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III. Answer the following by the most appropriate statement: 1.

The optic nerve (II) , olfactory tract is interrupted, will it regenerate? a. no, will regenerate b. yes, will regenerate 2. What lies directly above the tentorium? a. the parietal lobes b the temporal lobes . c. the occipital lobes d the frontal lobes . e. the cerebellum 3. What brain stem region lies or sits in the tentorial notch (incisure)? a. pons b cerebellum . c. temporal lobes d midbrain . e. Hypothalamus
4. What are the major structural differences between dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and autonomic ganglia?

a. b . c. d . a. b . c. d . e.

the DRG contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons whereas the sympathetic ganglia contain the synaptic junctions between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons one is derived from neural crest and the other from neural tube. both have synapses one belongs to the CNS and the other belongs to the PNS.

5. What cells form the myelin sheaths around the axons in CN II and VIII?
astrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively. ependymal cells and Schwann cells, respectively oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively oligodendrocytes and fibroblasts, respectively Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, respectively

6. Ramn y Cajal asks: "What vessel(s) serve(s) the primary somatosensory cortex?" a. anterior cerebral artery b middle cerebral artery . c. both. d neither. . 7. What vessel supplies the cingulate gyrus? a. anterior cerebral artery b middle cerebral artery .



Posterior cerebral artery

8. Sudden occlusion of which artery, near its origin, will produce the most devastating effects? a. the anterior cerebral artery b the middle cerebral artery of the dominant hemisphere . c. the middle cerebral artery of the nondominant hemisphere d the posterior cerebral artery of the dominant hemisphere . e. the posterior cerebral artery of the nondominant hemisphere

9. What vessel(s) serve(s) areas involved in speech in the majority of people? a. right middle cerebral artery. b left middle cerebral artery . c. right and left middle cerebral arteries d right and left posterior cerebral arteries . e. left middle and posterior cerebral arteries 10. What vessel(s) serve(s) the primary motor cortex? a. right middle cerebral artery. b middle cerebral artery . c. both d Neither . 11. Branches of what vessel vascularize the occipital pole of cortex? a. Anterior cerebral artery. b Middle cerebral artery . c. Posterior cerebral artery 12. A general principle of cortical organization is that sensory information and motor control for each half of the body are on the opposite side of the brain. Occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, as occurred here, will likely result in: a. decreased sensation on the left arm and hand b decreased motor control of the left arm and hand . c. decreased speech comprehension (receptive aphasia ) d a and b. e a, b and c. 13. Unilateral Cerebral strokes can cause deficits in motor control, somatic sensation and vision. However, they do not cause deficits in hearing. The explanation for this is: a. auditory information does not reach the cortex b auditory information only goes to one hemisphere . c. auditory information goes to both hemispheres


14. Which of the following structures does not border on the third ventricle? a. Thalamus b Hypothalamus . c. fourth ventricle d Interventricular foramen e Aqueduct
15. The cortex is of uniform thickness.

a. b .


16. Axons that connect the visual association cortex of the two hemispheres are most likely to be in a. Rostrum of corpus callosum b Body of corpus callosum . c. Splenium of corpus callosum d All parts of the corpus callosum .

17. What is the functional significance of the chorionic granulation?

a. b . c. d . produce CSF store CSF transfer CSF to venous system transfer CSF to the lymphatics

18. What will be the effect of infection of the meninges on the sensory innervation of the dura?
a. b . c. d . Anaethesia pain Both Neither

19. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by: a. pial cells b choroid plexus cells . c. ependymal cells d Fibroblasts . e. arachnoid granulation ( = arachnoid villi or pacchionian granulations) 20. The cerebral cortex is a sheet of gray matter that covers white matter. What does the white matter represent?


a. b . c. d .

axons and glial cells axons only neuron cell bodies only neuron cell bodies and glial cells

21. This is the floor of the IV ventricle. Which regions of the brain are associated with the IV ventricle? Hint: think of the embryological development. a. medulla b pons and medulla . c. pons, medulla and cerebellum d midbrain, pons and medulla . 22. Obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct would result in dilation of which of the following? a. lateral ventricles b third ventriclea . c. fourth ventricle d a and b . e. a, b, and c 23. White matter is a collection of myelinated and unmyelinated axons that conduct signals from one area of gray matter to another. What cell bodies can be recognized in white matter? a. cell bodies of glial cells b cell bodies of ependymal cells . c. cell bodies of pial cells d cell bodies of neurons .

24. The spinal nerves consist of ventral and dorsal roots. Where are the cell bodies of the axons in each root? a. Ventral and dorsal root cell bodies are in ganglia, (clusters of cell bodies outside the CNS). b Ventral and dorsal root cell bodies are in the gray matter of the cord . c. Ventral root cell bodies are in the gray matter of the spinal cord and dorsal root cell bodies are in ganglia. d Ventral root cell bodies are in ganglia and dorsal root cell bodies are in the gray matter . of the spinal cord. 25. How do the meninges cover the spinal cord? a. The pia, arachnoid, and dura cover the spinal cord in tight, closely apposed layers. b The dura, arachnoid, and pia of the brain and spinal cord are continuous. All three


. c. d .

layers loosely cover the spinal cord The dura, arachnoid, and pia all cover the spinal cord; the dura and arachnoid are tightly connected with each other. Only the dura mater continues down from the brain to cover the spinal cord, protecting it from the surrounding bone.

26. The spinal pia forms collagenous ligaments that anchor it to the dura. These are the denticulate ligaments. What is their spatial relationship to the dorsal and ventral roots? a. The denticulate ligaments form a scalloped series of attachments between the ventral and dorsal roots in the cervical regions. b The denticulate ligaments are located below the dorsal roots on each side of the spinal . cord. c. The denticulate ligaments form a continuous sheet-like attachment above the dorsal roots. d The denticulate ligaments attach between the exits and entrances of the ventral and . dorsal roots forming each spinal nerve 27. Concerning spinal nerve C-8, which of the following is true? a. C-8 enters/exits between vertebrae C6 and C7 b C-8 enters/exits between vertebrae C7 and C8 . c. C-8 enters/exits between vertebrae C7 and C8 d C-8 enters/exits between vertebrae C7 and T1 . 28. What cord segments comprise the conus medullaris, and what do they innervate? a. The conus consists of lower sacral and a small coccygeal segment that innervates the perineum. b The conus consists of the lumbar and sacral segments which innervate the lower part . of the body from the pelvis down. c. The conus consists of S1-S5 and 3-4 coccygeal segments and innervates the pelvic area. 29. What does the cauda equina (Latin for horse's tail) represent? a. The ventral roots that extend from the lower spinal segments down to their various exits from the vertebral canal. b The dorsal roots that extend from their various entrances into the vertebral canal up to . the proper segment of the cord. c. Both dorsal and ventral roots within the subarachnoid space below the conus medullaris

30. Which of the following is/are true regarding the filum trminale structure?
a. b . c. d . e. it is attached to the conus medullaris. it is a continuation of the pia and ependyma of the spinal cord. it penetrates the dura at the end of the dural sac (vertebra S2). it terminates as the coccygeal ligament fusing with the periosteum of the coccyx. all of the above

31. If it were necessary, as it sometimes is, to insert a needle into the subarachnoid space to sample CSF, where is a relatively safe point for needle insertion?


a. b . c. d .

between C-7 and T-1. between L-3 and L-4. between L-1 and L-2. between T-12 and L-1..

32. What is true regarding the cervical (circle) and lumbar enlargements of the spinal cord? (Scroll down to see all choices). a. The extensive innervation required by neck structures, such as the larynx and pharynx, and by lower abdominal structures such as the bladder and reproductive organs cause an increase in gray and white matter. b The cord is larger because an increased number of axons and cell bodies is required in . the cervical and lumbar regions to innervate the skin and muscles of the appendages. c. There is an increase in white matter in the cervical region and an increase in gray matter in the lumbar region. 33. How do the axons of the nucleus of XII exit the cranial cavity? a. through the Hypoglossal canal. b through the Foramen Magnum . c. through the Stylomastoid Foramen d through the Condyloid canal. . e. through the Jugular Foramen 34. Nucleus XII: where do its axons terminate? a. On the palatoglossus and other striated muscles of the tongue as well as the palatine glands. b On the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue and taste buds on the anterior two . thirds of the tongue. c. On the genioglossus and other muscles of the tongue. d On the striated tongue muscles and pharyngeal mucosa. . 35. Where do the axons of vagus nucleus terminate? a. muscles of pharynx and larynx. b postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies . c. smooth muscle of viscera. 36. Our facial and pharyngeal muscles are derived from the muscles of the embryonic gill arches. Are there any other examples? a. No, there are not any other branchiomeric (gill) arch muscles. b Yes, the tensor palatini, stapedius, splenius capitis longus and the intrinsic muscles of . the larynx are also branchiomeric. c. Yes, the cricothyroid, muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, stapedius and the intrinsic muscles of the larynx are also branchiomeric. 37. What is the significance of the dermatome? a. It enables the clinician to differentially diagnose muscle disease b It enables the clinician to locate lesions affecting the spinal cord or spinal nerves


. c. d . e.

It allows a clear distinction between a distal and proximal lesion along a peripheral nerve. All of the above None of the above

38. What forms this commissure of the spinal cord? a. Second order spinothalamic tract (anterolateral system) axons b Local interneurons . c. Both of the above d Neither of the above . 39. Should the region of the central canal expand, as it did in this case of syringomyelia, what will happen ? a. The local monosynaptic Ia motoneuron reflexes will be impaired or missing. b The pressure may impair or destroy the anterior white commissure and hence cause a . bilateral loss of pain and thermal sensation in the corresponding dermatomes. c. The pressure will destroy the dorsal columns resulting in a loss of fine touch and vibratory sense. d There will be no clinical problem . 40. I n the medulla, where is the anterolateral system located with respect to the nucleus ambiguus? a. It is dorsal to the nucleus ambiguus. b It is medial to the nucleus ambiguous . c. It is ventral to the nucleus ambiguous d It is lateral to the nucleus ambiguus. . 41. What is the functional significance of the dorsolateral fasciculus or Tract of Lissauer? a. It is a tract associated with the sympathetic chain. b It contains axons involved in spinal reflexes and intersegmental integration . c. Both. d Neither. . 42. The dorsal columns are organized: a. Somatotopically with the medial fibers representing the cervical and the lateral fibers representing sacral dermatomes.. b With medial fibers representing sacral regions and lateral fibers cervical regions . c. There is NO somatotopic organization of the dorsal columns 43


. A patient complains of numbness of the fingers which progresses to loss of temperature sensation bilatterally. This condition results from: a. damage to the dorsal columns b bilateral compression of the anterolateral system . c. damage to the spinothalamic tract d interruption of the anterior white commisure .

44. Occlusion of this artery is often associated with: a. Aphasia. b Slurred speech . c. Hoarsness. d Stuttering. . 45. Sensory dissociation is the loss of pain and temperature with sparing of vibration, joint position, and fine touch. By knowing the location of the two pathways that carry the information, and knowing where the second order axons cross, you conclude that this will most likely occur at which level: a. Thalamus b midbrain. . c. pons. d medulla. . 46. A patient suffers loss of sensation from the face and upper body. The obstructed vessel is most likely: a. Anterior cerebral artery b Middle cerebral artery . c. Posterior cerebral artery d Interal carotid artery . 47. The area of the medulla containing the spinal nucleus of V may be supplied by this artery (arrow). Name the artery? a. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). b Superior cerebellar artery . c. Anterior spinal artery. d Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) . e. Posterior cerebral artery


48. Where are the cell bodies located for the axons that innervate the taste buds on the posterior third of the tongue? a. Trigeminal ganglion. b Geniculate ganglion. . c. Petrosal or inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion d Nodose or inferior vagal ganglion . 49. Where are the cell bodies located for the axons that form the descending tract of V ? a. Trigeminal ganglion. b Dorsal root ganglion . c. Descending nucleus V. d Chief sensory nucleus of V . 50. Circulating chemicals such as alcohol, ipecac, etc. stimulate this region in the floor of the fourth ventricle because: a. There is no blood-brain barrier so substances have direct access to appropriate chemoreceptors. b The substances circulate through the ventricular system and directly stimulate the . vomiting center. c. They cause a decrease in threshold for neural circuits. d Visceral afferents in the tractus solitarius are hyperexcitable. . 51. What nerve(s) innervate(s) taste bud receptors? a. VII b IX . c. X d a and b . e. A, b and c 52. The trigeminal ganglion is a homologue of what structure associated with the spinal cord? a. Stellate or superior cervical ganglion b Celiac ganglion . c. Pterygopalatine ganglion d Dorsal root ganglion . e. Sympathetic chain ganglion 53. The sensory division of the trigeminal nerve innervates all of the following structures EXCEPT a. Skin over the angle of the jaw. b Cornea. . c. The dura. d Pain receptors of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue


. e.

Sinuses in the skull.

54. What is the efferent arm of the gag reflex? a. VII b IX . c. X d IX and X . 55. What major cerebral vessel is lateral to the chiasm? a. Anterior cerebral artery b Middle cerebral artery . c. Internal carotid d Posterior communicating artery . 56. The central retinal artery is a branch of the a. Ophthalmic artery b Anterior inferior cerebellar artery . c. Ciliary arteries. d Anterior choroidal artery .

57. What portion of the visual field is represented in the left lateral geniculate?
a. b . c. d . e. The superior half of the visual field of both eyes The inferior half of the visual field of both eyes The right half of the visual field of one eye The right half of the visual field of both eyes The left half of the visual field of both eyes.

58. What part of the ventricular system is closest to the optic radiations? a. Aqueduct. b Posterior horn of the lateral ventricle . c. Fourth ventricle. d Third ventricle. . e. Frontal horn. 59. What is the difference between the optic nerve and tract? a. One has oligodendrocytes and the other Schwann cells. b One has third order axons and one has second order axons . c. One has only ipsilateral axons and the other has both ipsilateral and contralateral axons d one is central nervous system tissue and the other is peripheral nervous system tissue .


60. The optic or visual radiations are located: a. Medial to the lateral ventricle b Lateral to the lateral ventricle . c. All around the lateral ventricle 61. The receptors of the utricle, saccule and semicircular canals, shown here, are examples of? a. Chemoreceptors b Mechanoreceptors . c. Nociceptors. 62. At which level, in the photograph, do the primary vestibular axons enter the brain stem? a. The caudal medulla. b The pontomedullary junction. . c. The mid-pons. d Near the mammillary bodies in the interpeduncular fossa . 63. This structure: (Macula) a. Signals angular acceleration b Is important for conjugate eye movements . c. Signals orientation with respect to gravity. d Is bathed with perilymph . 64. The medial vestibulospinal tract and MLF aid in: a. Orienting toward visual stimuli. b Maintaining visual fixation. . c. Stabilizing the head in space. d Vestibulocollic reflex (i.e. head bobbing when you fall asleep in lecture). . e. All of the above 65. What is the dorsal root ganglion equivalent for the vestibular portion of cranial nerve VIII called? a. Spiral ganglion b Vestibular ganglion . c. Celiac ganglion d Geniculate ganglion . e. Semilunar ganglion. 66. This artery supplies the Visual Cortex. Which one is it? a. Anterior Cerebral Artery b Middle Cerebral Artery. . c. Posterior Cerebral Artery


67. Cranial nerves VII and VIII pass through the: a. Stylomastoid foramen b Jugular foramen.. . c. Internal auditory meatus e. Oval foramen 68. Branches of which cerebral artery vascularize the primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus? a. Thalamogeniculate b Anterior Choroidal . c. Middle Cerebral e. Middle Cerebral 69. Where is the dorsal root ganglion of the auditory portion of VIII ? a. In the medulla. b In the bony spiral lamina . c. In the internal auditory meatus e. In the facial canal. 70. Unilateral Cerebral strokes can cause deficits in motor control, somatic sensation and vision. However, they do not cause deficits in hearing. The explanation for this is: a. Auditory information does not reach the cortex b Auditory information only goes to one hemisphere . c. Auditory information goes to both hemispheres 71. Which limb of the internal capsule contains cortical afferents? a. Anterior limb b Posterior limb . c. Both. d Neither. . 72. A lesion placed in which the following would have the most devastating clinical effects to the patient? a. The precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex b The anterior limb of the internal capsule. . c. The posterior limb of the internal capsule d The anterolateral system . e. The postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex 73. Cortical afferents in the internal capsule have their cell bodies located in: a. The dorsal horn b The dorsal column nuclei. . c. The thalamic nuclei


d .

The cerebral cortex

74. The role of the corpus callosum can best be defined as a. Association cortical connections from all areas. b Intracortical connections between homotopic areas of each hemisphere . c. A dorsal extension of the internal capsule. d A pathway for interhemispheric transfer from the nondominant to the dominant . hemisphere. e. A pathway to insure that the same information goes to each hemisphere. 75. What types of sensory endings, other than muscle spindles, convey information to the cerebellum via spinal cord tracts? a. Golgi tendon organs b Mechanoreceptors. . c. Both. d Neither. . 76. What attaches the cerebellum to the brain stem? a. Cerebral peduncles b Vermis. . c. Cerebellar peduncles d Tonsil.. . 77. Ataxia is defined as: a. Inability to perform rapidly alternating movements b Error in the range of movement . c. Lack of continuity in the execution of movements d Error in the rate, force, and direction of movement . e. Muscle weakness 78. Which of the following are indications of cerebellar disturbance? a. Hypotonia. b Intention tremor . c. Pendular knee jerk d Scanning speech . e. All of the above 79. Where are the cell bodies of the axons that convey sensory information from this sense organ? a. Dorsal root ganglia. b Intermediolateral cell column or lateral horn


. c. d .

Clarke's nucleus (or nucleus dorsalis of Clarke) Ventral horn.

80. The dorsal spinocerebellar tract is contralateral to its cell bodies. a. True b False . 81. What is the vascular supply of the pons? a. Vertebral arteries b Basilar artery. . c. Superior cerebellar artery. d Posterior inferior cerebellar artery . 82. What route do the thalamocortical fibers from the ventral lateral nucleus (arrow) take? a. Internal capsule b External capsule . c. Extreme capsule d Cerebral peduncle . e. Pyramid 83. The right cerebral cortex affects the function of the right cerebellar cortex. a. True b False . 84. The clinical signs of cerebellar hemisphere disease generally occur on the same side as the lesion. a. True b False . 85. Occlusion of PICA has compromised the lateral medulla. Which of the following will occur? a. Ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature from the body b Ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature from the face. . c. Contralateral loss of somatic position and vibratory sensation 86. These pallidal efferents go to: a. Thalamus. b Putamen . c. Red nucleus d A and B. .



A, B, and C

87. The majority of hypertensive hemorrhages occur in the basal ganglia. Rupture of branches of which artery are most common? a. Middle cerebral. b Lenticulostriate or lateral striate . c. Anterior cerebral. d Anterior communicating . e. Posterior communicating 88. The prominent caudate and putamen seen in this axial or horizontal MRI section are separated by the: a. Anterior limb of the internal capsule b Genu of the internal capsule . c. Posterior limb of the internal capsule d All limbs of the internal capsule . 89. The basal ganglia exert their effects on motor behavior through the: a. Rubrospinal tract. b Vestibulospinal tract . c. Reticulospinal tract d Corticospinal tract. . e. All of the above. 90. Horner's Syndrome consists of miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis. These can all be explained as due to the interruption of: a. Nerve III. b Oculomotor nucleus.t . c. Hypothalamospinal and reticulospinal fibers d Tuberal nuclei in the hypothalamus. . 91. Horner's Syndrome can result from: a. Interruption of hypothalamospinal tract in the medulla. b Lesion of superior cervical ganglion. . c. Thoracic spinal cord lesion. d Lesion of sympathetic chain in thoracic region. . e. All of the above. 92. The third ventricle is surrounded by the following structures with the EXCEPTION of: a. Anterior commissure b Fornix. .


c. d . e.

Posterior Commissure Choroid plexus. Optic tract.

93. Preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies are located in: a. Intermediate or lateral horn (T1-L2). b Intermediate or lateral horn (S2-5). . c. Both A and B d Edinger-Westphal, salivatory and dorsal motor nucleus of X . 94. Which set of cranial nerves contains preganglionic parasympathetic axons. a. V, VII, IX, X. b IV, VI, XI, XII. . c. III, VII, IX, X. d I, II, VII, XI. . 95. A portal system is a system of vascular drainage that communicates between arteries and veins. a. True b False . 96. Which of the following nuclei receive descending axons from the hypothalamus: a. Dorsal motor nucleus of X b Edinger-Westphal nucleus . c. Inferior salivatory nucleus d Nucleus solitarius. . e. All of the above 97. Touch and pressure from the nipple reach the neurosecretory nuclei by the: a. Dorsal column b Spinoreticular pathways . c. Solitary tract. d Dentatorubrothalamic tract . e. Spinocerebellar tract. 98. The hippocampus receives direct input from: a. Parahippocampal cortex b Cingulate cortex . c. Amygdala. d Septalnuclei and hypothalamus


. e.

All of the above.

99. The output of the amygdala (arrow) is to a. Septal nuclei and hypothalamus b Dorsomedial thalamus . c. Orbitofrontal cortex d Ventral striatum. . e. All of the above. 100. With respect to the inferior horn of the ventricle, The amygdala (arrow) is: _____? a. Medial or rostral b Lateral. . c. Posterior or caudal 101. A major source of afferents to the amygdala is the a. Hypothalamus. b Olfactory tract. . c. Multisensory association cortex in temporal lobe d All of the above. . 102. The major structural difference between the somatosensory and olfactory systems is a. The olfactory system has no primary sensory cortex b The olfactory system has no association sensory cortex . c. The olfactory system does not relay in the thalamus d The olfactory system has no primary sensory neurons. . 103. Axons of hippocampal pyramidal cells travel in the a. Ventral (amygdalofugal) pathway b Stria terminalis. . c. Fornix. d Cingulum. . 104. The thickened portion of the septum pellucidum represents a. The fornix. b The septal nuclei . c. Both d Neither .


105. Olfactory receptors are located in a. Cribriform plate. b Olfactory bulb . c. Nasal mucosa. d Nasal submucosa . 106. One of the reasons we know that the olfactory tract is part of the CNS is because a. It has axons, Schwann cells and connective tissue. b It is part of the central nervous system in terms of embryological origin . c. It is part of the peripheral nervous system in terms of its embryological origin d It will regenerate. . 108. Olfactory information reaches the temporal lobe via a. The stria terminalis b The lateral olfactory stria . c. Orbital cortex. d The anterior thalamic nucleus . e. Septal nuclei

III. The Answers

1=a 11 = c 21 = c 31 = b 41 = b 51 = e 61 = b 71 = c 81 = b 91 = e 101= d 2=c 12 = d 22 = d 32 = b 42 = b 52 = d 62 = b 72 = c 82 = a 92 = e 102= c 3=d 13 = c 23 = a 33 = a 43 = d 53 = a 63 = b 73 = c 83 = b 93 = a 103= c 4=a 14 = c 24 = c 34 = c 44 = b 54 = c 64 = e 74 = b 84 = a 94 = c 104= b 5=c 15 = b 25 = b 35 = c 45 = d 55 = a 65 = b 75 = c 85 = b 95 = b 105= c 6=c 16 = c 26 = d 36 = c 46 = b 56 = a 66 = c 76 = a 86 = a 96 = e 106= b 7=a 17 = c 27 = d 37 = b 47 = d 57 = d 67 = c 77 = d 87 = b 97 = b 107= c 8=b 18 = d 28 = a 38 = c 48 = c 58 = b 68 = c 78 = e 88 = a 98 = e 108= b 9=b 19 = b 29 = c 39 = b 49 = a 59 = d 69 = b 79 = a 89 = d 99 = e 10 = c 20 = a 30 = e 40 = d 50 = a 60 = b 70 = c 80 = b 90 = c 100= a