V

DC

nV

T

I x

0

(

LO

)

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

ω

t

LO

n 1

=

)

DC, w LO , 2w LO , 3w LO , terms only

+

 

+

 

I

S

nV

T

exp

V

DC

nV

T

(

I x

0

LO

)

+

+

2 I x cos n

LO

n

(

)

(

ω

t

LO

n 1

=

)

Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Single-balanced mixer Uses a differential pair. It´s easy to

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Single-balanced mixer

Uses a differential pair. It´s easy to show that,

i

D1

=

2 i Ki ⋅ K SS SS 2 + v − vi 1 1 D 2
2
i
Ki
K
SS
SS
2
+
v
vi
1
1
D 2
2
24

=

2 i Ki ⋅ K SS SS 2 − v − v 1 1 2 24
2
i
Ki
K
SS
SS
2
v
v
1
1
2
24
  • v out

=

2R v

D 1

ß! 2 K i ⋅ K SS 2 − v 1 2 4
ß!
2
K i
K
SS
2
v
1
2
4
V DD R D R D v out M 1 M 2 v 1 i SS
V
DD
R D
R D
v
out
M 1
M 2
v
1
i
SS

If v 1 is one of the input signals and i SS is related with the other, the

nonlinear relation will do the mixing. Some simplification can be

applied:

  • i SS

>>

K

2

  • 2

v

1

v

out

=

2R v

D 1

K i ⋅ SS 2
K i
SS
2

Note that if i SS is DC

v

out

=

2R

D

g

m1

v Av

=

v 1

  • 2 1

Circuits Usually i is obtained with a MOSFET: i SS = Kv − V 3 2

Circuits

Usually i SS is obtained with a MOSFET:

i

SS

= Kv V

3

2

(

T 3

) 2 v = − 2K ⋅ K R v v −V ( ) out 3
) 2
v
= − 2K ⋅ K R v v −V
(
)
out
3 D 1
2
T 3
ß!

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz i SS v 2 M 3
João Vaz
i
SS
v 2
M 3

v 1 =v LO , v 2 =v RF and v out =v IF leads to ®!

KK R 3 D G = V C ol 2
KK R
3
D
G
=
V
C
ol
2

Comments:

2 quadrants multiplier because v 2 >V T3 .

Bad LO-IF isolation.

Good LO-RF isolation.

v RF input is single-ended, v IF output is differential.

Moderate G C , low NF, low P C (-1dB).

Switching behavior Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz If v =v has enough amplitude, M and M

Switching behavior

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

If v 1 =v LO has enough amplitude, M 1 and M 2 transistors will behave

as switches.

Assuming that i SS =I SS +I rf cos(w RF t)

i

D1

=

I

SS

+

i

D 2

=

I

SS

+

v

=

V

I cos

rf

(

ω

t

RF

)

⎤ ⋅

1

2

{

1 sgn cos

+

⎡⎤

⎣⎦

ω

LO

(

t

)

}

I cos

rf

(

ω

t

RF

)

⎤ ⋅

1

2

{

1 sgn cos

⎡⎤

⎣⎦

ω

LO

(

t

)

}

Ri

D1

DD

v

=

V

D1

Ri

v

out

=

v

D1

v

D 2

=

Ri

(

D 2

D 2

DD

v

out

= R ⋅ ⎡I

D 2

ß!

SS

+ I cos

rf

(

t ⎤⎡

)

⎦⎣

ω

sgn cos

RF

(

ω

t

LO

)

⎦ ⎤

V DD R D R D v out v OL i SS i ) D1
V
DD
R D
R D
v
out
v
OL
i
SS
i
)
D1
Additional comments Circuits •   Transistors have to switch fast. •   High LO amplitude required.

Additional comments

Circuits

Transistors have to switch fast.

High LO amplitude required.

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

If current i SS is obtained from v RF with MOS transistor (M 3 ), if v RF is

a small signal

  • V out

=

⎛⎞ 2 ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ π
⎛⎞
2
⎜⎟
⎝⎠
π

Rg V

m3 rf

⎛⎞ 2 G = − ⋅ R g ⋅ ⎜⎟ c m3 ⎝⎠ π
⎛⎞
2
G
= −
R g
⎜⎟
c
m3
⎝⎠
π

Note: This eq.

was used

⎣ ⎡

sgn cos

(

4

)

⎤ ⎦ =
⎤ ⎦ =

ωω

LO

π

t

(

cos

t

LO

)

4

3 π

(

cos 3 t

ω

LO

)

+ ⋅⋅⋅

Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Double-balanced mixer (Gilbert cell) Assuming that all transistors are

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Double-balanced mixer (Gilbert cell)

Assuming that all transistors are equal:

i

iv

D3

=

+

  • 2 2

D1

i

iv

D4

=

  • 2 2

D1

2 Ki ⋅ K D1 2 − v 2 24 2 Ki ⋅ K D1 2
2
Ki
K
D1
2
v
2
24
2
Ki
K
D1
2
v
2
24
2 ⋅ K D2 2 − v 2 24
2
K
D2
2
v
2
24
  • i Ki

D2

iv

D5

=

  • 2 2

2 ⋅ K D2 2 − v 2 24
2
K
D2
2
v
2
24
  • i Ki

D2

iv

D6

=

+

  • 2 2

V DD R R D v D out M 3 M 4 M 5 M 6
V
DD
R
R D
v
D
out
M 3
M 4
M 5
M 6
v
2
M 1
M 2
v
1
I
SS

For the output voltage

  • v out

= ⎡ ⎣

V

DD

R i

(

D D 3

+

i

D5

)

⎤⎡ ⎦⎣ −

V

DD

R i

(

D D 4

+

i

D6

)

⎤ ⎦ =

2v R

2 D

2 K i ⋅ K D 2 2 − v 2 24
2
K i
K
D 2
2
v
2
24

2 K i ⋅ K D1 2 − v 2 24
2
K i
K
D1
2
v
2
24
Circuits Currents i and i are given by: 2 I KI ⋅ K SS SS 2

Circuits

Currents i D1 and i D2 are given by:

2 I KI ⋅ K SS SS 2 iv = + − v ∴ D1 1
2
I
KI
K
SS
SS
2
iv
=
+
v
D1
1
1
2
24
2 I KI ⋅ K SS SS 2 i = − v − v D 2
2
I
KI
K
SS
SS
2
i
=
v
v
D 2
1
1
2
24

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

With the previous equations v out =f(v 1 ,v 2 ) can be obtained, however

function f is analytical complicated. So, in order to obtain a

multiplication some approximations will be made.

- M 1 and M 2 differential pair is working in linear region

v

out

=

I KI ⋅ I KI ⋅ iv SS SS i SS v SS ≈ + ∴
I
KI
I
KI
iv
SS
SS
i
SS
v
SS
+
≈−
D1
1
D 2
1
22
22
ß!
2
2
KI
⋅⋅
KK
KI
KI
⋅⋅
KK
KI
SS
SS
2
2
2v R
v
−−
v
SS
+
v
SS
v
2 D
1
2
1
2
4
22
4
4
22
4
Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz - Second onder terms v are negleted ß ! v out

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

- Second onder terms v 2 2 are negleted

ß!

v

out

=

2v R

2 D

⎛ ⎞ KI ⋅ K KI ⋅⋅ KI K KI ⋅ ⎜ SS − v SS
KI
K KI
⋅⋅
KI
K KI
SS
v
SS
SS
SS
+
v
1
1
4
22
4
22

Using the approximation valid for x<<1 ®

+
+

1x1

≈ −

x

2

ß! K R v 2KR vv G D = ⇒ = V out D 1 2
ß!
K R
v
2KR vv
G
D
=
=
V
out
D 1 2
C
lo
2
Comments Circuits •   4 quadrants multiplier. •   Good isolation between OL, RF e FI.

Comments

Circuits

4 quadrants multiplier.

Good isolation between OL, RF e FI.

High G C , low NF.

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Linearity is higher than the single-balanced case.

Differential inputs and output.

Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Micromixer •   Based on Gilbert bipolar mixer [IEEE

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Micromixer

Based

on

Gilbert

bipolar

mixer

[IEEE JSS, Sept. 1997].

Better IP3 due to 3rd-order mixing

products cancelation.

Easy matching at RF input.

Single-ended RF input.

Low dynamic range.

V DD R R D v D out M 4 M 5 M 6 M 7
V
DD
R
R D
v
D
out
M 4
M 5
M 6
M 7
v
OL
v
GG
M
M 3
2
v
RF
M
1
I
SS
Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Substrate mixer •   The idea is to use

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Substrate mixer

The idea is to use the substrate

as a second gate. This solution

i s

c o m m o n

transistors.

w i t h

d i s c r e t e

Requires a triple-well technology,

i.e., a p-well inside a deep n-well.

V DD R R D v D out M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4
V
DD
R
R D
v
D
out
M 1
M 2
M 3
M 4
v
2
v
1
Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Potentiometric mixer •   Transistors work on triode region

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Potentiometric mixer

Transistors work on triode region

as variable resistances.

Reactive

components

filter

unwanted

high

order

mixing

products.

Highly linear but high NF.

OPAMP can

component.

be

a low frequency

v RF+ M 1 v OL+ M 2 v v RF- FI M 3 v OL-
v
RF+
M
1
v
OL+
M
2
v
v
RF-
FI
M
3
v
OL-
M
4
v
RF+
Circuits MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Switching passive mixer •   Low conversion gain. •

Circuits

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Switching passive mixer

Low conversion gain.

High linearity.

M i switching High level LO.

v RF+ v M M v OL+ 1 2 OL- v FI v M M v
v
RF+
v
M
M
v
OL+
1
2
OL-
v
FI
v
M
M
v
OL-
3
4
OL+
v
RF-
Simulation •   Time-domain simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Time domain simulation is the transient simulation

Simulation

Time-domain simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Time domain simulation is the transient simulation made by

simulators like Spice.

For strongly nonlinear circuits where frequency excitations are non-

correlated it is the best choice.

Usually simulation time is very long in circuits that have time

constants with large differences like high frequency circuits.

To solve this problem, for example, simulator Spectre uses the

periodic steady-state analysis (PSS). The simulation is performed in

the time domain but the method, after a initial brief transient

simulation, tries to find the steady-state solution by an iterative

approach.

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Time-frequency domain simulation Harmonic-balance simulation frequency simulation. method is

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Time-frequency domain simulation

Harmonic-balance

simulation

frequency simulation.

method

is

one

example

of

time-

ADS from Agilent or Microwave Office from AWR implement it.

The linear part of the circuit is analyzed in the frequency-domain and

the nonlinear part in the time domain. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is

used in the method interactions.

The simulation only analyses the steady-state regime.

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Mixers simulation with Cadence The mixer simulation can be

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Mixers simulation with Cadence

The mixer simulation can be made in different ways. It depends on what behavior is desired.

With this non-linear and/or time-variant circuit the time domain simulation can always be used. The results are voltages and currents in the time domain and, if quantities in the frequency domain are required, tedious post-procession FFT is necessary.

However, Cadence environment has other kind of simulations where frequency domain quantities are easily obtained.

PSS simulation can be used when all signals create non-linear behavior. Still, if only one signal creates that behavior, a small- signal large-signal analysis can be done. PSP, PAC and PNOISE are examples of that and they must be performed in conjunction with PSS.

Simulation •   Simulation examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz A Gilbert cell mixer for f =3.5GHz,

Simulation

Simulation examples

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

A Gilbert cell mixer for f RF =3.5GHz, f LO =3.4GHz and I tail =4mA is presented.

Mixer core

Simulation •   Simulation examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz A Gilbert cell mixer for f =3.5GHz,
MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Time domain simulation It was assumed that RF source and IF
 

MT 2012/2013

Simulation

João Vaz

Time domain simulation

It

was

assumed

that

RF

source

and

IF

load

have

1kΩ

impedances. The LO source has low output impedance.

Test cell example

MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Time domain simulation It was assumed that RF source and IF

29

MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Simulation results (differential RFin , LO and IF voltages) 30
 

MT 2012/2013

Simulation

João Vaz

Simulation results (differential RFin, LO and IF voltages)

MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Simulation results (differential RFin , LO and IF voltages) 30
PSS simulation Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz The mixer has four signal sources: 2 at f

PSS simulation

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

The mixer has four signal sources: 2 at f RF and 2 at f LO . The beat frequency is automatically chosen to 100MHz. Like this any intermodulation product can be selected.

PSS simulation Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz The mixer has four signal sources: 2 at f
  • ç pss form example

Test cell example

(equal to time domain)

ê

PSS simulation Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz The mixer has four signal sources: 2 at f

31

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Results can be viewed taking into account the intermodulation frequency values

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Results can be viewed taking into account the intermodulation frequency values between f RF and f LO .

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Results can be viewed taking into account the intermodulation frequency values

çDirect plot

form for G PC

Direct plot

form for Y LO è

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Results can be viewed taking into account the intermodulation frequency values
Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Isolation can be obtained using the power gain result between LO

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Isolation can be obtained using the power gain result between LO and RF/IF ports. From Y RF and Y LO input admittances equivalents parallel Cp//Rp are calculated.

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Isolation can be obtained using the power gain result between LO

33

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz PSS and PSP simulation PSS simulates LO unique large-signal source. Then

Simulation

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

PSS and PSP simulation

PSS simulates LO unique large-signal source. Then PSP makes a small-signal simulation for RF and calculates all the mixing products with LO.

Test cell example

ê

psp form example è

Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz PSS and PSP simulation PSS simulates LO unique large-signal source. Then
Simulation MT 2012/2013 João Vaz PSS and PSP simulation PSS simulates LO unique large-signal source. Then

34

Simulation PSIN ports are used to identify s-parameter ports like in the SP analysis. A LO

Simulation

PSIN ports are used to identify s-parameter ports like in the SP analysis.

A LO harmonic is associated to each port. The band for each port is the mixing product between input frequency band and port harmonic.

Direct plot form for PSP è

MT 2012/2013 João Vaz 35
MT 2012/2013
João Vaz
35
MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Some PSP results are presented. Please note that results are always
 

MT 2012/2013

Simulation

João Vaz

Some PSP results are presented. Please note that results are always referenced to input frequency band, although some of them belong to other bands.

G T & G P

Noise figure

Input & output matching

MT 2012/2013 Simulation João Vaz Some PSP results are presented. Please note that results are always

36

Examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   DECT double-conversion mixer with AMS CMOS 0.6 m m

Examples

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

DECT double-conversion mixer with AMS CMOS 0.6mm technology (f RF =1.9GHz, f IF =10MHz) (F. Azevedo and Mª J. Rosário, 2002)

The mixer has two stages

and requires two LO:

and requires two LO:
 

f LO1 =1.7GHz, f LO2 =190MHz.

Differential RF input,

quadrature differential IF

outputs.

Quadrature differential

0.8mm

LO1 and LO2 inputs.

Occupied area:

With pads = 0.64mm 2 Without pads = 0.1mm 2

 
With pads = 0.64mm Without pads = 0.1mm
 
0.8mm
0.8mm

Layout

Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+

Examples

Test-bench system diagram

Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+ VLO1q -
Conv. SingDif.
+
Circ.Polifásico de LO1
VLO1i+
VLO1i -
VLO1q+
VLO1q -

v LO1 (t)

Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+
 

+

  • - VLO1

+ - V LO1 V RF+ + V RF Conv. SingDif. de RF V RF -
 

VRF+

+

VRF

Conv. SingDif. de RF

 
 
+ - V LO1 V RF+ + V RF Conv. SingDif. de RF V RF -
 

VRF -

v LO2 (t)

+

  • - VLO2

Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+
Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+

VBBi+


  • VBBi-

VBBq+

Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+

VBBq-

v RF (t)

-

Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+
Examples •   Test-bench system diagram Conv. SingDif. + Circ.Polifásico de LO1 VLO1i+ VLO1i - VLO1q+

C.I. Misturador

Conv. SingDif. + Circ. Polifásico de LO2 VLO2i+ VLO2i - VLO2q+ VLO2q -
Conv. SingDif.
+
Circ. Polifásico de LO2
VLO2i+
VLO2i -
VLO2q+
VLO2q -

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Test board (IC is chip-on-board (CoB) mounted) 45mm Single-Ended

Examples

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Test board (IC is chip-on-board (CoB) mounted)

45mm
45mm

Single-Ended to

Single-Ended to

differential RF input

(1,9GHz)

differential LO1

input (1,7GHz)

IC mixer

Examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Test board (IC is chip-on-board (CoB) mounted) 45mm Single-Ended

55mm

Single-Ended-

Diferencial de LO2

(190MHz)

39

Examples •   Complete test-board MT 2012/2013 João Vaz 40

Examples

Complete test-board

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Examples •   Complete test-board MT 2012/2013 João Vaz 40
Examples MT 2012/2013 João Vaz •   Experimental results Conditions: P RF variable@1880,1MHz; P OL1 =

Examples

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Experimental results

Conditions: P RF variable@1880,1MHz; P OL1 = P OL2 = +7dBm, f LO1 = 1700(1690)MHz, f
Conditions:
P RF variable@1880,1MHz;
P OL1 = P OL2 = +7dBm,
f LO1 = 1700(1690)MHz,
f LO2 = 190MHz;
V DD = 3,3V.

Conversion gain and BB output power

25 20 15 15 5 10 -5 5 -15 P B B i Experimental P B
25
20
15
15
5
10
-5
5
-15
P B B i Experimental
P B B i S imulado
G c Experimental
0
G c
S imulado
-25
-5
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
P RFc [dBm]
[dBm]
P BBi
Gc [dB]
Bibliography MT 2012/2013 João Vaz Razavi , B., RF Microelectronics , Prentice Hall, Inc., 1998. Lee,

Bibliography

MT 2012/2013

João Vaz

Razavi, B., RF Microelectronics, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1998.

Lee, T., The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Crols, J., Steyaert, M., CMOS Wireless Transceiver Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

Maas, S., Microwave Mixers, Artech House, Inc., 1993.

Maas, S., Nonlinear Microwave and RF Circuits, Artech House, Inc., 2003.

Rosário, M. J., Projecto Assistido por Computador de Misturadores com TECMES para Microondas, PhD thesis, IST, Maio 1992.