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Coal Mining IRONMAKING COURSE

March 12th, Belo Horizonte, Brazil


PART X

Coal Mining

Ground

Drilling Explosion

Coal Layer

Coal Mining
Work of coal extracting from its natural environment, processing and transportation to the place that it will be used. Disassembly of the coal layer (drilling and / or detonation with explosives), charging, transporting and crushing to a suitable size for further processing.

Coal Mining
Stages of the coal industry

1. Exploratory Geological Research Geophysical Research Drilling Research 2. Viability Studying 3. Exploration Mining Development Mining Operation Coal processing 4. Transportation 5. Utilization

Coal Mining
Activities before coal mining
Coal localization and avaliation Local Geology Geophysics Geochemistry Drilling Sampling

Reserves evaluation Drilling (mash) Pit or tunnel drilling Evaluation Deposit Geology Mineralogy Mining methods Mineral processing Economy Environment Planning Mininh methods seletion installation needs Project and engineering

OPENING AND DEVELOPMENT Opening of the pit and tunnels Stripping Surfaces and undergrounds constructions

Mining

Coal Mining
The first stage for the implantation of a mining unit is the establishment of a research program, drilling teams, using simultaneously several drilling machines, take the probe evidency. Probe evidence are samples of 50 mm in diameter for definition of reserves / characterization of coal or 200 mm in diameter, in sufficient quantities for various tests, including those of washability. Tests can get information on coal quality on the geological layer characteristics, providing a perfect project of the mine, of the preparation plant and the subsequent use of coal.

Coal Mining

E X P L O R A T O R Y

Probe or drilling tower Drilling column Tubes First tube: drill

Probe evidency

Coal Mining

Inorganic

Float-Sink Test
Inorganic Moisture Moisture Organic Matter

Organic Matter

Complete characterization

Complete characterization

Mining Beneficiation Aplication

Coal Mining
Washability curve It is made by the determination of the properties (ash, volatile matter and sulfur) of the fractions that sink to a certain density of the dense liquid and float into another density a bit higher. It also determines the percentage by weight of each of these fractions. Os valores acumulados so calculados, tabelando-se os rendimentos, matria voltil, cinza e enxofre para os carves flutuados em diversas densidades. O carvo metalrgico considerado como o flutuado em meio denso a vrias densidades. A planta de preparao projetada para remover a poro no-combustvel do carvo a um custo operacional mnimo e um rendimento timo.

Coal Mining
Types of Coal Mining

Open Pit

Underground

Ground

Drilling Explosion

Coal Layer

Coal Mining
Stages of coal mining

Geology Sampling Research Digging stability Project and engineering Suply services

Mining Disassembly Charging Transport Costs control Environment

Energy Maintenance Occupational health and security Ventilation Water control Land recovering

ROM

Coal Mining
Steps to coal mining:

Depth of coal layer. Thickness of coal layer.


Quantity and type of sediments overlapped. Quantity of water encountered. Presence and quantity of gas in the layer. Other geological conditions, roof stability, existence of igneous inclusions, dip angle of the layer, existence of flaws.

Coal Mining
Open pit

Coal Mining
Open Pit

Coal Mining
Open Pit

Coal Mining
Open Pit

Coal Mining
Open Pit

Coal Mining
Open Pit

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground mining

Coal Mining Underground Mining

Coal Mining
Underground Mining

Chambers and pillars

Coal Mining
Underground mining Longwall

Coal Mining
Underground Mining Longwall

Coal Mining
Underground Mining Longwall

Coal Mining
Coal Processing

ROM
Classification Processing Pesquisa Digging stability Project and engineering Suply services Energy Maintenance Occupational health and security Ventilation Water control Land recovery

Processing ROM conversion to consumable products

Comsumption products

Coal Mining
Coal processing
Run-of-Mine Process Washed coal

vVariety of sizes vHigh content of


impurities

vCrushing vClassification vWashing vDrying

vSmall range of sizes vLow content of impurities

The processing method use the density to remove impurities.

Magnetite is added to water to create an ambient in which multiple density levels are
created.

Different qualities of coal are produced

Coal Mining
Run-of-Mine

Coal beneficiation
Crusher

Fine coal

Medium coal

Thick coal

Froth Flotation
Tailing

Cyclone
Tailing

Bathing with dense fluid


Tailing

Dewatering screen Tailing Thickner Clean coal filter Centrifuging Dewatering screen

Thermal Dryer Charging Tailing bunker

Clean coal

Clean coal

Clean coal

Coal Mining
Coal beneficiation
Run-of-Mine 55 to 60% of ash 1000 t Pre-scrubber

243 t

Scrubber 12 t 740 t

17 t

60 t

170 t

752 t

Fines (18% ash)

Metalurgical Coal (18% ash)

Seam Coal (30 to 40% ash)

Tailings (70 to 75% of ash)

Coal Mining
Coal marketing

Consumption products

Definition of coal types Standards and specifications Transport to the costumers

MARKETING Coal for cokemaking and oters uses.

Materials science and technology Properties and products uses. Ways of sales.

Coal Preparation for The Coke Oven Plant

Coal Preparation System


Railway transportation Maritime Terminal Conveyors belt system Coal sampler Dumper wagon

Magnetic separator

Coal sampling

Magnetic separator

Crushing system

Coal bunker Scales system Storage yards

Mechanical Mixer

Blending sampler

Coal Blend Bunker

Coke oven battery

Car Dumper

Car dumper with water sprays Automatic weighing and emptying

Storage in Yards of Steel Industry

Dead storage (to prevent transportation problems and keep a steady flow) and
alive storage (supplies directly the consumer or the means of transport): the coal is removed from the dead and transferred to the alive.

Silo between regular consumption of coke oven battery and irregular receiving
of ships.

Open storage (outdoor):is used for large capacity, due to its lower cost in
relation to the closed storage.

Storage in Yards of Steel Industry


Thick green belt around the yards. Covered conveyor belts. Stacking and removal of coal (distribution-reclaiming). Individual Stacks by type of coal. Increase the homogeneity of the coal. Limiting the storage time to prevent more severe oxidation of coal.

Distribution by Stacker

Distribution by Stacker-Reclaimer

Distribution by Stacker-Reclaimer
Maximum height of fall during stacking. Maximum height of stacks. Stacks located appropriately in relation to the wind direction. Water spray systems on conveyor belts before stacking. Automated system of spraying water in the stacks. Tailing ponds for contention of the material carried by the waters.

Coal Distribution System by Stacker-Reclaimer


The system consists of a feeder conveyor belt, a conveyor belt of reverse cycle and a bucket wheel. The coal is carried by the feed conveyor to an intermediate transfer point, where it is transferred to a reverse conveyor belt, which takes the coal to the point of storage.

Coal Distribution in Yards It should prevent the occurrence of segregation that makes the particles of larger diameter be located in the outer and bottom stack zones and the smaller diameter in the inner and higher stack zones. This arrangement facilitates the movement of air currents through the larger particles, which carry oxygen to the border region with smaller particles, due it has higher specific surface are susceptible to oxidation, may generate hot points. It can lead to located deterioration of coal.

Segregation in Coal Stacks

Stacking Methods
Windrow, chevron e cone-shell

Windrow Method Parallel Stacks


It is (with the stacker) a series of parallel stacks along the tyard, covering the entire area of the stack soil. When the first series of steps is completed a second row of stacks is constructed by filling the gaps in the first serie of stacks. The process continues until the entire stack is built (it can be flat-topped or not). The advantage of this type of stack is that it avoids the segregation (the arrangement of thicker material for each step is restricted by the triangular section) The thick material is distributed consistently throughout the stack. The method can be applied only if the scope of the stacker reaches the extremity of the yard.

Chevron Method
Consists in crossing from one side to another throughout the length of the court with the stacker arranged to feed the center of stack. A small stack of triangular section is deposited along the length of the court in the first step of the stacker. In the second step in the opposite direction a second chevron of coal will be placed on the top of the first. As the number of steps increases the stack increases in height and thickness of chevrons reduces progressively (the same amount of material trying to cover a perimeter of increased cross section). If there is thick coal the main disadvantage of these methods is that there will be segregation and larger particles tend to be deposited in the lower and outside parts of the stackl. Depending on the method of reclaiming used this method may not give the results of homogeneity required.

Fines Generation in Yards

The winds and the transfer operations are largely responsible for the existence of clouds of fine coal in the atmospheric air from stored coal or in storage. The generation of dust, beyond dependency of the winds action depends on the sum of the free fall that coal is submitted, also responsible for the increased percentage of fines. In coal transfer operations should be used methods for dust removal. The cheapest solution is to spray water. Minimizing the problem of dust generation: prevention, removal, suppression, containment and fines dilution. The physical stability of the coal stacks can be made by spraying of binders (synthetic polymers) which form a film on the surface, preventing the formation of dust.

Evaluation in Yards Emissions


Method for measuring emissions with wind tunnel (for stacks). Method for measuring the exposure profile (transfer points). Method of measurements of wind barriers (green belt). Quantification of settable dust (point counting technique on body-ofevidence produced from samples collected in different parts of the plant and in locations close to it).

Dreinage Water in Yards

Drainage water from coal stacks may have three undesirable aspects regarding the viewpoint of use: high acidity, resulting from oxidation of pyrite (neutralization is made by adding lime or limestone); contain particulate matter in suspension by mechanical drag made by percolation water (this material may have dimensions such that it behaves as colloid, dispersing in the liquid mass with slow sedimentation rate), and contain heavy metals (such as Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg) dissolved in water, resulting from the leaching action of acidic water (these metals can be precipitated at higher pH and removed with particulate material in devices called classifiers or thickeners).

Unstacking: Reclaimer or Jib-Loader

Unstacking of Coal in Yards

With Reclaimer: the unstacking of coal is made by the bucket wheels which transfer the coal to reverse conveyor belt (now goes in the opposite direction) and will discharge it in the feed conveyor, which takes the coal for further processing.

Types of Unstacking

Bench cut, module cut e harrow cut.

Oxidation During Coal Storage Coal is a pyrophoric substance "spontaneous combustion".

If the O2 penetrates the stack, it oxidizes. Increase of temperature.


WIND

If the heat generated is not well removed, it eventually ignites.

C H + O2 H2O + CO2 + HEAT

Oxidation Consequences
Reducing of rheological properties Decrease of the mechanical strength of coke Control problems with charge density. Variations in the coke production. Overheated charges. Carbon deposit Ovens deterioration Increase of coke reactivity. Decrease of coking rate. Fines generation and difficult of handling. Spontaneous combustion. Sponge effect when adding oil.

Monitoring Oxidation Level


Systematic monitoring of coal received quality (rheological properties) Observation and petrographic analysis Extraction method with probe.

Steps to Prevent Oxidation Stacks compression Monitoring and eliminating hot points Minimize pressure of the winds