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IV. Spinal Cord: Answer the following by the most appropriate statement: 1.

There are _____ pairs of spinal nerves. a. 12 b. 21 c. 31 d.43 2. The deep groove on the ventral surface that extends the length of the spinal cord is the.. a. anterior median fissure b. central canal c. central sulcus d. longitudinal fissure 3. Which spinal nerves comprise the cauda equina?......... a. coccygeal b. lumbar, sacral and coccygeal c. sacral d. sacral and coccygeal 4. What two grooves extend the length of the spinal cord and partially divide it into right and left halves? a. anterior median fissure and central sulcus b. anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus c. central sulcus and longitudinal fissure d. longitudinal fissure and posterior median sulcus 5. The fibrous strand or terminal filum that anchors the inferior end of the spinal cord to the coccyx is a continuation of the a. arachnoid mater b. dura mater c. epidural mater d. pia mater 6. Space superficial to the meninges in the spinal cord area in which an anesthetic is injected to block pain impulses from the pelvic area a. dural sinus b. epidural space c. subarachnoid space d. subdural space 7. Which of the following is NOT one of the four regions into which the spinal cord is divided? a. coccygeal b. lumbar c. sacral d. thoracic 8. The spinal cord is contiguous superiorally with the a. cerebellum. b. medulla oblongata c. midbrain. d. pons. 9. The nerves that supply the upper limbs enter or exit from this area of the spinal cord. a. cervical plexuses b. cervical enlargement c. lumbar enlargement d. sacral plexuses

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10. The nerves that supply the lower limbs enter or exit from this area of the spinal cord. a. brachial plexuses b. cervical enlargement c. cervical plexuses d. lumbar enlargement 11. Which of the following statements about the spinal cord is NOT correct? a. It has two enlargements b. It extends to the level of lumbar vertebra three in an adult c. It gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves d. It has a central canal that is continuous with the fourth ventricle of the brain. 12. The inferior end of the spinal cord is anchored to the coccyx by the a. cauda equine b. conus medullaris c. filum terminale d. tectum 13. The white matter in each half of the spinal cord is organized into three columns. Which of the following is NOT one of the columns? a. ventral column b. lateral column c. inferior column d. dorsal column 14. The gray matter on either side of the spinal cord is subdivided into anterior, lateral and posterior a. columns. b. horns c. funiculi d, fascicule 15. The lateral horns of the gray matter in the thoracic region of the spinal cord contain the cell bodies of a. somatic motor neurons b. parasympathetic motor neurons c. sympathetic motor neurons d. sensory neurons 16. The gray matter on the right and left sides of the spinal cord is connected by the a. corpus callosum b. gray commissure c. intermediate mass d. vermis 17. Which of the following terms is synonymous with columns as in columns of white matter in the spinal cord? a. fascicule b. funiculi c. horns d. tracts

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18. Each column in the white matter of the spinal cord consists of one or more a. funiculi b. gyri c. horns. d. tracts 19. The white matter in each half of the spinal cord is arranged in a. two horns - anterior and lateral b. three horns - anterior, lateral and posterior c. two columns - ventral and dorsal d. three columns - ventral, lateral and dorsal 20. All of the following are true about spinal nerves EXCEPT a. they are all mixed b. there are 31 pairs c. spinal nerves may contain nerve fibers of both the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. d. all motor nerve fibers in spinal nerves extend uninterrupted from the spinal cord to an effector 21. Ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord occur in the a. columns. b. gray commissure. c. horns. d. root 22. The knee-jerk reflex involves which of the following? a. sensory and motor neurons b. sensory, association and motor neurons c. sensory, motor and interneurons d. sensory and association neurons 23. Which of the following is NOT true about the knee jerk reflex? a. It is a spinal reflex b. It is a somatic reflex. c. It helps to maintain an upright posture. d. It involves conduction of nerve impulses from sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron 24. Which of the following reflexes inhibits skeletal muscle contraction? a. crossed extensor reflex b. Golgi tendon reflex c. stretch reflex d. withdrawal reflex 25. John injured the quadriceps muscles in his legs due to increased tension and tearing while horsing around on the football field. What reflex failed to protect the muscles? a. Golgi tendon reflex b. flexor reflex c. knee jerk reflex d. stretch reflex

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26. Inhibitory interneurons are involved in which of the following spinal reflexes? a. Golgi tendon reflex b. knee jerk reflex c. stretch reflex d. withdrawal reflex 27. Excitatory interneurons are involved in which of the following spinal reflexes? a. Golgi tendon reflex b. knee jerk reflex c. stretch reflex d. withdrawal reflex 28. You are walking bare foot and step on a tack with your right foot. All of the following will occur EXCEPT a. flexor muscles in your right thigh and leg contract to remove your foot b. reciprocal innervation inhibits extensor muscles in the same limb c. collaterals of sensory neurons stimulate alpha motor neurons that cause extension in the opposite limb d. collaterals of interneurons stimulate a crossed extensor reflex 29. The reflex arc contains a a. sensory reception b. sensory neuron c. motor neuron d. All of the above. 30. Which of the following combinations indicates the correct distribution of spinal nerve pairs? a. 7 cervical - 12 thoracic - 6 lumbar - 5 sacral 1 coccygeal b. 7 cervical - 12 thoracic - 5 lumbar - 6 sacral - 1 coccygeal c. 8 cervical - 12 thoracic - 6 lumbar - 4 sacral - 1 coccygeal d. 8 cervical - 12 thoracic - 5 lumbar - 5 sacral - 1 coccygeal 31. A man was in an accident and severed his spinal cord between C6 and C7. Which of the following would NOT occur? a. loss of sensation in the trunk below the shoulders, the lowers limbs and portions of the arms b. damage to the phrenic nerves which would therefore affect breathing c. loss of movement in the lower limbs d. damage to the intercostal nerves which would affect breathing because the intercostal muscles would be paralyzed 32. The anterior branch or ramus of a spinal nerve supplies a. muscles and skin of the back b. muscles and skin on the front and sides of the trunk and limbs c. the meninges and blood vessels of the spinal cord d. intervertebral ligaments and vertebrae 33. Where are fibers of adjacent spinal nerves sorted and recombined so that fibers specific to a body part reach that body part in the same nerve? a. ganglion b. nucleus c. plexus d. reticular formation

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34. The brachial plexus supplies nerves that function to contract which of the following? a. the diaphragm b. intercostal muscles c. muscles of the arm and forearm d. muscles of the lower limb 35. The sciatic nerves arise from which of these plexuses? a. brachial b. cervical c. choroid d. lumbosacral 36. Which of the following combinations of spinal nerves supply the brachial plexuses? a. C1-C4 b. C1-T1 c. C5-T1 d. T12-S5 37. Which of the following are NOT peripheral nerves associated with the brachial plexuses? a. axillary nerves b. femoral nerves c. radial nerves d. ulnar nerves 38. Which of the following nerves arising from the lumbosacral plexuses are the largest and longest peripheral nerves in the body? a. femoral nerves b. obturator nerves. c. pudental nerves d. sciatic nerves 39. Which of the following plexuses is NOT paired with a peripheral nerve originating from it? a. brachial - radial nerve b. cervical - phrenic nerve c. lumbar - femoral nerve d. sacral - muscuolcutaneous nerve 40. The ventral branches or rami of spinal nerves do NOT join to form nerve plexuses in which of the following spinal cord areas? a. cervical b. lumbar c. sacral d. thoracic 41. After severely breaking his left humerus in an accident, a man lost sensation on the posterior aspect of the limb and was unable to extend his forearm, wrist, or fingers. What nerve was damaged? a. axillary b. musculocutaneous. c. radial d. ulnar

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42. After severely injuring her hip in an accident, a woman was unable to extend her right leg. What nerve was damaged? a. femoral b. obturator c. tibial d. pudental 43. The ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves intermingle with each other to form a a. ganglion b. fascicle c. plexus d. tract 44. Which of the following nerves arises from the brachial plexus and innervates all of the extensor muscles of the upper limb? a. axillary nerve b. musculocutaneous nerve c. radial nerve d. ulnar nerve 45. Compression of what nerve arising from the brachial plexus results in numbness, tingling, and pain in the fingers, a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome. a. axillary nerve b. radial nerve c. median nerve d. musculocutaneous nerve 46. Which of the nerves arising from the lumbosacral plexus is the largest peripheral nerve in the body? a. femoral b. ischiadic nerve c. obturator nerve d. pudental nerve 47. Before a doctor performs an episiotomy, a cut in the perineum that makes the opening of the birth canal larger, branches of what nerves arising from the lumbosacral plexuses are anesthetized? a. femoral nerves b. ischiadic nerves c. obturator d. pudental nerves 48. Nerve fibers in the phrenic nerves that innervate the diaphragm arise primarily from what plexuses? a. brachial b. cervical c. lumbar d. sacral

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49. Which pair of spinal nerves does NOT supply any skin area? a. C1 b. C8 c. T1 d. S1 IV. The Answers 1=c 6=b 11 = b 16 = b 21 = a 26 = a 31 = b 36 = c 41 = c 46 = b 2=a 7=a 12 = c 17 = b 22 = a 27 = d 32 = b 37 = b 42 = a 47 = d 3=b 8=b 13 = c 18 = d 23 = d 28 = c 33 = c 38 = d 43 = c 48 = b 4=b 9=b 14 = b 19 = d 24 = b 29 = d 34 = c 39 = d 44 = c 49 = a 5=d 10 = d 15 = c 20 = d 25 = a 30 =d 35 = d 40 = d 45 = c

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