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PDVSA

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL


VOLUMEN 18II ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA N

TITLE

AK211

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

1 0
REV.

NOV.93 NOV.85
DATE

GENERAL REVISION FOR APPROVAL


DESCRIPTION DATE

10 12

L.T. J.S.

E.J. J.G.
APPD. DATE

A.N. E.S.
APPD.

PAG. REV.

APPD.BY Jos Gilarranz

NOV.85 APPD.BY Eduardo Santamara

NOV.85

E PDVSA, 1983

ESPECIALISTAS

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 1
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

Index
1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PDVSA References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulatory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Submittals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protection of Surrounding Areas or Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piping and Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Trenches and Concrete Encased Ductbanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drainage and Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Testing and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Stockpiles and Disposal of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of Excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protection and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4

2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 EXECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4

5
5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 2
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

GENERAL
1.1 Scope
This specification defines the minimum requirements to be met by designer and civil contractor for earthwork, excavation and backfill. The work comprises: General Requirements for excavation and backfill below the finished plant rough grade elevations. Excavating and backfilling for all concrete construction, underground piping, and electrical work. Earthwork for permanent drainage system ditches, including excavating and backfilling at culverts. Compaction of backfill areas. Stockpiling surplus excavated material suitable for backfill for use as a source of fill. Disposing of unsuitable excavated materials.

1.2

PDVSA References
Culverts Earth Dikes for Storage Tanks Railroad Sidings Roads Asphaltic Concrete Site Clearance and General Earthwork Site Data Storage Tank Foundations Yard Paving Concrete and Nonasphaltic Surfaces

AL211PRT AG211PRT AF211R AE211 AI211 SD251 AM211PRT AC211

1.3

Quality Assurance
Inplace compaction tests shall be performed by a testing laboratory meeting the requirements of Covenin 1750 and ASTM D698 (ASTM E329 AASHTO T99C) and approved by PDVSA.

1.4
1.4.1

Regulatory Requirements
Comply with all applicable Venezuelan laws, standards, and regulations.

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 3
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1.4.2

Covenin 2000 Parte II Edificios 2 Construcciones de Terrazas 2.1 Excavaciones 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 Excavaciones para Banqueos Excavaciones para Prstamos

Compactacin Carga y Transporte Infraestructura 3.1.1 Excavaciones, Compactacin, Carga y Trasnporte Entibado

Estructuras

Parte I Carreteras 5 Drenajes 5.9 5.8 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Excavacin para Estructuras Canales y Zanjas de Drenaje Remocin de Tierras Desechables en la Base de Terraplenes Banqueos Excavacin en Prstamo Ejecucin de Terraplenes

Movimiento de Tierras

10.82 Transportes

1.5

References
The following codes, standards and specifications, shall form a part of this specification to the extent specified.

1.5.1

AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


The Classification of Soil and SoilAggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes

M145

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 4
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

1.5.2

ASTM
D422 D423 D424 D698 D1557

American Society for Testing and Materials


Standard Method for Particle Size Analysis of Soils Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit of Soils Standard Test Method for Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils Standard Test Methods for Moisture Density Relations of Soil Using 5.5 lb (2.5 kgs) Rammer and 12 in (304.8 mm) Drop Standard Test Methods for Moisture Density Relations of Soil and Soil and SoilAggregate Mixtures Using 10 lb (4.54 kgs) Rammer and 18 in (457 mm) Drop

1.6

Submittals
Contractor shall submit testing laboratory reports to PDVSA to verify compacted fill meets requirements of this specification.

1.7
1.7.1 1.7.2

Site Conditions
See Specifications Site Data, PDVSA SD251 for general physical condition of site. Geotechnical report including boring logs and test data to determine soil and water condition:

1.8
1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3

Measurement and Payment


Measurement and Payment for each contract item shall be in accordance with COVENIN Standard 2000. When borrow pits are not available within property limits, Contractor shall include cost of excavating, purchasing, and hauling of fill in his bid. Report to PDVSA for measurement and verification any work which exceeds the requirements of PDVSAs drawings and specifications.

MATERIALS
2.1
2.1.1

Backfill
Material for General Backfill Granular soils conforming to group classification A1, A2 or A3 in accordance with AASHTO. The material shall contain no organic matter, debris, or particle size greater than 100 mm in any dimension. Backfill placed against or around piping, culverts or concrete encased material as specified above, but containing no particle size greater than 50 mm in any dimension within 150 mm of the piping or culverts.

2.1.2

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 5
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2.1.3 2.1.4

Select Fill Backfill of the same material as specified in paragraph 2.1.2, but containing no particle size greater than 20 mm in any dimension. Backfill placed around electrical cables Sand with a maximum of 5% by weight passing a N 200 sieve. The material shall contain no plastic clay or organic matter, and it shall have no particles retained on a N 4 sieve. When suitable backfill material from the site is not available in sufficient quantities, it shall be obtained from borrow pits near the job site. All backfill material from the site, borrow pits, or purchased must be approved by PDVSA.

2.1.5 2.1.6

EXECUTION
3.1
3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3

General
The excavation work for each installation shall conform to the elevations and dimensions indicated on PDVSAs design drawings. Preserve all Contractorplaced benchmarks and stakes for verification and use by others. Excavation backfill and compaction for the following items are specified in the listed specification: Item Roads Storage Tanks Yard Paving, Building Slabs at Grade and Truck Loading Areas Railroad Ballast Specification Roads Asphaltic Concrete Storage Tank Foundations Yard Paving Concrete and Nonasphaltic Surfaces Railroad Sidings

3.2
3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3

Field Measurements
A minimum of two permanent benchmarks for each 5 Ha or 2 km will be furnished by PDVSA. Contractor shall establish the necessary line and grade stakes needed to accomplish the work. Contractor shall install marked stakes that can be used for locating permanent markers directly above the centerlines of all underground utilities.

3.3
3.3.1

Protection of Surrounding Areas or Surfaces


Excavations shall extend a sufficient distance from walls and footings to permit placement and removal of forms, installation of services and other construction

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 6
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

required for Owner s inspector, except where the concrete for walls or footings is to be deposited directly against excavated surfaces. 3.3.2 Place excavated material a sufficient distance from the edge of the excavation to prevent the material from falling into the excavation or causing caveins.

3.4

Surface Preparation
See Appendix PDVSA AI211 numeral 3.9.2 where soft or otherwise unsuitable material (such as organic soils or debris) extends below the required bottom of a cut, as indicated on drawings, continue the excavation to suitable soil (as approved by PDVSA). After all unsuitable material is removed, refill the excavation in layers to the required elevation with suitable backfill material and compact in accordance with this specification.

3.5
3.5.1

Excavation
Where the excavation is made below the elevation level indicated on PDVSAs design drawings, backfill the excavation to the proper elevation in accordance with the procedure specified for backfill and compacting. If excavation is for foundation purposes, adequate elevation shall be attained with lean concrete. Do not disturb the bottom of the excavation when excavating for footings and foundations. Before the concrete is placed, trim the bottom of the excavation to the final grade. Where excavation is required for many closely spaced footings in a general area, the entire area may be excavated with the written permission of PDVSA. Undercutting existing foundations shall only be carried out with the written permission of PDVSA. Finish all surfaces of drainage ditches, including the faces of all slopes, to a reasonably smooth and compact surface that is obtainable from either a blade grader or a hand shovel.

3.5.2

3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5

3.6
3.6.1

Backfill
Backfill excavations to plant rough grade as promptly as the work permits, but not until completion of the following: Removal of water from the bottom of the excavation. Removal of concrete formwork, shoring, and bracing. Cut off of temporary sheet piling that has been driven below the bottom of the excavation. Removal of all and debris from the excavation.

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 7
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Approval by PDVSA of construction below grade including damp proofing, waterproofing, perimeter insulation, concrete construction and pipe installation. 3.6.2 Do not place backfill against retaining walls for at least seven days after placing the concrete. Do not place backfill against foundations for at least three days after placing concrete. Place backfill in horizontal layers not exceeding 150 mm in loose thickness to the tops of all piping, culverts, and electrical cables. Above the tops of these items, place the fill in layers not exceeding 200 mm in loose thickness. Place backfill in horizontal layers not exceeding 200 mm in loose thickness around concrete structures and surrounding concrete encased ductbank. If the Contractor desires to use thicker layers than specified, he shall state in writing the desired layer thickness, the equipment and procedure to be used for approval by PDVSA. The maximum thickness used shall be 200 mm. Ensure pipes, cables, and protective coating are not damaged during dumping and spreading of the backfill material. Place backfill evenly around structures. To prevent wedging action of the backfill against a structure, carry the backfill on all sides to the same elevation in each lift. Reopen areas improperly backfilled to the depth required or where settlement occurs. Refill, compact, and restore the surface to the required grade and compaction. All fill material shall be waterconditioned before placement.

3.6.3

3.6.4 3.6.5

3.6.6 3.6.7 3.6.8

3.7
3.7.1 3.7.2

Compaction
Use power driven hand tampers to compact backfill adjacent to and between structures, piping, culvert, cables, and ductbanks. Compact each layer of fill to at least the following percent of the maximum density obtained in the laboratory at optimum moisture content by the test specification indicated: 95% of the test values by ASTM D1557 (Modified Proctor) for fills around or under foundations and railroad subgrade. 90% of the test values by ASTM D1557 (Modified Proctor) for fills at utilities. 90% of the test values by ASTM D698 (Standard Proctor) for fills at utilities covered by earth to finished grade. 95% of the test values by ASTM D1557 (Modified Proctor) for fill around or under foundation road base, subbase and railroad subgrade at optimum moisture content.

3.8
3.8.1

Piping and Culverts


Start excavation for piping and culverts at the low point, where practical, to facilitate dewatering.

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 8
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 3.8.5 3.8.6

Grade bottom of trenches to provide uniform bearing along the bottom of the pipe. Where rock is encountered at the bottom of the excavation, excavate to a minimum of 100 mm below the required excavation bottom. Provide 450 mm minimum clearance between the outside of the pipe and the side of the excavation. Tamp backfill surrounding all piping, culverts, and cables to provide firm support. Leave pipe joints exposed until all required tests have been performed. For concrete pipe, leave joint exposed for at least 24 hours after the joint has been completed. All over excavation portion shall be replaced with compacted standard proctor density at optimum moisture content.

3.8.7

3.9
3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3

Cable Trenches and Concrete Encased Ductbanks


Minimum invert elevations and widths of excavations for cables and ductbanks are indicated on the Owner s electrical drawings. Excavations shall be free of projections, such as rocks. Changes in the direction of the excavation shall suit the permissible bending and puling radius of the cables.

3.10
3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.3 3.10.4

Drainage and Dewatering


Perform excavation work so as to prevent surface or subsurface water from flowing into the excavations. Do not allow water to accumulate in the excavations. Remove water from the excavations using dewatering methods suitable for the local conditions. Method of lowering the water table shall be approved by PDVSA before starting the work. Provide all permanent and necessary temporary drainage ditches. Maintain all permanent and temporary drainage ditches on the site until the contractor work is completed. Do not use trench excavations for site utilities as temporary drainage ditches. Locate permanent earthen drainage ditches adjacent to road shoulders or pipeways, where possible. Slope and shape drainage ditches to minimize erosion and sedimentation and to maintain a minimum flow rate of 300 to 1.000 mm per second. For trench size, see table N I, Covenin 1750 B1.3.2.

3.10.5 3.10.6 3.10.7

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 9
Indice manual Indice volumen Indice norma

3.10.8

Erosion protection of ditches upstream and downstream of culverts shall be a minimum length of 2.500 mm for the full cross section of the ditch. See Covenin 1750 for adequate ditch protection.

3.11

Tolerances
All excavations shall be within 25 mm of the invert elevations or dimensions indicated on PDVSAs drawings. The longitudinal slopes of drainage ditches shall have a tolerance of 13 mm from a straight slope between points of given elevations. See Covenin 2000 Parte I N 104.51.

3.12
3.12.1

Field Testing and Inspection


Contractor shall provide soil testing and inspection service which includes soil survey for satisfactory soil materials, sampling, and testing soil materials proposed for use in the work and field testing facilities for quality control during excavation and fill operations. Testing and inspection service is subject to acceptance by PDVSA. Testing service must inspect and approve subgrades and fill layers before further construction work is performed. Tests of the subgrades and fill layers will be taken as follows: Footing Subgrade For each stratum of soil which footings will be placed, conduct at least one test to verify the required design bearing capacities. Subsequent verification and approval for each footing subgrade may be based on a visual comparison of each subgrade with the related tested strata, when acceptable to PDVSA. Foundation Wall Backfill Take at least two field density tests at locations and elevations as directed by PDVSA. Roadbeds and Railbeds One field density test per each 300 m2 area.

3.12.2

3.13
3.13.1 3.13.2

Material Stockpiles and Disposal of Materials


Shape stockpiles of excavated materials so surface water will drain freely. Waste, trash, debris, and excavated materials not approved for backfill shall be transported off the construction site and be disposed of in a legal manner.

3.14
3.14.1

Stability of Excavations
Provide the necessary shoring and bracing to prevent excavation caveins and damage to existing improvements and new construction caused by settlement, lateral movement, undermining, washouts, or other hazards. The contractor is responsible for maintaining the stability of all excavated faces until the final acceptance of the work by PDVSA.

3.14.2

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

PDVSA AK211 REVISION FECHA

PDVSA
.Men Principal

EARTHWORK EXCAVATION & BACKFILL

NOV.93

Pgina 10
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3.14.3

Unless specifically detailed on the design drawings, the slope of embankments and the various methods of shoring, bracing and underpinning shall be approved by PDVSA.

3.15
3.15.1

Protection and Safety


Contractor shall place and maintain temporary fences, guard rails, barricades, lights, and other protective measures needed for the safety of personnel during construction. Construction equipment or other vehicles shall not cross over culverts, unless a fill is placed above the culvert to the same height as the finished grade. Do not use heavy equipment closer to a foundation than a distance equal to the height of the backfill, unless authorization is obtained from PDVSA.

3.15.2 3.15.3

3.16
3.16.1 3.16.2

Blasting
No blasting shall be permitted without prior written approval of PDVSA SD251. Grading Contractor shall remove any rock formation by normal excavation means where possible. If this cannot be accomplished, rock shall be removed by controlled blasting methods. All blasting work shall be performed by experienced personnel and shall be performed under controlled conditions, rigid safety procedures, and in accordance with manufacturer s recommendations to the use and handling of their materials and all national standards.

3.16.3