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Section 5

To the Bourgeoisie-Baudelaire The bourgeoisie should become scholars (knowledge is power), should also learn to appreciate beauty. Art: important for daily life, refreshing at the end of the day, cheering, helps develop feeling. Most bourgeoisie dont pay attention to art, think its unimportant compared to business, law. On the Heroism of Modern Life- Baudelaire Great tradition: idealizing ancient life, making it a parade. Beauty: absolute beauty does not exist, only an abstraction; beauty comes from the manifestation of emotions present in the paintings. Each age has its own understanding of beauty. Heroes: Those who represent an age. Modernity- the prostitute and the dandy. The Painter of Modern Life- Baudelaire Past vs. Present: past is valuable for its beauty and for its historical value, and present is valuable because of its beauty and because it represents the present. Monsieur G: a man of the world (p.62) ; someone who understands the world at large. He paints modern urban life; first modern painter. Paints women who are elaborately dressed, but class distinctions are obvious no matter how nice their clothes are. Dandy: Someone who is blas, insensitive, strolls along and spectates, no other occupation than the pursuit of happiness (p.65), frivolous but simplistic Genius: the childhood recovered at will p.63 Clothing: Painters dress their subjects in Renaissance clothing because they think modern clothes uglythis is lazy, they should look for the beautiful part instead of dismissing the whole. Modernity: Every age has its own walk, style, and beauty. Woman: For artists, women are divinities, finest works are created around them, an idol. Nature: teaches us nothing but cruelty- even instincts are only sometimes toward survival, and more often towards harm. Philosophy and religion teach us virtue. Edouard Manet- Zola Manet painted against the great schools of painting at the time, which is why his works were so offensive; radically different. Originality shocks us creatures of habit. Teachers: Not following teaching is not necessarily a sign of genius; everyone struggles with their style for a while. It is only if this individuality expresses itself in genuine artistic talent. Beauty: At the time there was a standard of beauty, mostly that of Classical Greece. This doesnt take into account that two thousand years have passed since then. Zola in contrast embraces reality as the constant, and shows that artists perspectives are what make works individual. Beauty for him is the human element. Colour: Manet usually paints in a higher key than in Nature, paintings are very light and pale.

The Impressionists and Edward Manet-Mallarm Charles Baudelaire admired Manets paintings before they were successful (hipster). Manet: No one should ever paint the same landscape/figure in the same way or fashion. Some critics said he painted vulgarity- what he really painted was truth. Women are rarely painted in the open air, but they should be. The Impressionists in 1886 and Neo-Impressionism - Fnon Manet: He was the herald of the Impressionism movement; it really began with those such as Pissarro, Renoir and Monet. Degas: Human flesh is true, realistic, almost cruelly depicted. Impressionists: Concerned with truth, painting modern life; objects are intimately connected, no independence of colour or shape. Neo-Impressionists: Painting landscapes which perpetuate a certain sensation. On the Suffering of the World/On the Vanity of Existence-Schopenhauer Suffering: This is the common lot of the world; existence is ill-suited to its purpose. We are only conscious of our will if it is thwarted. Evil is not negative; it is the only positive thing in the world. Possible outlook of the world: this is a punishment. This makes everything make more sense. We are now all fellow sufferers, which makes us more willing to practice virtues such as charity (we all need it) Boredom: If life had any valuable content, we would not be bored when all our needs are fulfilled. Life: People tend to live life in striving for the future, never appreciating the past nor the present. This leads to dissatisfaction when looking back over life. Metaphysics of Music-Schopenhauer Grades of life in music: You can show the four levels of consciousness (minerals, plants, animals, human) with the four voices of music (bass, tenor, soprano, alto); the complexity of what the voices may do relates to how complex the level of consciousness is. Music as special art: It represents the will itself, which is why it affects peoples feelings and wills so directly. Words in music are only of a secondary importance. Harmony: in music depends on the coincidence of vibrations. Melody: Consists of rhythm and harmony. Music has natural resting places built in. Wagner Artists: Most interesting manifestations of life, world reveals itself through their creations, achieves consciousness. Italy: Opera was mostly focused on arias for singers, often specific ones; libretto, stage was secondary. Was its own genre because it had no connection to drama. France: Opera was similar but libretto was much more important, had theatrical standards Germany: Originally just had imitations of Italian and later French opera. Focused more on German national music (Bach, Beethoven). Lagged behind because unlike Latin countries had no real cultivation of form.

Wagner: Took what was best about Ancient Greek tragedy , made it more emotive in his operas. Opera: Total art, including drama, stage art, music, singing. Autobiographical Notes-Albert Einstein Religion: Was deeply religious until after reading scientific books, concluded that stories in the Bible could not possibly be true. Began a distrust of every sort of authority, search for inner freedom. Thinking: Involves a concept (not necessarily a word), otherwise it is just free association. That they dont need words makes wondering possible, when an experience comes into conflict with concepts. Geometry: Read Euclids work at 12, found geometry appealing with its simple incontrovertible proofs. Logical thinking: The connection of concepts; they only gain meaning through connection with sense experience. Physics vs. math: Was more into physics than math because he could more clearly see how to get at fundamental problems of the former; math had too many branches, could spend whole life on one. Exams: They suck. They kill thought. Mach: Einstein was impressed by him because it shook the dogmatic faith in classical physics. The Rise of the Mechanical View- Albert Einstein Guesses: Proved or disproved by experiments. Mechanism: Physical concepts do not have to be tied to reality, they are free creations of the human mind, and are only disproved if they do not fit actual facts. Principles of Research-Albert Einstein Scientists: Some do science for intellectual sport and glory, some only to be useful. The latter is better, and Max Planck is among them. However, they are all necessary. Creating a picture of the world: Painter, poet, philosopher and scientist do this with their work. Theoretical physics: demands highest standard of precision (p.46), describing the simplest events (only ones within the capacity of the human intellect). These descriptions can be applied to any phenomenon What is the theory of relativity?-Albert Einstein Scientific theories: Either constructive (building up a picture of complex things from simple formal scheme like the kinetic theory of gases) or principle-theories (where the base are empirically discovered facts which create mathematically formed criteria, like the theory of relativity). Principles of the theory: laws of physics apply to each frame of reference, and the speed of light is always constant. There is no such thing as absolute space and time; everything is relative.

Section 6
The Waste Land- T.S Eliot Quotes: The Waste Land is full of quotes from various books important to the Western tradition (including the Divine Comedy, others we have studied in FYP). Partly to display his education (many are in original language), partly to show the influence of the past upon the present. Highlights the disorder of the poem, the various structures it briefly uses and then switches up.

Waste Land: The title of the poem is one word split in two to emphasize the adjective waste; emphasizing loneliness. It represents in modernity the city; where everyone is anonymous, solitary surrounded by a crowd. Holy Grail: The land of the Fisher King in typical Grail legends is a waste land; nothing grows there, it is barren. The Grail quest is to restore meaning and life to the land April: Usually seen as a beginning, but is called cruel, mixing memory (past) with desire (future). World War I: The desolation caused by the war is present through the poem; references to it, archduke (Section I) . Game of Chess: Woman quarrelling with her friend Lily, whose husbands been away in the war, looks antique because shes had five children, echoes of Shakespeare pearls in his eyes (Tempest) and good-night sweet ladies (Hamlet-Ophelia) The Fire Sermon: Reference to Tiresias (Ancient Greek prophet) , woman is used by her lover, she is unaffected by their encounter. What the Thunder Said: Referencing a Hindu sacred book (Upanishads) in which thunder speaks; gods hear Humans hear "give", gods hear "control", demons hear "sympathize", speaks to need for genuine human connections, contact. Key: When we acknowledge that there is a key to our prison, we are acknowledging the fact that there is a prison; freedom and captivity are connected. The third: The person that walks with you that is not either you or your companion could be your shadow, God, the spectre of death (?) The Souls of Black Folk- W.E.B Dubois The Veil: the double consciousness that African-Americans have from birth; they are both American and African, have to find some way to reconcile the two. Booker T. Washington: Du Bois believes he is a remarkable figure, but he is not perfect. He is advocating submission at a time when Du Bois believes they should be demanding more rights. He gives up a)political power to focus on business, artisans, b) insistence on civil rights, believes in promoting thrift and self-respect and c) higher education because he believes practical education is more important. Du Bois responds that a) working men will not be able to defend their rights with the right of suffrage and b) this idea of submission will sap the manhood (p.31) of black people, going along with injustice is not fair. Education ((c)): Du Bois position is that while practical education has its place, higher education is important. In his view, in order to get over the Veil one has to attain higher truths, elevate the souldone through a classical education. Also more practically, allows for teachers, doctors, lawyersimportant figures in community. Acknowledges that higher education is not for everyone, but insists that everyone should have access to it. The Two Johns: Allegorical story about a small town where there are two boys named John, one black and one white who go off to study. The black John was very happy-go-lucky before education, but became very serious as a result of learning about social injustice. The white John becomes more racist; both return to town dissatisfied. White John attacks black Johns little sister, and black John kills him.

The Sorrow Songs: Black music is the only original music in America, everything else is a European knockoff. These songs are called spirituals today. These songs reflect the pain and misery of enslavement, the longing for a better world and for justice. Lectures on Psychoanalysis-Sigmund Freud Es: our unconscious, source of energy and power in the psyche, the desires. There is no negation and no time in the unconscious- these impressions are immortal unless brought forward. Ich: Our own identity, controlled by the ber- Ich and fuelled by the Es, very fragile. ber- Ich: Is connected to Ich and Es= it is the conscience, but still fuelled by the Es. Similar to an internalized parent or authority figure. Tyrannical; forceful part is unconscious. Psychic development: Es comes first, then Ich, then ber- Ich. Overall structure: not definite or exact, some parts blend together.

Femininity: Little girls are very similar to little boys; they also possess an Oedipus complex towards the mother originally. Due to penis envy, however, the little girl feels castrated, blames the mother and begins to love her father, stops using clitoris for pleasure. Later in life, the husband replaces the father, as the desire becomes wanting to give the man a baby, especially a son. The Interpretation of Dreams-Sigmund Freud Latent content- whatever is driving your dreams. Manifest content- whatever happens in your dream Condensation/compression- when one person plays two or more roles (Irma is herself, friend, daughter of Freud) Dream analysis: One element at a time to discover individual prompts of real life, then looking at whole picture to discover the overall meaning. Freud= the exciting cause happened on the day of the dream Navel of the dream- the centre of the dream that cannot be interpreted Figures in the dream: Irma, Dr. M, friend Otto, Freud Diary and Letters of Kaethe Kollwitz Mother: Two of her sons went to war; her son Peter was killed very early on. Through her diaries, you can see the agony this caused her and the effects on her life (listlessness, fits of despair) and work (not always able to manage it, sometimes very powerful portrayals of grief). War: Partly because of her own loss, Kollwitz views the war as senseless slaughter, rages against sending so many young men only to have them die in a fight they could never have won.

Memorial: Taking nearly 18 years to complete, Kollwitz built a memorial for her son of a mother and father kneeling in grief. Represents herself and her husband specifically but is universal in representation of parental grief. The Origins of Totalitarianism-Hannah Arendt Totalitarianism: A new kind of government, different than any kind ever studied or experienced before. Not about self-edification or pursuit in power, only interested in the destruction of human spontaneity. Totalitarian Ideology: can explain all of history (past, present and future), is separate from experience (learn nothing new, accept no contradiction) and changes perception of reality by establishing principles of deduction that are not found in nature. Terror: The essence of the regime; not used by the regime, like in a tyrannical government. Arbitrariness of punishment heightens the horror- there is nothing one can do to save their own life. Nazi vs. Stalin: In Arendts view, Nazism and Stalinism are essentially the same- any superficial differences are only incidental, studying these differences take attention away from the radical evil present in both. Enabling conditions for totalitarianism: Rise of Anti-Semitism, decline of nation-state, unfettered expansion, racism and capitalism and the establishment of the mob. Concentration camps: They are completely pointless; they are even anti-utilitarian. Experiment grounds for the destruction of the human spirit. The regime exists to support the camps, not the other way around. Permitted vs. Possible: Everything is permitted means that there is still means-to-an-end rule, even though it can still be horrible. Possible cannot even be understood in terms of utilitarianism, just trying everything and anything. Steps to destroy human: Eliminate 1)juridical person, 2) moral person, 3)individual identity 1)Juridical person: All of the camps are outside the penal state, citizenship is taken away. Mix criminals in with innocents to disorient the innocents, have arbitrary rankings, punishments so that people no longer know where they stand in relation to others, no idea why things are happening to them. 2)Moral person: Outside of camps giving people choices that arent really choices (ex. Either you give up your best friends family or your own family is going to the camps). Inside- prisoners becomes the persecutors (ex. One choosing which other prisoner should die). Impossible to find out whether a prisoner is alive or dead- dont even get the closure of death. 3)Individual Identity: This is done on the way to and within the camps (ex. Crowded together on the trains, identical camp clothing, torture) Laws: Ordinarily, there is some overarching eternal principle (i.e. Nature or God), then positive laws with a relative amount of stability, then human actions which are governed by these laws. In totalitarianism, all laws are laws of movement- they eliminate human action because this is unpredictable; it is one logical movement towards the progress of mankind. Understanding: Many say that concentration camps are beyond understanding, but Arendt says that you have to change your definition of understanding. We need to reconcile ourselves to reality; this is beyond forgiveness. This is difficult to do.

The Second Sex-Simone de Beauvoir Other oppressed groups: De Beauvoir draws parallels between the treatment of women, Jewish people and blacks, but a) those groups have memory of a time before their oppression (historical, not naturalized oppression) and b) they have a sense of community that women dont have. Impotent rebellions: Women have no real way to rebel against their male masters, so they cry, throw fits and are purposely late for everything to rebel in a childish, impotent way. Criticism of women: De Beauvoir admits that much of what men say about women is true, but only because society and gender roles leave them no other choice. Definition of woman: hard to find; the social expectations are changing, and merely biological structures dont seem to be enough. De Beauvoir believes that one becomes a woman, learns from experience. No such thing as 'ontological' feminine and 'ontological' masculine The Other: Woman is the Other; whatever the norm excludes. This also means that man defines themselves in relation to women; men are inextricably linked to women and vice versa. Parasites: Women depend on men for everything- this is not good for men, deprives them of authentic relationships. Some men affirm that they believe in womens rights, but when pushed, they tend to fall back on arguments revolving around this dependence. Immanence of women: Hard for women to be transcendent when their lives mainly revolve around housework which is immanent work (has to be done over and over again). This type of capricious, mindless work inspires magical thinking (belief in rituals, luck, saints). Their own bodies limit themmenstrual cycles, vaporous attacks tie them to earth, cannot control their own bodies. Some men are immanent, but this a rarity, not the rule as it is for females. Equality: De Beauvoir does not believe that women are the same as men, but they should be treated equally anyways. Social change: equal pay, legal abortion, should be available. Daycares and maternity leave should be instituted to show that the next generation is not only the mothers responsibility, but all of society. Biology and Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA- Lewontin Science as perceived: Supposedly cold, analytical, ahistorical, unbiased, amoral- removed from all sorts of ideology. Ideology: Lewontin is adamant that this is not true; Social and historical backgrounds exist for scientific enquiries and theories. Some biases arent noticed, but they are there. Darwins work was based off Malthus political economy- applied to natural economy. Studies: They are often done with too-small groups with built-in issues in how they approach the study, how it is performed. Problem with doing studies with humans is that there are too many variables; we are also self-aware creatures, react differently when we know we are being studied. There are generally economic, political motivations behind these studies; ex. Hybrid corn. Cannot reuse seeds so each year have to return to buy more. Twin studies- advertisements often attract twins who are very identical, hard to do the separated-atbirth-in-two-completely-different-lives study properly because it would require a set-up from the beginning that would be extremely complicated- otherwise the study would have too many variables to cover.

Environment: We are not organisms that act upon a passive environment; we create our environment by our actions. No way to save the environment because it is not passive- we have created it the way it is. Multi-linear vs. Unilinear: Previous thought= cause A effect B. But this is not true for most situations; there are usually several causes underlying an effect, you cant reduce things down to one simple cause. Genes: Dangerous to ascribe all human traits to genes; this leaves out the environmental, social factors. Human genome: Decoded one human genome, but the average difference between peoples genes is 600,000- with that much variation, hard to really make any judgements about genetic factors when one gene being different negates a theory. Standard: Lewontin argues strongly against the present of a standard normality when the amount of variation between people on a genetic level is so high- throw in environment, social differences, there shouldnt be one specific standard- rely more so on statistical data, which eliminates looking for pure essences, evens out biases. Bringhursts Presocratics: Lyric and Ecology Close Reading: The study of poetry beyond simply connecting ideas; this has to do with connecting the resonances present in the poem, studying the patterns that make up the message of a poem as a whole. When properly done, this involves excruciating detail, but this enables the reader to understand the technical ways the poet accomplishes effects, rather than merely feeling these effects. Lyric: A type of poetry, generally short, in which one experience/moment is encapsulated. Examples are odes, sonnets. Lyric Philosophy: Using the medium of poetry to explore philosophical concepts, ideas; the very syntax and structure of poetry supports the idea, not just the words. Using this allows for the portrayal of the ineffable; patterns which are possible in poetry can bring up ideas that are impossible to describe in words. Ecology as Poetry: When studying an ecosystem, you study both each species/feature in detail, and then how they relate to each other. Zwicky examines Heraclitus in this way- Each detail, pattern is examined on its own and is important on its own, but so is the full structure of the poem, which could not exist without each detail but means more than just the sum of its parts. Resonance: A lingering effect which other parts of the poem pick up on- can be as simple as ideas which resonate, but can also be resonating sounds, patterns of imagery. Ineffable: Zwicky says that her commentary is there because there are some things that are more clearly shown than said. Difficult to explain acoustic and visual patterns such as partial rhymes (words that look the same but dont sound the same like love/move) in a poem, easier to show them, see them on paper. Krapps Last Tape Tape-Recorder: This is Krapps only human communication. Substitutes for his memory, but this merely increases the self-alienation; Krapp cannot recognize his past selves. Example: 39 year old Krapp states that he will remember the feel of the black ball for life; 69 year old Krapp cannot remember it at all Repeated section: The section that Krapp repeats over and over again is called farewell to love; in it, it seems to be his last contact with a woman he did love; his great refusal to communicate with the

Other. He favours this section greatly, and listens fully to other sections in which human contact is spoken of. He has failed to maintain these connections with others. Skipped section: This section contains some sort of epiphany about existence, which in the play Krapp angrily skips over. It seems as though due to this epiphany that he gave up upon happiness, love- 69 year Old Krapp skips this, suggesting that it has become meaningless. Krapp as Western tradition: There are various references to figures/concepts of the Western tradition (Tempest, Manichaeism, Divine Comedy), and Krapp himself is losing knowledge, suggesting that he is the Western tradition in decay. Krapps self-destruction: Continues to drink, eat bananas even when he is well aware that they are bad for him.

Thursday Readings
Death in Venice Pre-voyage: Aschenbach has been focused on study, writing since he was young; has always been working, too Apollonian in his lifestyle. He didnt balance his life, which left him susceptible to a Dionysian take over. Man on the boat: The old man is dressed up as his younger companions, Aschenbach finds him disgusting, grotesque- but right before he dies, he dyes his hair, puts on makeup- has become this very thing. Tadzio: Androgynous David-like figure, has both strength of male and beauty of female. Aschenbach falls deeply in love with him but keeps his distance at first, afraid to speak. After he leans his head against his door, Aschenbach loses it, begins to stalk Tadzio through the city. Early- Tadzio is like a statue (Apollonian), later, his voice is musical (Dionysian). Strawberries: When he eats the ripe ones, Aschenbach is at aesthetic distance from Tadzio- when he eats the overripe cholera ones, he has lost this distance and has become corrupted. Sickness: The cholera in the city is hardly ever discussed openly until towards the end, another side of the corruption; kept secret from tourists to keep up business. Aschenbach goes along with the authorities so Tadzio wont leave- personal corruption. Tadzios family: The girls and women are all very colourless, repressed, symbols of the Apollonian. Dionysian visions: First is in the House of Rites, prompts him to travel, go to Venice. Second is right before he begins to truly lose himself in his passion for Tadzio. Analytical Philosophy (Moore, Bradley and Russell) Idealism: Response to Utilitarianism, states that there is a sort of Absolute beyond experience which justifies the world. Reality is either mental or spiritual in character. Examples: Kant, Hegel. Implication of Idealism- the world is vastly different than we think it is; everything is inhabited by mind. Realism: Rose up against Idealism when it became the Establishment. Saying essentially that the world doesnt need to be explained, that there is no such thing as Spirit or some such idea.

Moore: Realist, takes common sense and applies it to world (hands exist so the world exists). Attacks principle esse is percipi (to be is to perceive), which he finds to mean that when you have reality, you also have percipi; esse includes percipi. He says this is not true. Disproving this statement (which Moore claims to be vital to Idealism) disproves much of Idealism. Idealists say that when we experience something, we are experiencing an experiencing of this thing. Moore says we are simply experiencing the thing. All experiences have consciousness in common, but they all have different objects. Idealism says that the content of our thought must reflect the qualities of the object, but Moore says that this explains nothing. Bradley: Idealist. Argues with Russell. Relations cannot be external things, because then they will need more outside connections, etc. in an infinite regress. Relationships only exist internally, where you can keep going back until you see an integrated whole. Identity problem- relationships require diversity, so things cannot be identical with itself. Russell: Realist. When A and B are related, there are three things- A,B and the relationship; the relationship is a thing. Does not think that relationships require diversity. Identity- everything is identical to itself, and different from everything else. Beyond the Shot-Sergei Eisenstein Montage: Juxtaposition of representational shots that mean something when put together. In Eisensteins view, this requires a certain amount of conflict between these images, although he does say that a series of images is a type of collision. Japanese writing: The two symbols together that represent a whole other meaning (ex. Water + eye= weeping) is a form of montage. Conflict: putting contrasting images together (Thesis+ Antithesis= Synthesis) Understanding Media Medium (media): An extension of our senses, physicality (ex. Radio, gun, even clothes (extra skin)). Creates an environment we exist in and are shaped by. Media affects your experience, how you see the world. The medium itself is the message; personal and social consequences resulting from when a new medium is introduced. Hot vs. Cool: Hot media target one sense and overload it with data (ex. Radio). Cool media target more senses, more participation of the audience (TV- audio-visual) Literacy is not being able to read words, but to understand sequence of these words. Literate-visual mode: Mode that began with the invention of the alphabet, targets visual sense. Sequential, fragmented media- dividing the world in pieces and stringing them together to make sense. Important inventions- the alphabet, the phonetic alphabet and the printing press. Post-literate- acoustic mode: Began with the discovery of electricity. With inventions like telegraph, telephone, sequence is lost, things happen simultaneously. Contraction of space and time, makes many things happen at once. Reflected in protests where they have many causes at once, showing how the world has developed. Cyborg Manifesto

Cyborg : Two different things coming together; not creating something new, but holding these differences together. Human/animal blurring : We are not only genetically and evolutionally linked to animals (post-Darwin), but we have discovered that there are behavioural similarities between humans and animals; there is very little that is genuinely special about human beings. Human/technology blurring: Technology is not separate from us anymore. Ex. Laser eye surgery, genetically modified food that we consume, prosthetic limbs. Non-physical/physical blurring: Cell phones use sound waves to connect peoples calls, digital photographs are representations of physical beings but they are not in themselves physical. Dialectic: The problem with dialectic is that it attempts to find a synthesis, an identity between two opposing concepts (thesis and antithesis). It tends to be moving towards a specific goal or end. Telos: Harroway denies that society has a telos (goal); there is nothing it is trying to move towards. This is her problem with systems such as Marxism and certain feminism- these describe some sort of goal. Irony: Holding two ideas together that are contradictory, but neither of them are collapsed into the other- there is no synthesis. This is reflected in Harroways style of writing; she writes ironically by writing one thing and meaning another- the irony is not in one of these elements, but in the relationship between the two. Affinity vs. Identity: Harroway states that people should form coalitions to deal with issues; the people involved should have an affinity for this one issue- they can be completely different, have completely different priorities otherwise. Embrace differences- dont try to get rid of them to form one identity. Feminism (in general): Dont use your life story to represent the totality of feminism. Gender is not a strong enough of an identity to bind all women together as one group- throughout history, women have sided with their race, religion, etc. before their gender. Some women suggest a return to a matriarchal goddess nature world, but Harroway is realistic- technology is neither good nor bad in itself, and it is what we have to work with. Women of colour feminism: States that while all women are at risk for sexism, race makes a difference as to how it manifests itself. Ethics in cyborg world: When making decisions, consider as many components (people, animal, plants) and sub-systems (communities, ecosystems, etc.) as possible- the human is no longer the centre of ethics, the relationships between components is. Have to decide who lives and who dies in the system.