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UNIT -1 PART-A 1. Explain MTU? 2. What is the need for traffic engineering? 3. Define net-id & host-id? 4.

What is CDR? 5. Name the significant role of headers? 6. Name some primary functions of routers? 7. Name some shortest path algorithm? 8. Compare bellman ford & dijkstras algorithm? 9. Define path catching? 10. Define link utilization? 11. Compare directed & undirected network? 12. What is demand flow constraint? PART-B 1. Write a detailed note on IP addressing? Class full addressing Subnet/netmasking Class less interdomain routing 2. Explain with block diagram the protocol stack architecture? 3. Explain widest path algorithm? Bellman ford algorithm Dijkstras algorithm 4. Explain shortest path algorithm? Bellman ford algorithm Distributed Centarllized 5. Explain network flow modeling? Single commodity network flow (only minimum cost routing case) Multi commodity network flow (only minimum cost routing case) 6. Explain single commodity network flow? Minimum cost routing Load balancing Average delay 7. Explain multi commodity network flow? Minimum cost routing Load balancing Average delay

UNIT -2 PART-A 1. What is EIGRP? 2. What are open jaw routers? 3. Draw the RIP message structure? 4. What is route distribution? 5. Name different types of router? 6. What is DD sequence number? 7. Explain the addressing in IS-IS? 8. What are pseudo nodes and non pseudo nodes? 9. What is IP network traffic? 10. Name the message type of BGP protocol? 11. Name the classification of BGP path attributes? 12. What is adjacent RIBs-IN? 13. Name the two parts of BGP decision process? PART-B 1. Explain routing information protocol version one (RIP-V1)? Communication & message format General operation Advantage 2. Explain routing information protocol version two (RIP-V2)? Description & packet format General operation Advantage 3. Explain RIP-V1 & RIP-V2? Operation of both 4. Explain How OSPF is designed to address different types of network? Point to point network Broadcast Non broadcast Point to multipoint Virtual link broadcast OSPF packet format? 5. Discuss Similarities & difference between IS-IS & OSPF? In detail traffic engineering? 6. Give a brief overview about BGP (border gateway protocol)? Overview of BGP Basic terminology Operation BGP timer 7. Explain border gateway protocol operation & timer?

8. Write a detailed note on internet routing architecture? Internet routing Addressing & routing

UNIT -3 PART-A 1. What is IMT (inter machine trunk)? 2. What is two ladder limit rule? 3. What is the difference between dynamic call routing & hierarchical routing? 4. Define trunk reservation? 5. Name all the classification of dynamic call routing scheme? 6. What is the goal of traffic engineering? 7. What is call blocking? 8. Classify the controls that can be invoked when congestion is detected? 9. What is CCH (connection/circuit/hour)? 10. Name the three types of mode in SS7 architecture? 11. What are the types of link defined for SS7 networking? 12. Explain the general format of E.164 addressing scheme? 13. Explain the number planning in India? PART-B 1. Explain hierarchical routing in detail with a simple illustration? 2. Write a note on dynamic controlled routing? 3. Explain the routing in PSTN? hierarchical routing dynamic controlled routing 4. Explain SS7 architecture & routing in SS7? Node types SS7 links Routing in SS7 5. Discuss signaling network for telephony? SS7 architecture & routing in SS7 6. Discuss various steps involved in setting up a basic telephone call? 7. Write a detail note on call routing? Routing at TDM switch level For multiple long distance provider case (MLDP)?

UNIT -4 PART-A 1. Draw the block diagram for routing & packet forwarding process? 2. Name the routing process functions? 3. Explain the various basic routing functions? 4. Explain two stages in packet classification algorithm? Preprocessing stage Classification stage 5. What are the four types of matches in packet classification? Exact match Prefix match Range match Regular expression match 6. What is exact match? 7. What is prefix match? 8. What is range match? 9. What is regular expression match? 10. What is the main idea behind divide and conquer approach? 11. What is cross producting? 12. What is RFC (recursive flow classification) & explain two techniques used by RFC? 13. What is TUPLE space approach? PART B 1. Write a detailed note on elements of router and discuss its types? 2. Explain with diagrams the router architecture? Shared CPU architecture Shared forwarding engine architecture 3. Write a note on shared CPU architecture? 4. Write a note on forwarding engine architecture? 5. Explain the tree bit map algorithm for IP address lookup algorithm? Tree bit map LC-TRIES 6. Write a note on tree bit map? 7. Write a note on LC-TRIES? 8. Explain the various hardware algorithms? Ram based lookup Turnery cam based lookup 9. Write a detailed note on packet classification? Importance of packet classification Packet classification problem

Performance matrix 10. Write a note on packet classification problem & performance matrix? UNIT-5 PART A 1. Define QOS routing? 2. Discuss service request type classification? 3. What are the two possibilities with regard to routing computation? 4. What are the two possibilities to maintain GOS (grade of service) aspect of QOS? 5. What is BDR (bandwidth denial ration) & give its expression? 6. Name some desirable attributes for a link? 7. What is label distribution? 8. What are the important points to be considered before routing is GMPLS? 9. Briefly state the VOIP environments? 10. What UNI? 11. What are the two points to be considered to replace analog UNI segment? PART B 1. Write a note on MPLS (multi protocol label switching)? Architecture Labeled packets & LSP Label distribution 2. Write a note on GMPLS? Background & theory GMPLS labels 3. Discuss about traffic engineering of MPLS networks? History MPLS based approach for traffic engineering 4. Write a detailed note on VOIP routing? Background PSTN call routing using internet 5. Discuss the interworking of VOIP in IP-PSTN? Gateway function SIP addressing basics SIP phone to POTS phone