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Shaft Design: Diameter determination

Design 1 Mechanical Engineering Faculty Engineering Division Universidad Santo Toms


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What is a shaft?

It is a rotating machine element that transmits power or motion. It is usually a slender element of round cross section (hollow or solid). It usually carries power-transmitting components (gears, belt sheaves, chain sprockets)
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What is a shaft?

Keys, pins, snap rings, clamp collars, shoulders, interference fits, are used to secure powertransmitting components. A shaft is usually supported by bearings (rollingcontact or journal). Most shafts are under fluctuating loads of combined bending and torsion with various degrees of stress concentrations.
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Common shaft topologies


Stepped

Constant Diameter
From HUP YIK Website

Crankshaft

From Convertech Website

From Tianrun Website 4

Stepped Shaft example

From Norton, p. 506.

Others Shaft examples

Other definitions

Axle: nonrotating element that carries no torque and it is used to support rotating members (pulleys, wheels). It is a round beam Spindle: short shaft. Flexible shaft: transmits motion between two points where the rotational axes are at an angle with respect to one another.
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Other Definitions
Axle

Spindle

From Melrose Wheel Chairs Website From 4WD Factory Website

Flexible Shaft

From Flexishaft Website

Materials for Shafts

Steels

Cold-drawn or machined from hot-rolled, plain carbon steels Alloy steels Carburizing grade steels Stainless steels

Nodular High Strength Cast Iron Bronze


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Shaft Design process


1. Design based on strength 2. Deflection Verification (stiffness design) 3. Critical Speed Verification

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1. Design based on Strength


1.1 Determine rotational speed and power to be transmitted by the shaft.

1.2 Determine the power-transmitting components that will be mounted on the shaft.
1.3 Specify the location of bearings. 1.4 Propose the general topology of the shaft, considering the attachment method for each power-transmitting component.
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1. Design based on Strength

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1. Design based on Strength

1.5 Produce a complete static analysis of the shaft (free-body diagram, determination of the radial and axial forces exerted on the shaft, Solving for the reactions on all bearings).

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1. Design based on Strength


1.6 Produce the complete torque, shearing force and bending moment diagrams to determine the distribution of bending moments and torque in the shaft. Once you finish these six steps, you can identify critical locations on the shaft, i.e., sections with high torsion-bending magnitudes and presence of notches.
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1. Design based on Strength


1.7 Select the material and specify its condition. 1.8 Choose the appropriate minimum acceptable diameter equation, according to the type of loading. 1.9 Determine the minimum acceptable diameter for each critical location. 1.10 Specify diameters for each step, considering tolerances and fits, preferred sizes, mounting parts, etc.
ITERATIVE PROCESS
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ASME Design Equation


FAILURE ZONE Nf < 1

Fully reversed bending: a K f


Steady torsion: m

32M a d3

SAFE ZONE Nf > 1

16Tm d3
Sy 3

von Mises relationship: S ys

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General Equation (Goodman Criterion)


Fluctuating bending: a K f

32M a d3

m K fm

32M m d3
' ' a m 1 S f Sut N f

16Tm K Fluctuating torsion: a fs d3


von Mises Stresses: 3
' a 2 a

16Tm m K fsm d3

2 1/ 2 a

3
' m 2 m

2 1/ 2 m

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Preliminary Kt values
Bending Torsion Axial Shoulder-sharp fillet Shoulder Well rounded fillet End Mill Keyseat Sled runner keyseat Retaining ring groove 2.7 1.7 2.2 1.7 5.0 2.2 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.9 5.0

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Preliminary Kt values

Shoulders:
Sharp fillet Well rounded fillet

Adapted from Mott, p.542.

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Preliminary Kt values

Keyseats:
End-Mill (profile) Sled runner

Adapted from Norton, p.528-529. 20

Preliminary Kt values

Keyseats:

Adapted from Norton, p.529.

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Preliminary Kt values

Retaining Ring Grooves:

from Seeger-Orbis website.

Tipical radius at the bottom of the groove: 10% of the ring thickness m/10
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References

Norton, R.L. Machine Design: an integrated approach. 3rd ed, 2006. Budynas and Nisbett. Shigleys Engineering Design. 8th ed, 2006. Mechanical

Mott, R.L. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design. 4th ed, 2004. Deutschman et al. Diseo de Mquinas. 1987.
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References

Convertech Website http://www.convertech.com/small-diameterexpanding-air-shafts.php HUP YIK Website http://hupyik.com/products/productList.aspx?cate gory=Water%20Pump%20Part&pageIndex=1 Tianrun Crankshaft Co Website. http://tianrun.en.gasgoo.com/autoproducts/17399.html
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References

Melrose Wheel Chairs Website http://www.melrosewheelchairs.com/index.php?m ain_page=product_info&cPath=8_4&products_id =124

4WD Factory Website https://www.4wdfactory.com/store/products.php? product=Dana-44%2C-GM-10-bolt-FrontSpindle%2C-6-Hole-Flange%2C-Big-BearingJournals


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References

Flexishaft Website. http://www.flexishaft.com/powertransmission.htm Seeger-Orbis Website http://www.seeger-orbis.com/en/design-details

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