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INTRODUCTION

An Injection molding machine, also known as an injection press, is a machine for manufacturing plastic products by the injection molding process. It consists of two main parts, an injection unit and a clamping unit. Injection molding machines can fasten the molds in either a horizontal or vertical position. The majority of machines are horizontally oriented, but vertical machines are used in some niche applications such as insert molding, allowing the machine to take advantage of gravity. There are many ways to fasten the tools to the platens, the most common being manual clamps (both halves are bolted to the platens); however hydraulic clamps (chocks are used to hold the tool in place) and magnetic clamps are also used. The magnetic and hydraulic clamps are used where fast tool changes are required. Types of injection molding machines Machines are classified primarily by the type of driving systems they use: hydraulic,mechanical, electric, or hybrid. Hydraulic presses have historically been the only option available to molders until Nissei Plastic Industrial Co., LTD introduced the first all-electric injection molding machine in 1983. The electric press, also known as Electric Machine Technology (EMT), reduces operation costs by cutting energy consumption and also addresses some of the environmental concerns surrounding the hydraulic press. Electric presses have been shown to be quieter, faster, and have a higher accuracy, however the machines are more expensive. Mechanical type machines use the toggle system for building up tonnage on the clamp side of the machine. Tonnage is required on all machines so that the clamp side of the machine does not open (i.e. tool half mounted on the platen) due to the injection pressure. If the tool half opens up it will create flash in the plastic product. Reliability of mechanical type of machines is more as tonnage built during each cycle is the same as compared to hydraulic machines. Hybrid injection molding machines claim to take advantage of the best features of both hydraulic and electric systems, but in actuality use almost the same amount of electricity to operate as a standard hydraulic. Hydraulic machines, although not nearly as precise, are the predominant type in most of the world, with the exception of Japan.

A robotic arm is often used to remove the molded components; either by side or top entry, but it is more common for parts to drop out of the mold, through a chute and into a container. Injection molding (British English: moulding) is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermRosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity.[1] After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, molds are made by a moldmaker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars. Contents [hide]

1 Process characteristics 2 History 3 Applications 4 Examples of polymers best suited for the process 5 Equipment o 5.1 Mold o 5.2 Mold design o 5.3 Effects on the material properties o 5.4 Tool materials o 5.5 Geometrical possibilities o 5.6 Machining o 5.7 Cost 6 Injection process o 6.1 Injection molding cycle o 6.2 Different types of injection molding processes 7 Process troubleshooting o 7.2 Molding defects o 7.3 Tolerances and surfaces 8 Lubrication and cooling 9 Power requirements 10 Inserts

Process characteristics

Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold cavity Produces a solid or open-ended shape that has conformed to the contour of the mold Uses thermoplastic or thermoset materials Produces a partingR line, sprue, and gate marks Ejector pin marks are usually present

History The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1861 by Alexander Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and highly flammable. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into finished form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872.[3] This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold. The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs. The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process, which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the

strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste. The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive, medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction. Applications Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools, packaging, bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, and most other plastic products available today. Injection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates, repeatable high tolerances, the ability to use a wide range of materials, low labor cost, minimal scrap losses, and little need to finish parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment, potentially high running costs, and the need to design moldable parts. Examples of polymers best suited for the process Most polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics, some thermosets, and some elastomers. In 1995 there were approximately 18,000 different materials available for injection molding and that number was increasing at an average rate of 750 per year. The available materials are alloys or blends of previously developed materials meaning that product designers can choose from a vast selection of materials, one that has exactly the right properties. Materials are chosen based on the strength and function required for the final part, but also each material has different parameters for molding that must be taken into account. Common polymers like epoxy and phenolic are examples of thermosetting plastics while nylon, polyethylene, and polystyrene are thermoplastic.

Equipment

Paper clip mold opened in molding machine; the nozzle is visible at right Main article: Injection molding machine Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper, an injection ram or screw-type plunger, and a heating unit. They are also known as presses, they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. Presses are rated by tonnage, which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons, with the higher figures used in comparatively few manufacturing operations. The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being molded. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. As a rule of thumb, 4 or 5 tons/in2 can be used for most products. If the plastic material is very stiff, it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold, thus more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. The required force can also be determined by the material used and the size of the part, larger parts require higher clamping force. Mold or die are the common terms used to describe the tooling used to produce plastic parts in molding. Since molds have been expensive to manufacture, they were usually only used in mass production where thousands of parts were being produced. Typical molds are constructed from hardened steel, pre-hardened steel, aluminum, and/or beryllium-copper alloy. The choice of material to build a mold from is primarily one of economics; in general, steel molds cost more to construct, but their longer lifespan will offset the higher initial cost over a higher number of parts made before wearing out. Pre-hardened steel molds are less wear-resistant and are used for lower volume requirements or larger components. The typical steel hardness is 3845 on the Rockwell-C scale.

Hardened steel molds are heat treated after machining. These are by far the superior in terms of wear resistance and lifespan. Typical hardness ranges between 50 and 60 Rockwell-C (HRC). Aluminum molds can cost substantially less, and, when designed and machined with modern computerized equipment, can be economical for molding tens or even hundreds of thousands of parts. Beryllium copper is used in areas of the mold that require fast heat removal or areas that see the most shear heat generated. The molds can be manufactured either by CNC machining or by using Electrical Discharge Machining processes

Injection molding die with side pulls

"A" side of die for 25% glass-filled acetyl with 2 side pulls.

Close up of removable insert in "A" side.

"B" side of die with side pull actuators.

Insert removed from die.

Mold design

Standard two plates tooling core and cavity are inserts in a mold base "family mold" of five different parts The mold consists of two primary components, the injection mold (A plate) and the ejector mold (B plate). Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold, the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold, also known as the cavity.[12] The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. These channels allow plastic to run along them, so they are referred to as runners.[13] The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity[14] geometry to form the desired part. The amount of resin required to fill the sprue, runner and cavities of a mold is a shot. Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape, it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity, where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material.[15] To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold, the mold features must not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens, unless parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters). Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes)[16] are typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. Insufficient draft can cause

deformation or damage. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity, the more draft necessary. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required.[17] If the skin is too thin, then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling, and cling to those cores or part may warp, twist, blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away.[18] The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens, and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side. Tunnel gates, also known as submarine or mold gate, is located below the parting line or mold surface. The opening is machined into the surface of the mold on the parting line. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold.[19] Ejector pins, also known as knockout pin, is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half), which pushes the finished molded product, or runner system out of a mold.[20] The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. The coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate.[21] To ease maintenance and venting, cavities and cores are divided into pieces, called inserts, and sub-assemblies, also called inserts, blocks, or chase blocks. By substituting interchangeable inserts, one mold may make several variations of the same part. Effects on the material properties The mechanical properties of a part are usually little affected. Some parts can have internal stresses in them. This is one of the reasons why it is desirable to have uniform wall thickness when molding. One of the physical property changes is shrinkage. A permanent chemical property change is the material thermoset, which can't be remelted to be injected again.[27] Tool materials Tool steel or beryllium-copper are often used. Mild steel, aluminum, nickel or epoxy are suitable only for prototype or very short production runs.

Modern hard aluminum (7075 and 2024 alloys) with proper mold design, can easily make molds capable of 100,000 or more part life. The size of a part will depend on a number of factors (material, wall thickness, shape,process etc.). The initial raw material required may be measured in the form of granules, pellets or powders. Here are some ranges of the sizes:[28] Method Injection molding (thermo-plastic) Injection molding (thermo-setting) Machining Molds are built through two main methods: standard machining and EDM. Standard machining, in its conventional form, has historically been the method of building injection molds. With technological development, CNC machining became the predominant means of making more complex molds with more accurate mold details in less time than traditional methods. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) or spark erosion process has become widely used in mold making. As well as allowing the formation of shapes that are difficult to machine, the process allows pre-hardened molds to be shaped so that no heat treatment is required. Changes to a hardened mold by conventional drilling and milling normally require annealing to soften the mold, followed by heat treatment to harden it again. EDM is a simple process in which a shaped electrode, usually made of copper or graphite, is very slowly lowered onto the mold surface (over a period of many hours), which is immersed in paraffin oil. A voltage applied between tool and mold causes spark erosion of the mold surface in the inverse shape of the electrode.[29] Raw materials Granules, pellets, powders Granules, pellets, powders Maximum size 700 oz. 200 oz. Minimum size Less than 1 oz. Less than 1 oz.

Injection process

Small injection molder showing hopper, nozzle and die area With injection molding, granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a heated barrel. As the granules are slowly moved forward by a screw-type plunger, the plastic is forced into a heated chamber, where it is melted. As the plunger advances, the melted plastic is forced through a nozzle that rests against the mold, allowing it to enter the mold cavity through a gate and runner system. The mold remains cold so the plastic solidifies almost as soon as the mold is filled.[30] Injection molding cycle The sequence of events during the injection mold of a plastic part is called the injection molding cycle. The cycle begins when the mold closes, followed by the injection of the polymer into the mold cavity. Once the cavity is filled, a holding pressure is maintained to compensate for material shrinkage. In the next step, the screw turns, feeding the next shot to the front screw.This causes the screw to retract as the next shot is prepared. Once the part is sufficiently cool, the mold opens and the part is ejected.[31] Different types of injection molding processes

sandwich molded toothbrush handle Although most injection molding processes are covered by the conventional process description above, there are several important molding variations including:

Co-injection (sandwich) molding Fusible (lost, soluble) core injection molding Gas-assisted injection molding In-mold decoration and in mold lamination Injection-compression molding Insert and outsert molding Lamellar (microlayer) injection molding Low-pressure injection molding Metal injection molding Microinjection molding Microcellular molding Multicomponent injection molding Multiple live-feed injection molding Powder injection molding Push-Pull injection molding Reaction injection molding Resin transfer molding Rheomolding Structural foam injection molding Structural reaction injection molding Thin-wall molding Vibration gas injection molding Water assisted injection molding Rubber injection Injection_molding_of_liquid_silicone_rubber[32]

For more details about the different types injection processes.[1]

Process troubleshooting Optimal process settings are critical to influencing the cost, quality, and productivity of plastic injection molding. The main trouble in injection molding is to have a box of good plastics parts contaminated with scrap. For that reason process optimization studies have to be done and process monitoring has to take place. First article inspection of internal and external geometry including imperfections such as porosity can be completed using Industrial CT Scanning a 3D x-ray technology. For external geometry verification only a Coordinate-measuring machine or white light scanner can be used. To have a constant filling rate in the cavity the switch over from injection phase to the holding phase can be made based on a cavity pressure level. Having a stable production window the following issues are worth to investigate: The Metering phase can be optimized by varying screw turns per minute and backpressure. Variation of time needed to reload the screw gives an indication of the stability of this phase. Injection speed can be optimized by pressure drop studies between pressure measured in the Nozzle (alternatively hydraulic pressure) and pressure measured in the cavity. Melted material with a lower viscosity has less pressure loss from nozzle to cavity than material with a higher viscosity. Varying the Injection speed changes the shear rate. Higher speed = higher shear rate = lower viscosity. Pay attention increasing the mold and melt temperature lowers the viscosity but lowers the shear rate too. Gate seal or gate freeze / sink mark / weight and geometry studies have the approach to prevent sink marks and geometrical faults. Optimizing the high and duration of applied holding pressure based on cavity pressure curves is the appropriate way to go. The thicker the part the longer the holding pressure applied. The thinner the part the shorter the holding pressure applied. Cooling time starts once the injection phase is finished. The hotter the melted plastics the longer the cooling time the thicker the part produced the longer the cooling time.

MANIFOLD A hydraulic manifold is a component which regulates fluid flow between pumps and actuators and other components in a hydraulic system. It is like a switchboard in an electrical circuit because it lets the operator control how much fluid flows between which components of a hydraulic machinery. For example, in a backhoe loader a manifold turns on or shuts off or diverts flow to the telescopic arms of the front bucket and the back bucket. The manifold is connected to the levers in the operator's cabin which the operator uses to achieve the desired manifold behaviour. A manifold is composed of assorted hydraulic valves connected to each other. It is the various combinations of states of these valves that allow complex control behavior in a manifold MANIFOLD DEFECTS Lubrication and cooling Obviously, the mold must be cooled in order for the production to take place. Because of the heat capacity, low cost, and availability of water, water is used as the primary cooling agent. To cool the mold, water can be channeled through the mold to account for quick cooling times. Usually a colder mold is more efficient because this allows for faster cycle times. However, this is not always true because crystalline materials require the opposite: a warmer mold and lengthier cycle time.[30] Power requirements The power required for this process of injection molding depends on many things and varies between materials used. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide states that the power requirements depend on "a material's specific gravity, melting point, thermal conductivity, part size, and molding rate." Below is a table from page 243 of the same reference as previously mentioned that best illustrates the characteristics relevant to the power required for the most commonly used materials. Material Epoxy Phenolic Specific gravity Melting point (F) 1.12 to 1.24 248 1.34 to 1.95 248

Nylon 1.01 to 1.15 Polyethylene 0.91 to 0.965 Polystyrene 1.04 to 1.07 Inserts

381 to 509 230 to 243 338

Metal inserts can also be injection molded into the workpiece. For large volume parts the inserts are placed in the mold using automated machinery. An advantage of using automated components is that the smaller size of parts allows a mobile inspection system that can be used to examine multiple parts in a decreased amount of time. In addition to mounting inspection systems on automated components, multiple axial robots are also capable of removing parts from the mold and place them in latter systems that can be used to ensure quality of multiple parameters. The ability of automated components to decrease the cycle time of the processes allows for a greater output of quality parts.[35] Specific instances of this increased efficiency include the removal of parts from the mold immediately after the parts are created and use in conjunction with vision systems. The removal of parts is achieved by using robots to grip the part once it has become free from the mold after in ejector pins have been raised. The robot then moves these parts into either a holding location or directly onto an inspection system, depending on the type of product and the general layout of the rest of the manufacturer's production facility. Visions systems mounted on robots are also an advancement that has greatly changed the way that quality control is performed in insert molded parts. A mobile robot is able to more precisely determine the accuracy of the metal component and inspect more locations in the same amount of time as a human inspector.[35] Gallery

Lego injection mold, lower side

Lego injection mold, detail of lower side

Lego injection mold, upper side

Lego injection mold, detail of upper side

Metal injection molding Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking process where finelypowdered metal is mixed with a measured amount of binder material to comprise a 'feedstock' capable of being handled by plastic processing equipment through a process known as injection mold forming. The molding process allows complex parts to be shaped in a single operation and in high volume. End products are commonly component items used in various industries and applications. The nature of MIM feedstock flow is defined by a physics called rheology. Current equipment capability requires processing to stay limited to products that can be molded using typical volumes of 100 grams or less per "shot" into the mold. Rheology does allow this "shot" to be distributed into multiple cavities, thus becoming cost-effective for small, intricate, high-volume products which would otherwise be quite expensive to produce by alternate or classic methods. The variety of metals capable of implimentation within MIM feedstock are referred to as powder

metallurgy, and these contain the same alloying constiuents found in industry standards for common and exotic metal applications. Subsequent conditioning operations are performed on the molded shape, where the binder material is removed and the metal particles are coalesced into the desired state for the metal alloy. Process The process steps involve combining metal powders with wax and plastic binders to produce the 'feedstock' mix that is injected as a liquid into a hollow mold using plastic injection molding machines. The 'green part' is cooled and de-molded in the plastic molding machine. Next, a portion of the binder material is removed using solvent, thermal furnaces, catalytic process, or a combination of methods. The resulting, fragile and porous (24% "air") part, in a condition called "brown" stage, requires the metal to be condensed in a furnace process called Sintering. MIM parts are sintered at temperatures nearly high enough to melt the entire metal part outright (up to 1450 degrees Celsius), at which the metal particle surfaces bind together to result in a final, 96-99% solid density. The end-product MIM metal has comparable mechanical and physical properties with parts made using classic metalworking methods, and MIM materials are compatible with the same subsequent metal conditioning treatments such as plating, passivity, annealing, carburizing, nitriding, and precipitation hardening. Applications The window of economic advantage in metal injection molded parts lies in complexity and volume for small-size parts. MIM materials are comparable to metal formed by competing methods, and final products are used in a broad range of industrial, commercial, medical, dental, firearms, aerospace, and automotive applications. Dimensional tolerances of +/-.003" per linear inch can be commonly held, and far closer restrictions on tolerance are possible with expert knowledge of molding and sintering. MIM can produce parts where it is difficult, or even impossible, to efficiently manufacture an item through other means of fabrication. Increased costs for traditional manufacturing methods inherent to part complexity, such as internal/external threads, miniaturization, or brand identity marking, typically do not increase the cost in a MIM operation due to the flexibility of injection molding.

Manifolds for plastic melt A hot runner consists of a manifold, nozzles, and plates. A temperature controller is also integral to the system. The manifold is a heated meltdistribution block with channels that deliver the plastic from the injectionmolding machine to the mold cavities. The manifold's primary function is doing this without changing the condition of the melt through shear action or excessive heating. Most suppliers manufacture manifolds by milling melt channels into steel plates. Heaters are then mounted on, or into the plate. Melt-channel layout, manifold design, and choice of heater technology differ from supplier to supplier. For best results, manifold design should include a detailed analysis of the application that includes factors such as part mass, resin type, and process expectations including pressure requirements, color-change time, and target cycle time. This information is crucial for proper melt-channel sizing.

The illustration shows the complexity of a hot-runner mold design.

Manifolds should be designed for each application for optimal processing and part quality. A poor manifold design, for example, with different flow lengths to each nozzle, causes cavity-to-cavity imbalance and dimensional differences in parts. Additionally, heat and shear forces can degrade the polymer, causing weak parts and discoloration. More-complex manifolds allow for special applications such as multi-shot molds, stack molding, and family molding. Multi-shot molding produces a single part with more than one material, such as a toothbrush handle with soft-touch features. Hot-runner technology accommodates multi-shot parts with up to four different colors or materials. Hot runners are necessary for stack molds with two or even four parting lines. Stack molds allow a molder to double, or quadruple output, compared to a single face mold (a standard mold with one parting line), without requiring a larger machine with more clamp tonnage. Stack molds are thicker than conventional molds and require a machine clamp that can accommodate the additional stack height. A family mold is often used to produce two or more components of an assembly for every shot. Parts in the mold usually have different masses, so hot-runner suppliers must ensure the manifolds are balanced with in-depth analysis and mechanical-balancing technology. In these cases, it's best for the mold maker, molder, and hot-runner supplier to work closely to ensure successful integration of the hot runner and mold. A typical nozzle Hot-runner nozzles connect the manifold and mold cavities, terminating at the gate or the hole where the plastic melt enters the cavity. A typical nozzle is tubular with precise temperature control along its length. Nozzle design and selection is important for part aesthetics, filling, and best cycle time. Sizes (diameters and lengths) and technology (heaters and sensors) used in hot runner nozzles vary widely. There are two classes of nozzles: thermal gate and valve gate. As the name implies, a thermal-gate nozzle relies on thermal cycling during each molding cycle. After injecting the melt into the cavity, the plastic cools in the gate area and hardens. At this point, the plastic part can be ejected from the cavity, leaving only a relatively small gate vestige on the part. Many thermal-gate nozzles are made from several grades of steel to control

the thermal dynamics of the molding process. Different thermal gating options are available, each one with advantages and disadvantages usually only one or two are best for a given application and resin. Selecting the right nozzle depends on the mold design, process expectations, and part properties. Generally speaking, thermal-gate nozzles are a less expensive option per nozzle than valve gating. Valve-gate nozzles are the most common type used in medical-device molds. Valve gating uses the mechanical actuation of a stem to open and close the gate. Stems are usually actuated by pneumatic pistons and cylinders. Alternatively, newer technology includes electrical servo drives. Valve-gate systems have better balance and repeatability than thermal gates because gate opening and closing is a controlled mechanical action and not dependent on thermal cycling in the gate area. Gate vestige is a common consideration in the selection of valve gates for medical applications. Gate vestige is the material that stays on a part at the location of the gate. The open-gate design of a thermal-gate nozzle is more likely to have material vestige sticking up from the part. In contrast, valvegate nozzles with mechanical shutoffs produce a barely visible mark where the valve stem meets the part surface. PUTTING HOT RUNNER DESIGN TO WORK A medical molder needed a high-cavitation (many cavities) stack mold for a small medical device molded with an engineering resin. Husky performed a detailed application review, which included a resin test and a mold filling analysis. Based on resin properties, the company recommended a four-cavity prototype mold with a hot runner. The review determined that a hot runner with a stack-mold design was not feasible because the resin would sit in the manifold for nearly eight minutes before reaching the cavities. Tests showed that exceeding a four-minute cycle would discolor the material. To solve this problem, Husky suggested using high cavitation single-face molds. It optimized the manifold design with data from the prototype trials and melt-flow analysis. Process results confirmed that the analysis was accurate. Part dimension and shrinkage values were given to the mold maker to minimize re-machining the mold. Production tooling was validated and rapidly qualified without issues. These successful results came about because the molder, mold maker, and hot-runner supplier worked as a team.

DESIGN. As a manifold block acts as the central nervous system of the injection moulding machine With the pre-existing manifolds useful data is collected. The manifold design has been developed with a view that the design has to be conversant with the Design department, Manufacturing department, detailing department and also the Quality control department. Initially a Cast model is created so that it reflects a raw product that comes out after the casting to the manufacturing department . A casting allowance of 4 mm is maintained on all the machining surfaces which has been shown with a surface texture symbol in detailing. Before machining the oil passages are drilled using a 6.2 dia drill through which the oil passes to all channels. The surface textures are maintained as close as possible keeping in view the next level mating parts The entire model has been developed in PRO-E 4.0 in which features such as Extrude Sweep Round Chamfer Drill holes etc

The transparent model is so developed gives the manufacturer as to how the finished model look which helps reduce the problem of errors and gives a overall picture and the model could be taken as reference in analyzing the model in ANSYS software. To avoid any damage while carrying or transportation care has been taken by providing rounds and chamfer in the model , near CAST passages chamfers are provided at the holes A transparent CAST MODEL has been attached below showing the rough cast product before entering the manufacturing department

The manifold consists of passages which describe various inlet and outlet The passages nomenclature are as follows P T A B - PRESSURE LINE - TANK LINE - CYLINDER INLET - CYLINDER OUTLET

The entire model consist of passages connecting to various cylinders inlet and outlet from TANK LINE and supply them through the PRESSURE LINE as per the requirements the dia of holes are varied.

The entire detailing of the manifold apt or suitable for manufacturing is attached below with complete detailing.

The company process recommends the detailing to be done as per the ORDINATE DIMENSIONS. During detailing the ordinate dimensions are done with reference to the 01, 02 and 03 planes which are assumed to be the BASE DATUMS or DATUM PLANES.

AFTER MACHINING:

The finished product has been attached below which meets the CONCURRENT PROCESS AND PRODUCT DESIGN with all the sequence of operation that take place from the beginning to the end of the product. The PRO-E sequence tree is displayed below.

In the above model the product with hose end connections are also displayed for the coupling purpose.

DESCRIPTION
The manifold consists of various passages that do the function of transferring the hydraulic oil to various areas such as BARRELS, CYLINDERS, MATING PARTS & FUEL TANK A common in and out connection is given to OIL SUMP which passes and collects the OIL back to the sump. The manifold also consists of PRESSURE LINE which takes the load of transferring of the HYDRAULIC OIL to various functioning zone wherever the supply is required. CYLINDER INLET & CYLINDER OUTLET for the collection of oil from the working area and supply them back to the Oil sump. A detailed snapshot of the entire working of the model is shown below

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION:
The common problem with the manifold design is the huge pressure drop in the supply line as the passage is not smooth. The smooth passage ensures lesser pressure drop in the working fluid being grade SAE 60. The PRESSURE DROP problem arises due to the sudden transition of the lines into vertical direction and the return holes. Due to this the heavy power is consumed is consumed to allow the fluid reach is destination point The complete analysis of the project performed and also the suggested design is also recommended .

MANIFOLD PASSAGE ANALYSIS:


A single manifold passage is analyzed to depict the real time problem arised due to the sudden transition of the holes. In ANSYS 11.0 it is considered to be a COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS problem and solved using the various elements and process which are described below. In ANSYS 11.0 there are approximately 206 elements available which are used to solve various domains such as STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS THERMAL ANALYSIS ANSYS FLUID FLOTRAN CFD etc.

To conduct the problem the element type FLUID 141 is used as we are considering a 2D area problem.

FLUID141 Element Description


FLUID141 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve fluid and/or non-fluid regions. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region, while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid region.. For the FLOTRAN CFD elements, the velocities are obtained from the conservation of momentum principle, and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle. (The temperature, if required, is obtained from the law of conservation of energy.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used; that is, the matrix system derived from the finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together. The sequential solution of all the governing equations, combined with the update of any temperature- or pressure-dependent properties, constitutes a global iteration. The number of global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably, depending on the size and stability of the problem. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species.

FLUID141 Geometry

FLUID141 Input Data


FLUID141 Geometry shows the geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element. The element is defined by three nodes (triangle) or four nodes (quadrilateral) and by isotropic material properties. The coordinate system is selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3), and may be either Cartesian, axisymmetric, or polar. Node and Element Loads describes element loads.
FLUID141 Fluid Elements

If the material number of a FLUID141 element is 1, it is assumed to be a fluid element. Its properties - density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat - are defined with a series of FLDATA commands. We can analyze only one fluid, and it must be in a single phase. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are relevant (and necessary) only if the problem is thermal in nature. The properties can be a function of temperature

through relationships specified by the FLDATA7,PROT command or through a property database The resistance to flow, modeled as a distributed resistance, may be due to one or a combination of these factors: a localized head loss (K), a friction factor (f), or a permeability (C). The total pressure gradient is the sum of these three terms, as shown below for the X direction. where: = is the density (mass/length3) = is the viscosity (mass/(length*time)) RE = is the local value of the Reynolds Number (calculated by the program): RE = ( V Dh) / f = is a friction coefficient (calculated by the program): f = a RE-b C = is the FLOTRAN permeability (1/length2). FLOTRAN permeability is the inverse of the intrinsic or physical permeability. If large gradients exist in the velocity field within a distributed resistance region, you should deactivate the turbulence model by setting ENKE to 0 and ENDS to 1.0 in this region. Non-Newtonian viscosity models also are available for this element. Currently, ANSYS provides a Power Law model, a Bingham model, and a Carreau The area model constructed in ansys is shown below which is used to describe the real time model of the passage The model consists of Kepoints Lines Areas etc Are converted to nodes and elements after the process of mapped meshing

The fluid passes through the inlet at a velocity approx 3 to 4 m/s and the other end of the passage is free to let the fluid to leave the exit of the passage. This is used as the boundary condition for the fluid 141 at room temperature and under absolute pressure conditions.

During the solution process, the convergence of the solution is shown to vary through the 50 global iterations that are given as input. The velocity along x-axis and y-axis is bound to convergence and graph is shown below for various iterations of velocity and pressure accordingly. By observation it is seen that the outlet velocity and pressure drop are significantly changing because of the sharp transition at the corner

The fluid behavior is found to be TURBULENT due to which a vortex flow is created shown below

The model after changes in the model i.e by introducing fillet at the corner the changes have been shown below with the new model.

In the above graph the improvement of the flow is easily found to have improved compared to the passage without fillet.

By further increasing the radius value the flow was further more refined but due to manufacturing limits the radius value of 8mm is suggested to be a optimum solution for the existing problem