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Adverbs / Adjectives / Linking Verbs

The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of adverbs, adjectives, and linking verbs. After you have studied the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you are already familiar with these topics, you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises.

Adverbs
FORM
[adjective + ly] There are also irregular adverbs such as "well" and "fast."

USE 1
Adverbs can be used to modify verbs. Examples:

John walked quickly towards the door. Sally sat silently waiting for somebody else to speak first.

USE 2
Adverbs can be used to modify adjectives. Examples:

The redwood tree was impressively tall. The blouse was outrageously expensive.

USE 3
Adverbs can be used to modify other adverbs. Examples:

She spoke extremely confidently. The cheetah ran incredibly quickly.

Adjectives

FORM
There are many different adjective endings including "-ive," "-ous," "-y," "-ful," "-ent" and many others. "Attractive," "envious," "lazy," "beautiful," and "intelligent" are all adjectives.

USE 1
Adjectives can be used to modify nouns. Examples:

Jack drives a big car. Sally writes beautiful poems.

USE 2
Adjectives often follow linking verbs (described below). Examples:

Max is tall. Sandra seems mad.

Linking Verbs
LIST
o o o o o o o o

to appear to be to become to feel to get to go to grow to look

o o o o o o o o

to prove to remain to seem to smell to sound to stay to taste to turn

USE

The linking verbs above are often followed by adjectives instead of adverbs. In such situations, the adjective describes the subject of the sentence rather than the verb. Study the examples below to learn the difference. Examples:

Mary seemed sad. Correct Mary seemed sadly. Not Correct The cake tastes good. Correct The cake tastes well. Not Correct The train is slow. Correct The train is slowly. Not Correct James grew tired. Correct Sarah remained calm. Correct The milk went bad. Correct The seas turned rough. Correct The negotiations proved pointless. Correct

IMPORTANT
The verbs in the list above are not always used as linking verbs. Compare the examples below. Examples:

Sally grew angry.


"ANGRY" DESCRIBES SALLY. IN THIS SENTENCE, "TO GROW" IS BEING USED AS A LINKING VERB MEANING "TO BECOME."

The plant grew quickly.


"QUICKLY" DOES NOT DESCRIBE THE PLANT, IT DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH IT GROWS. IN THIS SENTENCE, "TO GROW" IS NOT BEING USED AS A LINKING VERB.

o ng trong cu iu kin

Cc ch : HAD trong cu K loi 3, ch WERE, trong loi 2, ch SHOULD trong loi 1 c th em ra trc ch t th cho IF V d: If I were you, I would .... = Were I you , I would.... If I had gone to school...... = Had I gone to school...

if I should go.... = Should I go..... Lu : Nu c NOT th vn NOT li ch khng c em ra u.

Let
FORM [let + person + verb] USE This construction means "to allow someone to do something." Examples: John let me drive his new car. Will your parents let you go to the party? I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off.

Make
FORM [make + person + verb] USE This construction means "to force someone to do something." Examples: My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? She made her children do their homework.

Have
FORM [have + person + verb] USE This construction means "to give someone the responsibility to do something."

Examples: Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. Please have your secretary fax me the information. I had the mechanic check the brakes.

Get
FORM [get + person + to + verb] USE This construction usually means "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something." Examples: Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. How can parents get their children to read more? The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking. Get vs. Have Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing. Examples: I got the mechanic to check my brakes. At first the mechanic didn't think it was necessary, but I convinced him to check the brakes. I had the mechanic check my brakes. I asked the mechanic to check the brakes.