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Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS

Version 11.4

pdms114/man6/doc1 Issue 150502

PLEASE NOTE: Cadcentre has a policy of continuing product development: therefore the information contained in this document may be subject to change without notice. CADCENTRE MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. While every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this document, Cadcentre shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material.

This manual may provide documentation relating to products to which you do not have access or which are not licensed to you. For information on which products are licensed to you, please refer to your licence conditions.

Copyright 1994 through 2002 Cadcentre Limited

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of Cadcentre. The software programs described in this document are confidential information and proprietary products of Cadcentre Ltd or its licensors.

For details of Cadcentres worldwide sales and support offices, access our website at

http://www.cadcentre.com/location

Cadcentre Ltd, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HB, UK

Contents

Part I
1

Introduction
1--1 1--1 1--2 1--3 1--4

Read This First 1.1 The Scope of the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Learning to Use PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Further Training in the Use of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Some Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 How the Guide is Organised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What PDMS Offers You

Part II
3

Getting Started
3--2 3--4 3--5 3--6 3--6 3--6 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-9 3--9 3--9

Controlling PDMS 3.1 Accessing the Design Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Using Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Using the Tool Bar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 The Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Using Forms and their Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Using Radio Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Using Check Boxes (Toggle Buttons) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 Using Text-Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.4 Using Drop-Down Lists (Option Buttons) . . . . . . . . 3.6.5 Using Scrollable Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.6 Actioning Form Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Alert Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Accessing On--Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Setting Up the Database Hierarchy 4.1 Starting the Structural Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4--1 4.2 How PDMS Stores Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4--2 4.3 Creating Some Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4--4
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Creating a Simple Structure 5.1 Design--to--Catalogue Cross--Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 How PDMS Represents Structural Members . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Straight Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Some Initial Setting Up Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Setting the Default Specification for Profiles . . . . . . 5.4 Creating Sections Explicitly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Viewing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Defining What Appears in the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Event--Driven Graphics Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9 Copying Parts of the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10 Completing the Initial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Saving Your Changes and Leaving Your Design Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure Enhancing the Basic Structure 7.1 Restoring a Previously Saved Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Adding Standard Bracing Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Representing Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Dominant versus Subordinate Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Panels and Plates 8.1 Starting the Panels & Plates Application . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 How PDMS Represents Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Creating Simple Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model .

5--1 5--1 5-1 5-2 5--3 5-3 5-4 5-4 5--6 5--9 5-9 5-11 5-13 5--13 5--14 5--20 5--21 5--23 5--25

6 7

7--1 7--2 7--4 7--9 7--12 7--17 7--18 8--1 8--2 8--3 8--4 8--6

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8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9

Splitting a Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices . Moving Panel Edges to New Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Negative Extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8--7 8--8 8--11 8--13

Using Panel Fittings 9.1 How Panel Fittings are Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--1 9.2 Creating a Panel Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--2 Penetrating One Item With Another 10.1 How a Penetration is Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10--1 10.2 Creating a Steelwork Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10--2 Checking and Outputting Design Data 11.1 Checking for Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Generating a Data Output Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Querying Mass Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Plotting the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Some Curved Steelwork 12.1 How PDMS Represents Curved Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Creating a Semicircular Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Creating a Runway Beam with Multiple Curves . . . . . . 12.3.1 Defining a Working Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.2 Creating a Curved Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.3 Modifying a Curved Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--2 11--5 11--7 11--9 12--1 12--2 12--5 12-5 12-6 12-7 12--9

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Part III
A

Reference Appendices
A--1 A--5 A--9 A--10 A--11 A--12 A--12 A--13 A--13

The Menu Hierarchies A.1 The Beams & Columns Application Menus . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 The Panels & Plates Application Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 The Penetration Application Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 The 3D View Menus (Right--Hand Mouse Button) . . . . A.5 The 3D Aid Constructs Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.6 The Reference Definition Application Menus . . . . . . . . . A.7 The Lists/Collections Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.8 The Working Plane Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.9 The Section Cut Plane Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

What the Icons Represent B.1 Switching Between Structural Applications . . . . . . . . . . B--1 B.2 General Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--2
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B.3

B.4 B.5 B.6

B.7 C D

Creating and Modifying Beams and Columns . . . . . . . . B.3.1 General Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3.2 Specifying Section Start and End Positions . . . . . . . . Creating Curved Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Ring Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating and Modifying Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.6.1 Specifying Panel Vertex Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.6.2 Modifying Vertices or Edges of Panel Loops . . . . . . B.6.3 Connecting Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Bracing Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B--2 B-2 B-2 B--3 B--4 B--6 B-6 B-6 B-8 B--9

The Structural Design Database Structural Catalogue Guide D.1 The Basic Features of the Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 P--line Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Some Standard Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Some Standard Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.1 Column Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.2 Cleated Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.3 End Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.4 Baseplate Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.5 Double Notched End Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4.6 Single Notched End Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Some Standard Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5.1 Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5.2 Fire Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5.3 Lifting Lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Relevant Documentation E.1 On--Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2 PDMS Introductory Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.3 PDMS Reference Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.4 General Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Sample Plots D--1 D--2 D--4 D--14 D-14 D-15 D-16 D-17 D-18 D-18 D--19 D-19 D-20 D-20 E--1 E--2 E--2 E--3

Index

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Part I Introduction

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1.1

The Scope of the Guide


This guide introduces the facilities provided by Cadcentre for the design and documentation of logically interconnected structures for a wide range of process and related plant design industries, both on--shore and off--shore. It assumes that you are already familiar with structural design practices, but does not assume any prior knowledge of computer--aided design systems. The guide explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. A key feature of the guide is a hands-on tutorial exercise which is incorporated throughout, allowing you to gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS as you learn about the powerful facilities which it provides. This guide does not give step--by--step instructions on how to carry out specific design functions, since you can access such information as you work by using the on-line help facilities incorporated into the programs graphical user interface. You will be told how to do this at an early stage. For fuller information about all aspects of structural design (and other related disciplines) using PDMS, refer to the sources listed in Appendix E of this guide.

1.2

Learning to Use PDMS


The aim of this guide is to help you to learn to use PDMS and its supporting applications for your structural design work as quickly as possible. Once you have grasped the basic principles, you will find that most operations quickly become intuitive.

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The best way to learn is to experiment with the product for yourself. To facilitate this, the initial chapters of the guide comprise two concurrent sequences of information:
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A hands-on tutorial exercise, which gives a step--by--step practical introduction to the ways in which you might use the applications. Explanations of the underlying concepts, given at the points at which each is first encountered as the exercise progresses.

The intention is that you should work progressively through the exercise, pausing to learn about each new concept as it is introduced. All steps which make up the exercise are numbered sequentially throughout the guide. The start and end of each part of the exercise are marked by lines across the page to separate them from the general information sections, like this:

1.3

Further Training in the Use of PDMS


Although this guide will teach you to understand the key features of using PDMS for your structural designs, it cannot possibly show you all of the wide--ranging facilities to which you now have access, nor can it identify the best ways in which you might use the program to suit your own individual design practices. To get the best out of PDMS, it is important that you receive proper training in its use from a qualified instructor, who can answer your questions as they arise and give you advice on tailoring your techniques to best match your objectives. A wide range of training courses are provided by Cadcentre, covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. To arrange attendance on such a course, contact your nearest Cadcentre support office for further details (see the copyright page at the front of this guide for a link to our web site).

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1.4

Some Terminology
As you might imagine, a program with the wide--ranging power of PDMS is necessarily large and, if you had simultaneous access to all of its features, could be rather daunting. To make the whole program easily controllable, it is subdivided into convenient functional parts. These are referred to throughout this guide by the following terms:
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Modules are subdivisions of PDMS which you use to carry out specific types of operation. You will be mainly concerned with two modules only: DESIGN, used for creating the 3D design model and DRAFT, used for generating annotated and dimensioned drawings of your design. Applications are supplementary programs, used in conjunction with PDMS, which have been tailored to provide easy control of those operations which are specific to particular disciplines. For example, the applications which we will mostly be using for our structural design work are the Beams & Columns Application and the Panels & Plates Application.

You can switch rapidly between the different parts of the program, so that the distinctions between them become almost imperceptible, but you need to recognise what is happening when you select from the different functions available to you from the various menus. The following terms and conventions are used throughout this guide to describe what action to carry out: Term Click Description Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then quickly press and release the designated mouse button. If no button is specified, always use the left-hand mouse button. Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then click the left--hand mouse button twice in quick succession. Click on the required item to select it. Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then press and hold down the designated mouse button while moving the cursor to a second specified point. Release the button over the second point. Type text into the specified dialogue box, then press the Enter (or Return) key to confirm the entry.
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Double--click

Pick Drag

Enter

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1.5

How the Guide is Organised


This guide is divided into three parts, including some appendices, as follows:
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Part I (this part) introduces the guide itself and the structural applications which it describes.
D

Chapter 1 (this chapter) summarises the scope of the guide. Chapter 2 gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the structural applications.

Part II explains, with the help of a worked example, some essential concepts which you need to understand when you use the structural applications.
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Chapter 3 gives you a general guide to using the PDMS graphical user interface, including an explanation of how to access detailed on--line help. If you are already familiar with similar forms and menus interfaces, you should be able to read through this chapter rapidly. Do not ignore it altogether, however, as it tells you how to load the structural design application which forms the basis for the tutorial exercise. Chapter 4 explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you how to organise your data. Chapter 5 guides you through the steps needed to create a simple structure comprising only vertical columns and horizontal beams. Chapter 6 demonstrates a useful facility which provides an alternative method for creating a regularly configured structure rapidly. Chapter 7 shows how to add diagonal bracing members, how to model joints between connected members, and how to modify the design by moving interconnected parts of the structure. Chapter 8 shows how to clad the structure by adding panels and plates.
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D D D

Chapter 9 introduces the concept of panel fittings. Chapter 10 shows how to configure those locations where one item penetrates another. Chapter 11 shows how to check your design for clashes, and how to generate reports and plots directly from the design data. Chapter 12 explains how curved sections are represented and illustrates their use. Appendix A shows the complete hierarchy of all options available from the structural design applications bar menus, pull--down menus and submenus in a convenient quick--reference format. Appendix B illustrates the principal icons which you will encounter when you use the structural applications forms and menus, and briefly summarises what each one represents. Appendix C summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store your structural design data. Appendix D comprises a sample catalogue of structural steelwork sections. Appendix E identifies other sources of information which supplement, and expand upon, the brief details given in this guide. Appendix F contains some examples of the types of plot which can be produced easily by using PDMS with the structural applications.

D D

Part III comprises the following set of reference appendices:


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D D D

The guide concludes with an Index, allowing you to refer back to any specific topics about whose details you need to be reminded.

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What PDMS Offers You


PDMS plus the Cadcentre structural applications provide a powerful suite of facilities for the creation, analysis and documentation of logically interconnected steelwork structures. The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of intelligence which, where possible, makes sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design changes, so that you can implement a sequence of related changes with a minimum of effort. The emphasis throughout is on maximising both design consistency and design productivity, so that you need only make a minimum number of essential design decisions in order to create a reliable and fully documented structural design ready for fabrication and erection. Modifications to your design may be incorporated at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, since data consistency checking is an integral part of the product. PDMS automatically manages drawing production, material take--off reports, etc., by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases, so that there can be no errors introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines. The applications let you check all aspects of the design as the work progresses, including on--line interdisciplinary clash detection, so that the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level. The need for expensive on--site modifications is thereby avoided. The applications, which have been designed by structural engineers for structural engineers, are controlled from a graphical user interface. This means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated simply by selecting choices from simple menus and entering data into the appropriate fields on on--screen forms. In many cases the command options are represented by pictorial icons rather than by words, thus simplifying the user interface still further. Should you need guidance on the use of any of the powerful facilities provided within the application, on--screen help is available at the click of a button.

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What PDMS Offers You

Some key features:


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The applications are designed to use specification data when selecting structural components (such as Profiles and Joints) from the Catalogue database. This makes it easy to ensure that all designs incorporate only approved components and thus conform to company standards. Where possible, the design applications create and maintain connectivity of the structural network automatically. Structural elements may be named in accordance with a predefined set of rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. Pointers may be set up to define the storage areas in which specific types of design element are to be held in the database hierarchy. This, especially when combined with the rule--based naming facility, minimises the amount of data which you have to enter explicitly as you build up your design model. Lists of elements may be set up temporarily, so that you can carry out a design operation on all elements within the list simultaneously. This can save you a great deal of repetitive work when carrying out commonly--repeated design modifications. The applications incorporate a number of geometric design aids, such as 3D positioning grids, 3D construction aids and 2D working planes, to make it much easier to position structural elements accurately within the design model. In most cases you can specify the points at which design items are to be positioned simply by using the cursor to pick the required points in the 3D graphical view of the model. Non--standard structural components, such as complex panels and floor plates, may be created by defining the required shape as a 2D profile and then extruding this to the desired thickness. Negative primitives and shapes may be used in the structural catalogue to define complex joint geometry and end preparations for structural sections, so that weld preparations and fitting allowances can be modelled easily. Templates may be used to define the formation of built--up girders and similar components, so that the detailed design of
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What PDMS Offers You

such items becomes simply a matter of entering the required dimensional and positional data.
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Multiple copies of design components may be created simply by specifying the number of copies required and their relative positions and orientations. For example, a complete roof structure can be created by designing a single roof truss and then, in one operation, making as many copies as are necessary to support the length of the roof, with each truss displaced by a given distance relative to the preceding one. Much repetitive work can be avoided in symmetrical designs by making copies of interconnected parts of the structure and reflecting them about specified axes, so that the design pattern is repeated as required. Joint positions may be finely adjusted to ensure accurate assembly, using any standard datum line to define the precise alignment of a joint with its attached sections. Sections and panels (wall plates, floor plates, etc.) may be divided at intersections, after the overall size and shape have been defined, without affecting any of their logical interconnections. This enables you to design the macrostructure (for example, complete areas to be covered) first and then to subdivide this into a manageable microstructure for fabrication purposes at a later stage (typically, to make the most efficient use of stock panel sizes). The edges of panels may be notched to fit around section profiles, and the edges of adjacent panels may be shaped such they interlock automatically. Penetrations may be created as catalogue elements. Such a penetration, which can incorporate appropriate sleeving, kick plates, etc., may be inserted into a structural section or panel as a complete entity, with the dimensions and position of the penetration derived automatically from the dimensions of the pipe/duct/cable tray passing though it. The applications make it easy for you to create panels and to connect them to existing sections via linear joints. This facility uses intelligent cursor picking to enhance the interaction between the displayed graphics and the design creation process. You can derive panel vertices simply by picking appropriate datum lines on existing sections; connections between panels
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What PDMS Offers You

and sections are then created automatically to give a fully connected structural model. Such panels can be used either to represent floors/walls or to build up complex plated connections.
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You can carry out multi--disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the design, thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. This is particularly important where different features of the design model are under the control of different designers. At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified data read from the current database. You can specify a standard report template, enabling you to derive lists of commonly required information extremely rapidly, or you can design a one--off report format to suit any special needs. The resulting output, which can include data from any design discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).

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Part II Getting Started

Structural Design Using PDMS Version 11.3

Controlling PDMS

This chapter introduces the techniques for controlling PDMS using the graphical user interface which you will see on your screen. To do this, we will begin the tutorial exercise by entering PDMS and accessing that part of the program which you will use to specify your structural design data. It is assumed that you are already logged in to your workstation and that you know enough about its operating system to enable you to run a program such as PDMS from an appropriate directory. It is also assumed that you know how to open and manipulate windows on your computer by using a mouse. If not, you first need to read the manuals supplied with your computer system or seek advice from your computer systems department. In order for you to use the tutorial exercise, the structural applications and the sample PDMS project (Project SAM) supplied must have been correctly installed and you must have been given read/write access to the project databases. This procedure, which should have been carried out by your PDMS administrator as part of the product installation sequence, is beyond the scope of this guide.

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Controlling PDMS

3.1

Accessing the Design Environment

Exercise begins: 1. Start PDMS. The CADCENTRE PDMS Login form requires you to specify the following information for your intended session: S S S S The name of the Project in which you want to work. Enter SAM. Your allocated User Name and Password. Enter STRUC for each. The parts of the project database (i.e. which Multiple Database or MDB) you want to work in. Enter STRUC. The type of operation you want to carry out on the project data (i.e. which functional Module of PDMS you want to use). Select Design. (The Read Only button must remain Off, so that you can modify the database as you work.) Whether you want to start from the applications default settings (Load from Macro Files) or from a customised setup saved during an earlier session (Load from Binary Files). Select Macro Files.

You can either type in each entry explicitly, or click the down arrow next to the text--box and select the required option from the resulting list. The settings which you need to enter are as follows:

Enter password STRUC

Click OK and wait while the application is loaded.


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Main Menu Bar Main Tool Bar

Members List 3D Graphical View

3D View Tool Bar

Status Bar

Main Menu Bar the area from which you select the principal commands. The title bar of this window shows the current PDMS module and its sub--application (if relevant) in which you are working; in this case, the General application of the Design module. Main Tool bar provides short--cuts to some common operations and standard settings via icon buttons and drop--down lists. Members List shows your current position in the database hierarchy. You can move to a different point in the database by using the left--hand mouse button to pick the required item in the list. 3D Graphical View the window in which you will display the design model graphically as it is being built up. Note that this window has a pop-up menu, selectable by using the right-hand mouse button, from which you will select options to control the ways in which the model is represented. It also has its own tool bar.
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Status Bar displays information about the current status of your operations. It is located across the bottom of the main window.

You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time by using the standard window management facilities provided by your workstation (but do not close them in this way).

3.2

Using the Mouse


You use the mouse to steer the graphics cursor around the screen and to select or pick items by using the mouse buttons. The buttons perform different tasks depending on the type of window, and the position within the window, where the cursor is positioned. The appearance of the cursor will change according to the type of display item that is underneath it. The functions of the buttons are: Left-Hand Button: The left--hand button is the main button for selecting items. On a graphical view, clicking the left--hand button with the cursor over a design element results in that element becoming the current element (that is, the design item on which you want to carry out the next operation). In a sequence of menus, dragging with the left--hand button activates the command represented by the highlighted menu option when the button is released. On a form, the effect depends on the type of gadget that has been selected see Section 3.6 for details. Middle Button: The principal use of the middle mouse button in DESIGN is to manipulate a graphical view. Right-Hand Button: The principal use of the right--hand mouse button in DESIGN is to access the menu options specific to the graphical view window.

3.3

Using Menus
There can be three types of option in a pull--down or pop--up menu:

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CE CE

Options shown as plain text: selecting one of these initiates an action immediately. Options followed by three dots: selecting one of these displays a form on which to select options, enter data, etc. Options followed by a triangular pointer: selecting one of these displays a subsidiary menu giving a further range of options. Throughout this guide, related selections from menus are shown in abbreviated form by using the > symbol as a separator. Thus, the sequence Utilities>Reports>Create means select Utilities from the main menu bar, then select Reports from the resulting pull--down menu, then move the cursor to the right and select Create from the resulting submenu.

Clashes...

Reports

3.4

Using the Tool Bar Buttons


The tool bar is displayed immediately below the main menu bar in the application window. It contains a number of icon buttons which let you carry out common tasks without searching for the options in the menus. The actions of the buttons are explained in the on--line help. If you pause the cursor over a button, a tool--tip pop--up will remind you of the function of the button. To activate a button, simply click on it. NOTE: The tool bar can be switched off, or displayed with larger icons. To do so, select Settings>System from the main menu bar and then set the required options on the resulting System Settings form.

3.5

The Status Bar


The status bar (the Status Form on Unix systems) displays messages telling you what actions the application is carrying out. You should look at it frequently, especially if the system appears to be waiting for you to do something, since it will always prompt you for any input or action which is required to carry out the next step of your current activity.

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If the prompt lets you repeat a task an unspecified number of times, such as picking a selection of items using the cursor, you must press the Escape key (or click the Escape button on the Status Form ) when you have finished to indicate that you are ready to move to the next operation.

3.6

Using Forms and their Controls


Forms are used both to display information and to let you enter new data. Forms typically comprise an arrangement of buttons of various types, text-boxes, and scrollable lists. Input to a form is usually via a combination of mouse and keyboard, the mouse being used to select appropriate controls and the keyboard to enter data. While you have access to a form, you may change a setting, return to the initial values, accept and act on the current data, or cancel the form without applying any changes, according to the nature of the form. This section describes how to use the principal types of gadget that you will see on the various forms.

3.6.1

Using Radio Buttons


Radio buttons are used to select one, and only one, from a group of options. The selection is mutually exclusive, so that selecting one option deselects others in that group automatically. They typically have the following appearance: Radio button On Radio button Off To change the selected radio button in a group, click the required button.

3.6.2

Using Check Boxes (Toggle Buttons)


Check boxes are used to switch an option between two states, typically On and Off. Unlike radio buttons, they do not interact, so that you can select any combination to be On at the same time.

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They typically have the following appearance: Check box On Check box Off

3.6.3

Using Text-Boxes
Text--boxes are the areas where you type in alphanumeric data such as names or dimensions. A text--box will usually have a label to tell you what to enter. When you first open a form which contains text--boxes, the first text--box on the form will be current and a text editing cursor (a vertical bar) will be displayed in the box. A text--box often contain a default entry (e.g. unset) when first displayed. Some text--boxes will accept only text or only numeric data, and entries with the wrong type of data will not be accepted. To enter data into a text--box:
D D

Click in the box to insert the text editing cursor. Type in the required data, editing any existing entry as necessary. (You may need to delete the existing entry first.) When you have finished, confirm the entry by pressing the Enter (or Return) key. Any text--box with an unconfirmed setting is highlighted by a yellow background.

3.6.4

Using Drop-Down Lists (Option Buttons)


Drop--down lists let you choose one option from a multiple selection. The list will usually have a label to tell you what you are setting and will show the current selection. They typically have the following appearance: North To change the setting, click on the down arrow or button face to reveal the full list of available options, then pick the required option.

3.6.5

Using Scrollable Lists


A scrollable list is displayed as a vertical list of options within the form, with vertical and horizontal scroll bars along its sides. To select

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an option, click on the line you want. The selected line will be highlighted. Some scrollable lists let you make only a single selection, so that selecting any option deselects all others automatically. Other lists let you make multiple selections, with all selected options highlighted simultaneously. To deselect a highlighted option in a multiple--choice list, click on it again (repeated clicks toggle a selection On and Off).

3.6.6

Actioning Form Inputs


Most forms include at least one control button which is used either to enter the command option represented by your current form setting, to cancel any changes made to the form since you opened it, or to close the form. The common control buttons have the following actions: Button OK Apply Cancel Reset Dismiss Action Enters the current form settings as command inputs and closes the form. Enters the current form settings as command inputs and leaves the form displayed for further use. Cancels any changes made to the forms settings and closes the form. Cancels any changes made to the forms settings and leaves the form displayed for further use. Closes the form, keeping the current settings.

Some forms contain more specific types of control button which carry out particular command options (as indicated by the text on the button face; e.g. Add or Remove).

3.7

Alert Forms
Alert forms are used to display information such as error messages, prompts and requests for confirmation of changes. You should respond by carrying out the task prompted for or by clicking on the control buttons on the form (usually an OK or Cancel button).

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3.8

Accessing On-Line Help


Most bar menus end with a Help option. Where available, on--line help gives detailed instructions on the use of the forms and menus via which you control each application. The Help option gives you the following choices from its sub--menu: Help>on Context This gives you help on any window currently visible in the display. When you select this option, the cursor changes to a question mark (?). Move the question mark into the window on which you want help and click the left--hand mouse button. Help>Contents This displays the Help window so that you can find the required topic from the hierarchical contents list. Help>Index This displays the Help window so that you can find all topics relevant to a selected keyword. Help>About This displays information about the current operating system on your computer and about the versions of PDMS and its applications to which you have access. Pressing the F1 key at any time will display the help topic for the currently active window (equivalent to Help on Context for the current window).

Exercise continues: 2. Experiment with each of the Help options until you understand the search and navigation facilities for finding specific items of information. Use the Help>on Context option to read the help texts for any forms which you can currently see on your screen. When you are ready to continue, close any forms which you have been experimenting with as follows:
D D

3.

If a form has a Dismiss button, click this button. If a form has its own menu bar, select Control>Close from that menu.
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Close any Help windows which are displayed by double--clicking in the control box in the top left--hand corner of each window. Alternatively, select File>Exit from the Help windows menu bar.

Do not close the Members List or the 3D View windows, as you will use these in the next parts of the exercise.

You are recommended to make full use of the on--line help facilities whenever you want clarification of any operations during the later steps of the exercise.

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Setting Up the Database Hierarchy

In this chapter we will enter the structural steelwork design application and create some administrative data elements which will enable us to organise our detailed design in a logical way.

4.1

Starting the Structural Application

Exercise continues: 4. The first structural application which we will use is that for designing interconnected beams and columns. To access this application, select Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu bar.

When loading is complete, the main menu bar and tool bar will show some extra options, thus:

Before we start to create structural design data, it is important that you know how such data is stored and accessed in the PDMS databases, so that you will understand the terminology which you will encounter during the design process. This is explained in the following section.

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Setting Up the Database Hierarchy

4.2

How PDMS Stores Design Data


All PDMS data is stored in a hierarchic or tree format (similar to the way in which you use a hierarchy of directories and subdirectories to access your computer files). In the case of a PDMS Design database, the topmost data level is called the World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*), below which are the administrative sublevels Site and Zone. The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. In the case of structural design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Structure (STRU), Framework (FRMW) and (optionally) Subframework (SBFR). The data which defines the physical design of the individual structural components is held below Subframework level, giving the following overall format:
WORLD (/*) SITE ZONE STRUCTURE (STRU) FRAMEWORK (FRMW) SUBFRAMEWORK (SBFR) (optional) Design data defining individual structural components which make up the design model

All data is represented in the database thus:


D D

Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as its attributes.

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Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically--allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user--specified name. Additional items of information about an element which could be stored as attribute settings include:
D D D D

Its type Its physical dimensions and technical specifications Its physical location and orientation in the design model Its connectivity

Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can have only one owner. When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes), you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (often abbreviated to CE). You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner--member links up and down the hierarchy. In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current position in the database hierarchy. The Members List (see Section 3.1) will always show you this information.

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4.3

Creating Some Administrative Elements


We will now create some administrative elements at the top of the Design DB hierarchy, as explained in the preceding section.

Exercise continues: 5. Check that you are at World level (WORL) in the Members List, then select Create>Site. On the displayed Create Site form, enter the name TESTSITE in the Name text--box. Type name here

Press Return to confirm the name; note how the system adds a / prefix automatically to conform to PDMS naming conventions. Click OK to create the Site element. Notice that the new element appears in the Members List as the current element. 6. Repeat this process, using the appropriate options from the Create menu, to create a Zone named TESTZONE, a Structure TESTSTRU, a Framework TESTFRMW and a Subframework (Sub--Frame) TESTSBFR, in that order. Your Members List should now look like this:

In the next chapter, we will start to build up a design model by creating some structural members.
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Creating a Simple Structure


In this chapter we will start to build up a structural design model by creating a simple configuration of interconnected columns and beams. Before we do so, however, it is important to understand how some of the items which make up the design are represented and accessed in the PDMS databases, as explained in the following sections.

5.1

Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing
To ensure design consistency and conformity with company standards, the basic definitions of all items which you may use in the structural design are held in a Catalogue database. This holds definitions of all available profiles and materials for structural columns/beams/bracing etc., all standard types of joint, all auxiliary fittings, and so on. When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation etc. for the item in the Design database, but you specify the physical properties of the item by setting up a cross-reference (called a Specification Reference or SpecRef) which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database.

5.2
5.2.1

How PDMS Represents Structural Members


Straight Sections
Each individual straight structural member (column, beam, etc.) is represented in PDMS by a Section (SCTN) element. The geometry of a Section is defined by two types of attribute setting:
D

Its cross--section is defined by reference to a Catalogue Profile element (I--beam, T--section, Channel, etc.). All other aspects of its geometry are defined by setting specific design attributes (in most cases these are set automatically by
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PDMS as you manipulate the model graphically). Two of the most important attributes are the Start Position (POSS) and the End Position (POSE), since the positions of these points effectively determine the length and orientation of the item. We will look in more detail at these and some other attributes of Sections later. To provide a method for referring to individual edges and faces of a Section, each is identified by a named line running along the length of the Section. These reference lines (which are derived from the Sections Profile definition in the catalogue) are called P-lines. As an example, some of the most commonly used p--lines for an I --shaped Profile might be positioned and named as follows (see Appendix D for fuller details of how this and other profiles are specified):
LTOS TOS RTOS Profile P- line (TOS) Section

LTBS NAL LBTS NA NAR

RTBS End Position (POSE) RBTS Start Position (POSS) P- line Naming Key: NA = Neutral Axis TOS = Top of Steel BOS = Bottom of Steel LTBS = Left Top Bottom of Steel and so on

LBOS

BOS

RBOS

5.2.2

Nodes
PDMS uses the concept of Nodes to represent basic analytical points within a structure. Nodes have two main functions:
D

To identify the points at which logical connections are made between adjoining Sections. To define how applied stresses can affect individual points in the structure (for passing design data to separate stress analysis programs).
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Primary Nodes have their positions specified independently of other elements. Secondary Nodes are positioned along the Neutral Axis of an owning Section, at a specified distance from the Sections Start Position. If you move a Section, its Secondary Nodes move with it.

5.3

Some Initial Setting Up Operations


In the next part of the exercise we will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit our planned method of working.

Exercise continues:

5.3.1

Setting Default Storage Areas


7. First, we will specify where the principal structural elements are to be stored in the design database hierarchy. Select Settings> Storage Areas. The displayed form lets you specify storage areas for Primary Nodes and Sections independently. At this stage, both areas are shown as unset. We shall store both types of element directly under the Sub--Frame which we created in the last step. Check that the sub--frame /TESTSBFR is the current element, then click on each line in the Storage Areas list in turn. The new storage area settings will be shown as follows:

Close the form by clicking the button. Note how the current storage area settings are shown below the main tool bar, like this:

Section storage area


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Node storage area


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5.3.2

Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations


8. By default, each time you create a new Section, it will automatically be associated with a Profile from the Catalogue. Also by default, Primary Nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. For our present purposes, leave both of these default settings in force, as shown (and controlled) by the following buttons below the main tool bar, thus:
Primary Nodes will not be created automatically Profiles referenced from Catalogue automatically

5.3.3

Setting the Default Specification for Profiles


9. The current default profile, justification line, member line and joint line (these terms will be explained later) are shown below the main tool bar. If these have not yet been set (which will be the case here), the data area will look like this:

The first structural sections which we will create will be columns, so we will set the default profile to something suitable. Click on the button. The resulting Section Specification (Default) form lets you select any specification from the available catalogues. For the purpose of this exercise, set the Specification to British Standard and set the Generic Type to Universal Columns. From the displayed list of profiles applicable to BS Universal Columns, select 203x203x46kg/m, thus:

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Specification to be applied to sections as they are created

Leave the Justification button (which determines the relative alignment of connected sections), the Member Line button (which determines how sections are shown in wireline views and drawings), and the Joint Line button (which determines the position of a joint relative to an attached section) set to NA (Neutral Axis). We will see the effects of these later. Click Apply to use this setting as the new default, noting that the current specification is now shown like this:

Dismiss the Section Specification (Default) form when you have finished with it.
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5.4

Creating Sections Explicitly


We will first create four vertical columns, to the following design, using explicit positioning; that is, we will position the columns at given positions within the coordinate system of the site rather than by positioning them relative to existing structural sections (since we have not yet created any).

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4
9000 9000

Column 1

5000

U E N Origin

4000

5000

5000

7000

Keep these column designations in mind; we shall refer to them throughout the rest of the exercise.

10. Select Create>Sections>Straight. You will see both a Section form and a Positioning Control form, which together control how the start and end points of sections are specified. The Positioning Control form is not relevant for our current purposes (we will see what it is used for later). On the Section form, check that the String Method is set to Single (which means that you will define independent start and end positions for each section) and that the Create Option: Secondary Nodes button is set to On. Set the Verification: Confirm button to On (so that you can check where each new section will be positioned before it is added to the database).
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The forms settings should now look like this:

Click the button, which tells the system that you want to define a position by entering explicit coordinates (this is the only practical option at this stage). You will see a Define section start form. We want to position the start of the first column at the site origin, so leave the East/North/Up coordinates at the default position (E0, N0, U0), like this:

NOTE: The default entry wrt World, meaning with respect to the World, defines the coordinate system within which the position is specified.
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Click OK. The Start position will be shown in the graphical view. Rather than specifying all three coordinates for the Sections end position explicitly, we will define its position relative to the Sections start. Click the button.You will now see a Define section end form in a format which lets you enter the required data. We want to create a vertical column 5000mm high, so enter the Direction as U and the Distance as 5000, thus:

Click OK, then click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the creation of the Section (check the Members List). 11. Using the same procedures, create the following three Sections:
D D D

Start Position E0 N7000 U0; Length 9000 Start Position E0 N12000 U0; Length 9000 Start Position E0 N17000 U0; Length 4000

When you have created all four columns, Dismiss the forms (the Positioning Control form disappears automatically when you dismiss the Section form). Your Members List should now show four Sections (SCTN 1 4), like this:

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Note that each newly created Section is placed before the current list position, so that SCTN 1 in the list was the last Section created (corresponding to Column 1 in the diagram).

5.5

Viewing the Design


In order to see what our design looks like as we build it up, and to enable us to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the Members List, we will now display our current design in a 3D View window and learn how to manipulate this display.

5.5.1

Defining What Appears in the View

Exercise continues: 12. Select either Display>Drawlist from the main menu bar or Control>Drawlist from the Members List menu bar. The normal Members List will be replaced by an extended version entitled Members+Draw. This lets you build up a list of all elements which you want to display, as shown in the Drawlist scrollable list in the lower part of the form. If this list already contains entries (which it should), click the All button in the Remove From Drawlist section to empty the list (the view should now show no design elements).
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We want to see all of our current design, so navigate to the SBFR by clicking on it in the upper list and click the Add CE button in the Add To Drawlist section to put the whole of the Sub--Frame into the Drawlist. Select Control>Close from the menu on the Members+Draw form to remove the form from the screen and replace it by the normal Members List. 13. Position the cursor in the 3D View window and hold down the right--hand mouse button to display the pop--up menu. Select Limits>CE (CE means Current Element). This adjusts the scale of the view automatically such that it corresponds to a volume just large enough to hold the chosen element(s); in this case, the Sub--Frame. (A shortcut for the latter operation is to click the button in the 3D View tool bar.) 14. Again using the 3D View menu, select Iso>Three to set an isometric view direction. You should now see all four columns, like this:

Pick mode prompt


Column 1

Column 2 Column 3

Column 4

Vertical slider

Status line showing view direction, manipulation mode etc.

Horizontal slider

NOTE: If the horizontal and vertical sliders are not visible, select Settings>Borders from the 3D View menu to display them.
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15. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions from the Look and Iso menu options. Revert to Iso>Three when you have finished.

5.5.2

Manipulating the Displayed View


You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The three basic operations which we will look at here are:
D D D

Rotate the view Pan the view across the display area Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view

The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window (it is set to Rotate in the preceding illustration). To change the view manipulation mode, look at the View Control options on the pop--up menu. The options of interest are Zoom, Pan and Rotate. Alternatively, you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of the function keys, or by using the 3D View tool bar buttons, thus: F2 or F3 or F5 or Exercise continues: 16. Select Rotate mode. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observers eye--point to move across the view. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observers eye--point should appear to rotate up and down around the model.
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selects Zoom mode selects Pan mode selects Rotate mode

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Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Control key. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. Now repeat the same actions, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. For an alternative way of rotating the model, try dragging the horizontal and vertical sliders to new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless of the current manipulation mode. 17. Select Pan mode. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note that it is the observers eye--point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). 18. Select Zoom mode. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observers eye--point or the view direction. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Control key and then the Shift key. 19. Position the cursor near the centre of Column 1 and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Switch to Zoom mode (if not already selected), set the centre of interest to the top of Column 2, then zoom in for a close--up view of the top of the column. You will find this a very useful technique when
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making small adjustments to the design: we shall use it later to see the effect of realigning sections where they are connected at a joint. 20. To restore the original view when you have finished, check that your current element is the Sub--Frame and reselect Iso>Three and Limits>CE.

5.5.3

Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically


21. Notice that the pick mode prompt at the top of the 3D View says Navigate. Position the cursor over each column in turn and click the left--hand mouse button. Notice how this navigates to the picked element, which becomes the current element in the Members List. Compare the identifier of each SCTN element in the Members List with its designation in the labelled view shown in Step 14; SCTN 1 should correspond to Column 1, and so on.

5.6

Event-Driven Graphics Mode


Before we begin the next part of the exercise, it is necessary to understand a new way of using the cursor to pick points in the graphical view. Whenever the Positioning Control form (which you saw but did not use earlier) is displayed, the graphical view is switched automatically into event-driven graphics mode (you may have noticed that the pick mode prompt, immediately above the graphical view, changed while you were defining positions in Steps 10 and 11). This means that when you pick a point in the displayed graphics, your action is interpreted in whatever way is appropriate to your current design operation (i.e. the current event) rather than simply as a request to navigate to a new current element (as was the case in Step 21). In our examples, picking in event--driven graphics mode will always be used to specify a position. The position derived from your cursor pick can be the exact point at which you have placed the cursor or, more commonly, it can be a position which is related to the picked point in a specified way. The

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main concept involved is that of the snap function, which automatically chooses the nearest Start, End or (optionally) Secondary Node position to the picked point, so that you do not need to be very accurate when positioning the cursor. The full range of options available for identifying positions is extensive. For example, you can specify a position at:
D D D D

a given offset from the nearest snap point; the mid--point of a picked item; the intersection of two picked items; a given proportion along the length of a picked item.

We will use several of the available facilities in the rest of the exercise.

5.7

Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking


In the following part of the exercise, we will add horizontal beams to our four columns. We will identify the start and end positions for these beams by using the cursor and left--hand mouse button to pick the columns to which they are to be connected. This has the advantage that you do not need to remember which section is which in the Members List; you work visually, as you would on a drawing board. The design which we will build is as follows (with column heights shown as a reminder):
Beam 1 Column 2
(9000)

Column 3
(9000)

Beam 2 Beam 4 Column 1


(4000) N

Beam 3 Column 4
(5000) U E

Keep these beam designations in mind; we shall refer to them throughout the rest of the exercise.
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For demonstration purposes, we shall create a single beam in the position occupied by Beams 3 and 4 and then split this into two separate beams, with automatic length and connection adjustments, in a subsequent step. Exercise continues: 22. Click on the Profile Specification button and set the default profile specification to British Standard, Universal Beams, 305x165x40kg/m (as in Step 9). Leave the Justification, Member Line and Joint Line set to NA for the purpose of this exercise (you will see later that this would not be your normal choice of justification setting in practice; we are using this setting for demonstration purposes only). 23. Select Create>Sections>Straight to redisplay the Section form, which you used earlier, and the Positioning Control form, which this time you will use to identify positions by picking them with the cursor in the graphical view. Set the String Method to Single, since we will begin by specifying the start and end points independently for each section. Set Secondary Nodes to On so that secondary nodes and joints will be created automatically at all connections between sections. Set Confirm to On to begin with and switch it Off later when you feel it is no longer necessary. Rather than enter explicit coordinates, we will define the Start Position as a point on one of our existing columns (namely the top of Column 3) which we will pick using the cursor. On the Positioning Control form, set the Pick Type option (left--hand drop--down list; see tool tip) to Element. This means that you are going to pick sections themselves, rather than individual plines, for identifying positions within the design model. The Pick Method setting (right--hand drop--down list) specifies how you want your cursor picks to be interpreted as positions (remember, we are now using event--driven graphics mode). Set this to Snap, meaning that you want to snap to the position of the nearest Start or End of a picked section; this option will remain in force until you change it.
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The settings will look like this:

Notice that the pick mode prompt above the graphical view shows the current event as Define section start (Snap). Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 3. Note that the word Start appears in the view to mark the specified start point and that the snap action has placed this at the upper end of the column. 24. The pick mode prompt will have changed to Define section end (Snap). Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 2 to define the End Position of the new beam. Note how the proposed route of the new beam is shown in the 3D View. Click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the section creation. Beam 1 will be shown with its start connected to the top of Column 3 and its end connected to the top of Column 2.

The length of the beam is calculated automatically, with allowances for the section dimensions, but you will see that the beams position is too high. This is because the justification datum is set to the Neutral Axis (NA), as shown by the Profile Specification setting /BS--SPEC/305x165x40kg/m (NA/NA/NA). We will now correct this by resetting the justification datum to the Top of Steel (TOS) pline. The result will be as shown in the following diagram:
Node NA of Beam Node TOS of Beam

Exercise continues: 25. Switch temporarily from event--driven graphics mode to graphical navigation mode by clicking the
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main tool bar (check the pick mode prompt). Change the view direction to Look>East, move the centre of interest to the approximate mid--point of Beam 1, and zoom in to see more clearly what happens at the ends of the beam. Pick the new beam to ensure that it is the current element and select Modify>Sections> Specification. On the Section Specification form, set the Justification to TOS, thus.

Set the Use as default profile button to On, so that the next beams which you create will be aligned correctly without further adjustment. Apply the change and the beam should move down to the correct position. Notice that the default specification has changed, thus:

You could, alternatively, have realigned just the current beam by selecting the Modify>Sections>Justification option, but this would not have let you reset the default specification for subsequent beam creation. 26. We will now create Beam 2, with its Start Position at the top of Column 4, running horizontally to connect part--way up Column 3. Reset the view, if necessary, to show all sections so far created. Navigating to the beam in Step 25 will have put you back into event--driven graphics mode, ready to position the start of the next Section (check the pick mode prompt again). Position the Start for Beam 2 at the top of Column 4. To pick the End Position, we will use the snap facility with a specified offset distance along the picked Section. From the Positioning Control forms Pick Method list, select Distance and, in the adjacent Method Value field, enter 5000 (i.e. the height of Column 4):

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The pick mode prompt should now say Pick section end (Distance [5000]). Pick anywhere in the lower half of Column 3. The End Position is calculated by snapping to the bottom of the column and then moving up (i.e., towards the cursor) by 5000 mm. 27. In the preceding step, we had to remember the height of Column 4 in order to set the correct snap offset distance. We will now create a beam from the top of Column 1, running horizontally to Column 3 (equivalent to Beam 3 plus Beam 4 in our design sketch), without remembering any dimensions. Position the Start of the new beam at the top of Column 1 as before (remember to reset the pick option to Snap). 28. We will now compare two alternative ways of achieving the required End Position. Make sure that Verification: Confirm is set to On so that you can cancel the first method to try the second. Method 1 Because the beam is to be horizontal, we can constrain its End Position to have the same elevation as its Start Position. To do this, we will use the explicit positioning form which we used earlier, but will enter the coordinates on the form by graphical picking rather than by typing them in. This step will demonstrate the ease with which you can mix the different ways of defining positions (using the Section, Positioning Control and Define section end forms) to suit the current circumstances. Click the button on the Section form to display the Define

section end form. The latter will initially show the coordinates of the last point picked, namely the top of Column 1. Set the Lock button next to the Up field to On, like this:

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Lock On

Notice how the Up coordinate is greyed out to show that you cannot change it. You can now pick any part of Column 3 to specify the beams End Position, since the elevation of the snap point will be ignored in favour of the constraint that the End Position must be at the same elevation as the Start Position; only the East and North coordinates of the pick are used. OK the Define section end form, then click Reject on the Section form to cancel the creation. Method 2 The Start Position will still be shown at the top of Column 1. The and buttons on the Section form both let you

create a section which is perpendicular to another section. We will constrain the new beams End Direction to be perpendicular to Column 3. Click the Perpendicular to button , then pick Column 3

(pick the section itself, not a pline: watch the pick mode prompt as you move the cursor). The derived End Position will be the same as for Method 1. This time Accept the section creation. 29. When you have created the three beams, dismiss the section creation forms. (Note that clicking Dismiss on the Section form also removes the Positioning Control form and returns the pick mode prompt to Navigate.) Zoom in close to the beam which you created last and notice how it passes straight through Column 2. We will now split this beam into two separate sections to form Beam 3 and Beam 4. 30. Select Modify>Sections>Split. Set the gadgets on the Split Sections form as follows:
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noting that the lengths of Beams 3 and 4 are to be adjusted automatically where they meet at Column 2 (Connections at split set to Trimmed). Click Apply. When prompted to identify item to be split on, pick the element which corresponds to the split point, in this case Column 2. Cancel the next prompt (since we are splitting the beam in one place only) by pressing the Escape key (NT) or by clicking the Escape button on the Status Form (Unix). When prompted to identify section to be split, pick any part of the beam which is to be split to form Beams 3 and 4. Cancel (Escape) the next prompt (since we are splitting one section only). Notice how the proposed split point is identified in the graphical view. Confirm the splitting and then dismiss the Split Sections form. When using this facility, the items to be split on and the items to be split must actually intersect at the required split points. Projected intersection points will not work.

We have now completed the creation of the substructure illustrated at the start of this part of the exercise, namely (looking East):

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Beam 1 Column 2 Column 3

Beam 2 Beam 4 Column 1 U E N Beam 3 Column 4

If you examine the Members List, you will see that each column now owns one or more Secondary Nodes (SNODs; marked in the above diagram) at the locations of the ends of the beams. Each Secondary Node owns one or two Secondary Joints (SJOIs) with connection references to the attached beams. This provides the logical connectivity between the sections.

5.8

Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists


The next design operation will be to create multiple copies of the current substructure, with a specified spacing distance between them. In order to demonstrate another useful facility, we will put all members of the Sub--Frame (Sections, Secondary Nodes and Joints) into a List -- a temporary collection of elements which lets you carry out operations on the list as a whole. Each list definition is valid only for the duration of the current PDMS session (although you can save such definitions in a binary file for reloading into a future session).

Exercise continues: 31. Select Utilities>Lists from the main menu or click the button on the main tool bar. You will see a Lists/Collections form for controlling the existence and contents of all lists for the current session. If any lists existed, you would be able to select the one which you wanted to modify from the list next to the button. Since we have not yet used this facility, this will simply say No List.
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32. From the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>List. In the Description box on the Create List form, enter TESTLIST. 33. Ensure that your current element is the Sub--Frame and then, from the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>CE Members. All elements owned by the Sub--Frame will now be shown as items within TESTLIST, like this:

Select Control>Close to dismiss the Lists/Collections form when you have finished with it. Notice that the new list automatically becomes the current list, thus:

5.9

Copying Parts of the Design Model


Rather than create many more columns and beams individually, we are now going to copy the ones we have already created and reposition the copies thus:

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Existing Subframe
N U

Origin
E

6000

6000

6000

As explained in the preceding part of this exercise, we shall copy the list containing all members of the Sub--Frame rather than the Sub--Frame itself. Exercise continues: 34. Select Create>Copy>Offset. You will see a Copy with Offset form which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object), where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to), how many copies you want, and how each copy is to be positioned relative to its preceding neighbour (Offset). 35. Set the Object to be copied to List; since only one list exists, its name (TESTLIST) will be shown without further selection. Set the to option to Rel. (Relative). This will create the new element copies in the same part of the database hierarchy as the original elements; that is, as members of the Sub--Frame. 36. Set the Number of Copies to 3. 37. Note that the Offset must be specified in terms of the local X,Y,Z coordinates of the geometric primitives making up the structural items, rather than the E,N,U coordinates used to position items within the overall design model. In our case, by default, X=E, Y=N and Z=U. Note that the axes are shown automatically in the displayed 3D View as a guide. Set the X Offset to 6000, leaving Y and Z set to 0. The form settings should now look like this:
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38. Click Apply to create the three offset copies and, when prompted, confirm that you want to retain the copies (assuming that they look correct in the graphical view). Dismiss the Copy with Offset form when you have finished. 39. Reset the view limits and viewing direction so that you can see the whole of the current design model (e.g. Limits>CE at the SBFR and Iso>Three). 40. Study the Members List to see what elements have now been created and where they fit into the hierarchy. Note that the Sub--Frame now owns 32 Sections, comprising 16 columns and 16 beams, together with all of the necessary Secondary Nodes and Joints needed to define their interconnections.

5.10

Completing the Initial Design


The final design model which we want to achieve in this part of the exercise has beams running in an East--West direction to give the structure stability, as shown in the following diagram:

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U N E Origin

In creating these beams, we will include some variations of the ways so far used to define the start and end positions of the beams. Exercise continues: 41. Start by creating the three most southerly beams (shown black in the diagram). Do this by creating a single beam and then splitting it into three lengths to fit between the columns (see Step 30). 42. Next, we will create the three beams directly to the north of those which you have just created (shown striped in the diagram). We will do this in a sequence of operations in which the start of each section (after the first) will be situated automatically at the end of the preceding section. Set the String Method to Continuous on the Section form to begin creating a chained configuration of sections. By default, the start of the next section is assumed to be at the end of the previous section (as shown in the 3D View); click the Redefine Start button to override this. On the Positioning Control form, set Pick Method to Intersect to show that you will identify positions at the intersection points of pairs of existing sections. To create the first beam, pick first Column 3 and then Beam 2 (whose intersection is at the Start Position of the first required beam, labelled A in the diagram), then use the same method to pick the intersection which identifies the end of this beam (B in the diagram). If Confirm is On, click Accept to create the beam (otherwise your next picks will simply redefine the end of this section).
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The start of the next beam will be positioned automatically at B (as shown in the 3D View). Use the same procedure to pick points C and D to create the next two beams. Click the Redefine Start button on the Section form to define a new start for another section or sequence of sections. 43. Complete the design using a combination of the techniques which you have learned, plus any other options that you want to experiment with (using the on--line help for guidance when required). Switch Confirm to Off to speed up the process as you gain confidence. If you make a mistake in the middle of defining a section, click Redefine Start to go back a stage. Dismiss the Section form when you are satisfied with your results. NOTE: If you simply copy beams, either singly or as a composite list, the copies will be positioned but will not be connected automatically.

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5.11

Saving Your Changes and Leaving Your Design Session


44. To update the database so as to store the design model which you have created so far, select Design>Save Work from the main menu bar or click the button. (It is wise to use this function periodically as you build up a design, so that you do not have to start from the beginning in the event of loss of work due to an unforeseen interruption, such as a power failure.) 45. To save your current screen layout and display settings, so that next time you use the application you can rapidly restart from where you interrupted your design session, select Display> Save>Forms & Display from the main menu bar. 46. To leave your current PDMS design session and return to the operating system, select Design>Exit from the main menu bar. If you had made any changes since your last Save Work operation, you would be asked if you wanted to save them; in the present situation, you will just be asked to confirm that you want to leave PDMS.

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6 A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure


If a significant part of the model that you want to design comprises a regular array of beams and columns, a special facility is provided to speed up the creation of all the necessary elements to define the fully connected structure. Even if your model is not completely regular in layout, you might find it quicker to use this facility first and then to modify the design as necessary, rather than build up the design section--by--section as we have done so far. In this chapter we will build a new structure using this method, so that you can judge whether or not it is relevant to your own types of design work. Exercise continues: 47. Restart PDMS and enter the Design module, loading the applications from macro files, as explained in Step 1. Notice how the Project, Username and MDB have been remembered from your last session, so that you do not need to enter them again: you do, however, need to enter your Password for every session. Enter the Beams & Columns application, as in Step 4. (We will see later how to restore the screen layout which you saved earlier.) 48. We will store our new model under a separate Structure element in the hierarchy, so that it can easily be distinguished from the design model which we created in the earlier parts of the exercise. Navigate to Zone level and below this create a new Structure, Framework and Subframework, giving them different names from those specified in Step 6 (for example, /REGSTRU, /REGFRMW and /REGSBFR, respectively). 49. Check that automatic Profile allocation is On and Primary Node creation is Off, as in Step 8. (As you will see soon, storage areas and specifications need not be set yet.)
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50. Select Create>Sections>Specials. The resulting Section Creation form lists all available methods: the options available depend on how your system has been set up, but they should include the following:

51. To initiate the use of any available method, you click on it in the list. In this case, select Regular Structure, then Dismiss the form. You will see a Regular Structure form which gives you complete control of the whole design process. In the following steps, we will look at this form in three distinct parts. 52. The areas labelled Column Data and Beam Data let you set the storage areas, profile specifications and justification p--lines independently for the two types of section. Set these as follows (replacing /REGSBFR by whatever name you gave the Subframework in Step 48):

Note

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To enter each Storage area name, navigate to the Subframe and type CE. The name of the current element will be entered automatically. To enter the Profile specifications, click the Profile button to display the Section Specification form and pick the required specification and pline settings.

53. The Grid Origin area lets you define how your structure is to be positioned spatially. Enter the following settings:

The Datum setting defines the element whose reference axes will determine the origin and orientation of the structure. The Underside of Base-Plate setting lets you set the lowest point of your structure (underside of baseplate) relative to the datum axes. This lets you define the elevations of the structural members relative to a plane which does not correspond to the base of the overall structure. We have set this to 1000, so that the bottoms of the columns will be truncated at an elevation of 1000 mm. (We will see the effect of this when we view the completed model.) 54. The East Spacings and North Spacings lists specify the relative spacing between adjacent columns in the given directions. The Elevation list specifies the absolute elevations of the beams representing the floor levels. Type in the following values:

These settings will create 16 columns on a 4x4 rectangular grid, with a uniform inter--column spacing of 3000 mm in the East direction and 5000 mm in the North direction. The columns will be 4000 mm high, to accommodate two floors at elevations of 3000 mm and 5000 mm relative to the datum plane, but with the
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bottoms of the columns truncated so that they do not extend below the 1000 mm elevation specified by the baseplate setting. 55. Set the Trim sections to Plines button On, so that the beams will have their lengths calculated to fit between the columns to which they are connected. 56. With view limits set for zone and view direction set to Iso 3, click the Preview button to display a stick representation of the specified structure. It should have the following configuration:

5000

3000 1000

5000 3000 3000 5000

5000

Shaded area is datum plane

3000

Y/N

Z/U X/E

Origin

Check and, if necessary, correct the settings, then click Apply to create the structure. The sections will first have the specified profiles applied to give them their 3D geometry, then they will be trimmed to length and connected. This process involves a lot of calculation, and might therefore take a minute or two to complete; progress will be shown in the status bar. 57. We will now modify the structure by removing beams as follows:

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* * * * * * * *

To do so, select Delete>Identified and then pick the 14 beams which are to be removed. Escape the prompt when you have finished picking and confirm the deletion. 58. Finally, we will reduce the heights of the eight outermost columns (marked * in the preceding diagram). Rather than modify each one separately, create a new list (select Utilities> Lists, as in Steps 31 and 32) and use the Add>Identified option on the Lists/Collections form to add the columns into the list by picking them with the cursor. 59. Select Position>Extend>By. When prompted to Identify Section, pick any of the columns and then, on the resulting Extend Section - Explicit form, select your new list as the item to be modified. The Extend option button requires you to specify which end of the item is to be moved. We need to adjust the upper end of each column, but is this its Start or its End? To check this, make any one of the columns the current element and select Settings> Graphics>Mark Section. The Start and End will be tagged in the graphical view. Set the Extend button appropriately. Set the Maintain Sections Node Positions to On so that the positions of secondary nodes will not be affected by the length adjustments. (This is only really relevant if you move the Start positions. We are leaving the nodes in place here simply to demonstrate another facility in the next step.)
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Set the Extension by to a Distance of -2000, since we want to reduce the length of each item in the list by 2000 mm. Apply the settings, then Dismiss the form. The result should be as follows:

60. You will notice that the secondary nodes which were at the tops of the deleted columns are still present, even though they no longer serve any useful purpose. To delete these, navigate to the Sub--frame and select Delete>Tidy Nodes. You will see a Tidy Nodes form telling you that 8 redundant nodes have been identified. Set the Mark Nodes for Deletion button to On to tag these nodes in the graphical view, then click OK to delete them. 61. Now, for practice, extend the bottoms of all sixteen columns downwards by 1000 mm, so that they rest on the origin plane (shown shaded in the illustration in Step 56). 62. Update the Design database to save your work (by selecting Design>Save Work).

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In this chapter, we will revert to our original structure and add some bracing members. We will then select some joints from the catalogue. Finally, we will modify the structure by moving part of it to a new position and then restoring the correct geometry between its members semi--automatically.

7.1

Restoring a Previously Saved Setup


In order to continue developing the first structural model which we created, we will reload the display setup which we saved earlier. If you intend to continue from where you finish at the end of any PDMS design session, it is quicker to use the Display>Save>... options to save your current settings to a file which you can subsequently reload, rather than to reload the applications from their source macros each time you use the Design module.

Exercise continues: 63. If you are continuing straight on from the Regular Structure part of the exercise, so that the Beams & Columns application is still loaded, select Display>Restore>Forms & Display. If you exited from PDMS after Step 62, restart PDMS and enter Design (as in Step 1), but this time set the Load from option on the PDMS Login form to Users Binary. In either case, the result will be to load the display setup which you saved in Step 45, so that your graphical view will show the structural model which you created in the first part of the exercise (stored in TESTSTRU).

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7.2

Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry


When you create a section connected to an existing section, the end points of the new section are usually positioned automatically by reference to the currently defined Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set up properly, the geometry at the point of connection may be inappropriate. For example, in plan view, the connection between a column and an incoming beam may look like this:

or

rather than the intended configuration:

or

To correct this, you can trim the length of the incoming section to an explicitly picked pline of the owning section. Before we develop our model further, we will correct any errors of this type which might currently exist (otherwise we could have problems connecting our bracing correctly). Exercise continues: 64. Zoom in to the graphical view and change the viewing direction so that you can see the detailed geometry of each connection point in turn, looking for any examples where an attached section has been trimmed to the wrong length. If you find any, correct them as follows. Select Connect>Trim to Pline>Pick (force). When prompted to Identify section end to be trimmed, pick one of the ends which you want to correct (as shown shaded in the preceding diagram). You will then be prompted to Identify pline to be trimmed to; change the view if necessary and pick the pline which corresponds to the required section end point (typically
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NAR/NAL for a web connection or TOS/BOS for a flange connection, as shown by the black dots in the preceding diagram). Note how the cursor shape changes when it is positioned on a pline and how the status bar helps you by identifying which pline is selected at any given moment. Press Escape to action the change. Repeat this sequence, alternately picking section ends and plines, until all errors have been corrected. Note that, if you are confident that you have made the correct selections, you can pick any number of section/pline pairs before pressing Escape. 65. To check the current pline rule (if any), select Settings>Pick Filters>Plines. You will see a Pline Filter form showing all currently defined rules; this probably shows No Rule and Normal, with the former selected. We will set a rule to give appropriate results for the rest of this exercise. To do so, click the Define Rule button to display the Define Rules form. Enter the Name as Extremities (this will be used to identify the rule in subsequent lists) and the Description as Flange or web face for trimming at connection. Enter the Rule thus (taking care to include the apostrophes and commas exactly as shown: PKEY inset (TOS,BOS,NAL,NAR,FOC,BOC,TOC) Click the Include button to add the new rule into the list. The result is as follows:

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Click OK. Select the Extremities rule on the Pline Filter form to make this the current rule (the form is dismissed automatically). NOTE: A full explanation of the ways in which pline rules are set and applied is beyond the scope of this introductory guide. Suffice it to say that the rule we have set here may be interpreted as Select a pline which has any of the PKEY settings specified in the list. (See Appendix D for diagrams showing how these plines are positioned for typical steelwork profiles.)

7.3

Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing


In the next part of the exercise, we will insert some simple diagonal bracing and then use a short--cut facility to modify the spacing between the ends of the bracing members and some reference plines. We will create bracing members connected between columns, as shown by the black sections in the following diagram:

U E

(The letters and numbers identifying the columns and beams, respectively, in the above diagram will be used for reference purposes in the steps which follow.) The first bracing member will be connected to Columns A and B and its end positions will be specified in terms of their spacing from Beams 1 and 2.
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We will then use the Mirror Copying facility to create the other two bracing members. This facility lets you create a copy of an existing element and to reposition the copy automatically by reflecting it about an axis in a specified plane (so that the original and copy elements are mirror images of one another). Exercise continues: and reset the 66. Click the Default Profile Specification button default specification to British Standard, Rectangular Hollow Sections, 200.0x100.0x10.0 with Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA. This will be the profile used for the bracing members. 67. Select Create>Sections>Straight. Using Pick Type: Element and Pick Method: Intersect on the Positioning Control form, create a single bracing member with its Start at the intersection of Column A and Beam 1 (A1 for short) and its End at B2. IMPORTANT: When you pick the sections defining each intersection point, your first pick defines the section to which the connection is made. In this case, therefore, you must pick the column before the beam when defining each end, otherwise the bracing gap trimming facility will not work correctly. Do not worry if the vertical alignment of the bracing member ends looks wrong at this stage; we will correct this in the next step. Dismiss the Section form. 68. Check that the bracing member is the current element and select Modify>Bracing Gap. You will see a Brace Gaps form listing the different ways of specifying the required gap. Ignore the Default Gap setting and select Distance on picked Pline from a fixed point, noting how the diagram on the form is updated to show the relevant dimensions and picking sequence. Click Apply; you will see a Brace Gap(s) form. Set Confirm to On, but do not enter the Gap A data yet. 69. You are now in event--driven graphics mode, ready to pick the plines from which the bracing gap is to be calculated. We will first position the lower end of the bracing member (currently at A1 in the preceding diagram). Using the diagram on the Brace Gaps form as a guide, pick plines in the following order:
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A pline on the lower face of the bracing member, such as BOS. Pick close to the connection, so that the gap is calculated for the correct end. A pline on Column A along which the gap is to be defined, such as NAL or NAR. A pline on the upper face of Beam 1, such as TOS.

D D

Hint: You might find it easier to pick the plines if you switch the graphics to a wireline view. To do so, select Settings>Shaded from the 3D View menu or press F8. Manipulate the view as necessary between picks to see each required pline.
1. Pline on lower face of bracing member Bracing Member Column A Gap (to be set to 150mm) Beam 1 3. Pline on upper face of reference member

2. Pline along which gap is to be measured

When you have picked the third pline, the calculated distance for the current position will be shown in the graphical view and will also be inserted into the Gap A text--box on the Brace Gap(s) form. The Accept/Reject buttons are now active. Note that the displayed distance is measured downwards (because of the way the plines currently intersect), whereas we want to move the bracing section upwards. To achieve this, change the Gap A data to 150, check that the new position shown in the graphical view is as required, then click Accept to move the section end. 70. Repeat the procedure to position the upper end of the bracing member with a gap of 150mm measured down Column B from Beam 2. Dismiss the Brace Gaps form. 71. Before we create the next bracing members, try this facility for checking whether or not the ends of a section are connected. With the bracing member as your current element, select Utilities>Beams & Columns. From the menu bar of the small
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form which results, pick Tag>All ends. The ends of the current section should both be tagged as Connected. (We will see another way of checking connectivity later.)

Rather than create and position the other two bracing members B4 C3 and C5 D6 by repeating the preceding sequence of operations, we shall use a short--cut by copying the existing A1 B2 section. We will reposition each copy by defining it as a mirror image of its original reflected in an appropriate plane. Exercise continues: 72. Select Create>Copy>Mirror. You will see a Mirror form which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object), where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to), and the plane in which the copy position is to reflected. 73. Assuming that you are still at the bracing member, set the Object to be copied to CE and set the to option to Rel. Set the Type of mirror option to Mirror Copy (since we want to create a new element rather than simply reposition the original one). 74. The plane in which we want to reflect the copied section is represented by the shaded area in the following diagram:

Existing member

Copied member

U E

This plane is specified in terms of its direction (i.e. the direction of the normal to the plane) and of the position of any point within it. The Mirror form provides several methods of specifying these by picking items in the existing model; we will
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use Column B to define the position and will enter the direction explicitly. Select Cursor>Element from the Mirror forms menu and, when prompted, pick any part of Column B. The position identified will snap to the start or end of this column (depending on where you picked) and its coordinates will be entered into the East/North/Up text boxes automatically. You will see a symbolic representation of the planes position and orientation in the graphical view. Note that the Plane Direction text box now shows the cutplane direction of the columns start or end (namely Up or Down). Change this to East and observe the reorientation of the symbolic plane in the graphical view. NOTE: If you want to enter the Plane Direction before you pick the position, set the Lock button for the direction to On to prevent its setting being updated when you pick the position. The form settings should now look like this (the Up coordinate will be 9000 rather than 0 if you picked near the top of Column B rather than near the bottom):

75. Click Apply to create the mirrored copy and, when prompted, confirm that you want to retain the copy.
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76. Using the same procedure, create the third bracing member (C5 D6) by copying and reflecting the second member (B4 C3). 77. The two copies which you have just created should be positioned correctly, but will not yet be connected. To check this, instead of using the Tag utility for each new bracing member as in Step 71, select Query>End Connections. The resulting Highlight Connections form lets you see the connectivity status of all relevant members of the current element. Navigate to the SubFrame TESTSBFR and click the CE button on the Highlight Connections form to update the displayed data. The numbers on the coloured buttons show the number of sections in each category: they should show 38 sections with both ends connected and 18 sections with neither end connected. Set the corresponding Highlight buttons to On to colour the sections in the 3D View; click on a coloured button if you would prefer a different highlight colour. NOTE: You might think that the upper ends of the columns should be shown as connected. However, the beams at those points are connected (via Secondary Joints) to Secondary Nodes positioned along the columns, rather than to Primary Nodes at the column extremities. Therefore, even though the Secondary Nodes in this case happen to be coincident with the tops of the columns, the diagnoses are correct. 78. To connect the ends of the two bracing sections to the appropriate columns, select Connect>Connect and follow the status bar prompts carefully. (Escape terminates each stage of the process in the usual way.) Use the Highlight Connections form again to confirm the results.

7.4

Adding Standard Bracing Configurations


To avoid the need for creating individual bracing sections as we have just done, the application provides a quick way of adding some predefined bracing configurations.

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To demonstrate this facility, we will first add a cross bracing configuration (using angle sections) in the vertical plane and then a diamond bracing configuration (using universal beam sections) in the horizontal plane, in the locations shown by the thick black lines in the following diagram:

U E

Exercise continues: 79. Select Create>Sections>Bracing Configurations. You will see a Bracing form. This form does not use the default settings for section data, so first set the following: Storage area to the Subframe /TESTSBFR; Profile to British Standard, Equal Angle, 70x70x6.0; Justification to NAL (Neutral Axis Left: this will align the angle sections back--to--back; see diagram in Appendix D); Member Line and Joint Line to NA. Hint: Use the same methods for entering this data as in Step 52. Leave the Bracing Plane option set to Derived by Section so that the bracing members will lie in the same plane as the sections to which they will be attached. 80. In the Available Bracing Configurations list, select Cross Bracing. Notice how the parameterised diagram shows the details of the selected configuration. The diagram shows the dimensions which must be specified (A, B) and the order in which existing sections must be picked (1, 2, ...) so as to position
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and connect the bracing members correctly. For the cross bracing configuration it looks like this:

Gap B Pick 2 Pick 1 Gap A

Note: In our design this datum is the lower end of the column, since there is no cross beam at this position.

Click Apply; you will see a Cross Bracing form. Set Gap A to 150 and Gap B to 300. Set Confirm to On. You are now in event--driven graphics mode. Using the diagram on the Bracing form as a guide, pick the two columns between which the bracing members are to be connected. To achieve the required configuration, make sure that your first pick is near the bottom of the first column and that your second pick is just below the cross beam on the second column; that is, pick reasonably close to the required connection points for the bracing members. When you are satisfied with the configuration shown in the graphical view, accept the creation of the sections forming the bracing members and then dismiss the Bracing form. 81. Repeat the procedure used in Steps 79 and 80 to create the diamond bracing at the top of the structure. Set the Profile to British Standard, Universal Beams, 203x133x25, and the Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all to NA. In the Available Bracing Configurations list, select Diamond Bracing. The parameterised diagram will show that you need to specify the separations between the bracing members for each pair of opposing sections. Click Apply to display the Diamond Bracing form on which to enter this data. Set both Gap A and Gap B to 500, leave the Confirm button On, and pick the four beams (in the correct sequence, as shown in the diagram) to complete the operation. Dismiss the Bracing form when you have finished.
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NOTE: You must dismiss the Diamond Bracing form, thereby leaving event--driven graphics mode, in order to change the bracing configuration (as you did between Steps 80 and 81). If you want to add more sections using the current bracing configuration, however, you can simply continue picking connection points in the graphical view.

7.5

Representing Joints
Although each connection has created a corresponding Secondary Joint element in the Design database (shown in the Members List as SJOIs, owned by SNODs), these do not yet have any geometry associated with them and are not therefore shown in the graphical view. In order to represent them properly, we must associate a catalogue specification with each joint (in the same way that each section profile is defined by an associated catalogue specification). Joints have a number of attributes whose settings allow you to position and orientate them and to modify the ends of sections connected to them. We will look at the most important of these attributes here, so that we can represent some simple joints in our design model. The key to success lies in the optimum design of the joint as defined in the catalogue, which is a specialised field beyond the scope of this user guide. The following topics illustrate the main features (do not try to remember them all now; refer back here when necessary): A Shelf Angle Joint as defined in the Catalogue: (only the Neutral Axis pline is shown for clarity)
Z Y X

NA

Origin

Origin plane is X,Y plane through origin. Origin plane direction is Z. Plines extrude in Y direction. Pline direction is Z direction. Note: Origin plane is shown by heavy lines in the following diagrams

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Position and orientation of a Secondary Joint relative to a Secondary Node:


Beta Angle (BANG) defines orientation about Z axis Origin Plane Direction (OPDI) defines orientation about X,Y axes
Y X

Position Line (POSL) (here set to TOS) defines position

Owning Section (2D view only)

SNode

TOS NA BOS

ZDIST defines position of SNode relative to POSS of Section

Connecting a Joint to the Start of an Attached Section:


Owning Section
BOS NA TOS TOS NA BOS

SNode

POSS BANG of Joint

BANG of Section

Attached Section

OPDI of Joint

JLIN of Joint set to BOS of Attached Section JLIN of Attached Section set to NA of Joint POSL of Joint set to TOS of Owning Section Logical Connectivity: JOIS of Attached Section points to Joint CREF of Joint points to Attached Section CTYA of Joint must match CTYS of Attached Section (for connection compatibility)

Note how the origin plane of the Joint is set with reference to the Owning Section (via the POSL attribute), while its position within the constraints of that plane is set with reference to the Attached Section (by aligning the plines defined by the JLINs of both Joint and Section). That is, with reference to the orientation of the diagram, the Joint is moved horizontally by changing its POSL and vertically by changing its JLIN. Both the Section and the Joint can be rotated independently by changing their BANGs (the Section rotates about its NA, the Joint about its OPDI).
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How the Section end configuration depends on the Joint to which it is attached: (using a wedge--shaped Joint to demonstrate the principles)
Owning Section
NA POSS offset along NA by Cutback (CUTB) of Joint

SNode

POSS

DRNS of Attached Section determined by CUTP of Joint Joints Cutting Plane

NA Section

Attached

Exercise continues: For the purpose of this exercise, we will add some simple bolted flanges where the beams are attached to the columns. Remember that the joint elements (SJOIs in the Members List) already exist as a result of connecting the sections together; we need only set a pointer to the joint specification in the catalogue to define each joints geometry. 82. Select Modify>Joints>Specification. When prompted to Identify end of section joint is connected to, pick the end of any N S beam (that is, any beam which abuts a column flange rather than a web) where you want to insert a bolted joint. You will see a Joint Specification form for the joint to which your picked section end is attached. 83. The method for selecting from the available joint specifications is the same as that which you used to select section profiles. Select Column Connections, Column Flange, 6M24_flange, leaving all other form settings at their defaults. 84. Click the Properties button. You will see a subsidiary Modify Properties form which lets you specify some local dimensional data for the selected type of joint. Set Thickness of Plt to 10, Dist from TOS to 0, and Dist from BOS to 30 (we will see what these do in a moment). OK the Modify Properties form and
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Apply the Joint Specification form to complete the setting of the joint specification. (The geometry of most types of joint can be modified via appropriate entries on a form such as this, depending on how the catalogue has been set up.) 85. To see a correct representation of the joint, we must set up the graphical view so that it displays holes (negative volumes) as well as solid items (positive volumes). To do so, select Settings> Graphics>Representation from the main menu bar and, on the resulting Representation form, set Holes Drawn and Update all Graphics to On. OK the settings. Zoom in close to the beam end to see what the joint looks like. Notice how the height and width of the endplate have been set automatically from the dimensions of the beam and column, respectively, with adjustments to suit the values entered on the Define Properties form. This is possible because the joint dimensions in the catalogue are specified as design parameters whose values are derived from the attached and owning sections. The joint should look something like this:

Section end used to identify joint Dist from BOS = 30 Thickness of Plt = 10

Notice how the attached beam has been shortened to accommodate the thickness of the plate and how the bolt holes in the plate have generated corresponding holes in the column flanges. 86. The position of the joint relative to the profile of the column (i.e. its owning section) is determined by the joints position line. To see the effect of changing this, select Modify>Joints>Position Line. The Position Line form will show the current setting as either BOS or TOS (depending at which end of the beam the joint is situated). Change this to the opposite setting (i.e. TOS or BOS), set the Re-trim attached section button to On, and click Apply. The joint and its attached section end will move thus:
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Section end used to identify joint

87. Reposition the joint correctly, then Dismiss the Position Line and Joint Specification forms. 88. Rather than set each joint specification explicitly, we can apply the specification for one joint to other joints. We will use this facility to specify the joint at the other end of the beam which we have just been looking at. To do so, select Modify>Joints>Joint Like>Maintain Pline. When prompted to Identify end of section to be copied like, pick the same section end as in Step 82 (i.e. the end shown in the preceding diagram). When prompted to Identify section end to be modified, pick the other end of the same beam. Press Escape for both of the next prompts (we are only modifying one joint in this step). Zoom in close to the second joint and notice how its geometry matches that of the first joint. The position line settings for the two joints are, however, set automatically to opposite flanges of the column (TOS for one, BOS for the other), to give the correct alignment. NOTE: If the joint were handed, such as a shelf angle, you would also see that the second joint has been rotated automatically about its vertical axis to match the start/end directions of the section. This is not apparent for the endplate, but if you select Query>Attributes you will be able to see which attributes differ between the two joints. 89. Using the same method as in Step 88, set the specifications for some of the other column flange joints.

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7.6

Dominant versus Subordinate Joints


When you reposition a joint which has one or more attached sections, the effect on those sections depends upon whether or not the joint has been defined as dominant or subordinate, as defined by the setting of the joints Joint Freedom (JFRE) attribute. If JFRE is set to False (the default for a new joint), the joint is said to be subordinate (also described by saying that the section is dominant). If JFRE is set to True, the joint is said to be dominant. Consider the following effects, where the joints owning section is moved thus:
Move owning Section and Secondary Joint

Two attached Sections connected to Secondary Joint

Joint subordinate (Section dominant) (JFRE = False)

Joint dominant (JFRE = True)

Directions of Sections unchanged. Attached Sections still have logical connections to Joint, despite geometry.

Directions of Sections changed to align with new Joint position. Logical connections are maintained.

We will use this feature in the next part of the exercise.

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7.7

Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry


In the next part of the exercise, we shall move the columns and beams at the eastern end of our structure to increase the overall length of the design model. This will require the horizontal beams and the bracing member connected to the moved columns to be extended and, in the case of the bracing member, realigned to maintain the correct configuration. The objective is to demonstrate the dominant joint concept (as described in Section 7.6) and to show how you can easily restore geometry between sections which has been disrupted by moving parts of a structure independently. The result which we want to achieve is as follows, where the black sections will be moved explicitly and the broken lines indicate the new final configuration:
* * * * * * *
U E

The joints marked * must be dominant Note realignment of bracing member *

Exercise continues: 90. In order to make the bracing member realign itself to maintain the specified bracing gap, the joint to which it is connected must be dominant. To ensure this, we will make the joints dominant at both ends of all bracing sections (as would be normal practice). For the purposes of this exercise, we will also make dominant the joints at both ends of each of the four N S beams between the columns to be moved (i.e. the beams shown shaded in the preceding diagram).
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Select Connect>Joint Dominant. Each joint is identified by picking the section end to which it is connected. When prompted, pick both ends of each bracing member created in Section 7.3 (six picks) and the ends of all relevant beams (eight picks). Press Escape when you have finished. NOTE: This part of the exercise has been designed to illustrate, among other features, the concept of joint dominance. In normal practice, only the joints at the ends of the bracing members would be made dominant. 91. Use the Utilities>Lists facility to create a new list and use the Add>Identified option to add into it the four columns to be moved (shown black in the preceding diagram). 92. Select Position>Relatively (BY). You will see a Position By form which lets you move an item by a given distance in a given direction. Use the option button near the top--left of the form to set the item to be moved to the list containing the columns (Current List). Enter the required movement in the By text boxes; in this case specify a move by 2000 mm in the East direction. When you Apply (and confirm) the settings, the columns should move as follows:

U E

At first sight, this appears to be a rather disastrous result. However, as long as we have set all of the connectivity rules correctly, particularly the joint dominance settings, we can easily rectify the problem by reconnecting all of the sections which should be connected to the columns.
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93. Select Connect>Trim to Section>All attached. When prompted, pick each of the four columns in turn, then press Escape and watch the results in the graphical view as the correct geometry is restored. (Note that Trim to Section differs from the Trim to Pline option, which we used before, in that Trim to Section maintains the existing pline connectivity, thereby retaining any previously defined trimming, whereas Trim to Pline resets the connectivity to an explicit or rule--defined pline.) 94. Save your design changes.

That concludes the introduction to the basic operations involved in the design of a simple structural framework. In the next part of the guide we shall see how to add some sheet cladding (floor plates and/or wall panels) to our structure.

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In this chapter, we will change to another of the structural design applications, namely the Panels & Plates application, and add a floor plate to our existing structure. We will then modify this in various ways to demonstrate some of the facilities provided for detailing panels. NOTE: The facilities which we will look at next let you add planar material to the design model in any orientation. Throughout this text, the term panel will be used for such items in all descriptions, regardless of whether the element represents a horizontal floor plate, a vertical wall panel, a sloping roof panel, or any similar planar item.

8.1

Starting the Panels & Plates Application


In order to access the panel design facilities, we must leave the Beams & Columns application and load the complementary Panels & Plates application. Many of the options available in the latter application are very similar to those which you have already learned to use from the preceding chapters of this guide, so only the differences will be dealt with in any detail.

Exercise continues: 95. Select Design>Structures>Panels & Plates from the main menu bar (available from within all design applications, not just the current Beams & Columns application), or click the button. The main menu bar and tool bar will change, although the differences may not be obvious at a first glance. They will now look like this:
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Look at each pull--down menu in turn; you will see that the options in the upper parts of the menus are common to the equivalent Beams & Columns menus, whereas many of the options in the lower parts of the menus are specific to the Panels & Plates application. (All menu options for both applications are summarised in Appendix A for convenient reference.)

8.2

How PDMS Represents Panels


A Panel (PANE) element can be used to represent any sheet material used to clad a structural model. Using a similar principle to that for representing a Section (which is an extruded 2D catalogue Profile), a Panel is represented by extruding a user--defined 2D shape. Its geometry is defined by two types of data:
D

The panels planar area is defined by a Panel Loop (PLOO) element, which is itself defined by linking together a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements, each of which has a specific position in the panels 2D coordinate system. Each panel Edge is defined by a line joining adjacent vertices. The panel thickness is defined by setting the Height (HEIG) attribute of the Panel Loop. This represents the distance through which the 2D Panel Loop is extruded to form the 3D panel.
Panel (PANE)

= Panel Loop (PLOO) Panel thickness = HEIG of PLOO = Panel Vertex (PAVE)

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Each Panel Vertex can have an optional Fillet Radius setting which represents a circular arc which curves towards (positive radius) or away from (negative radius) the vertex position, thus:
PAVE with +ve radius PAVE with - ve radius

The default radius of zero denotes a point.

8.3

Setting Default Storage Areas


In the next part of the exercise we will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit our planned method of working, just as we did for the Beams & Columns application. We will specify where the principal panel design elements are to be stored in the design database hierarchy.

Exercise continues: 96. Rather than using the Settings>Storage Areas option, as in Step 7, we will use a short--cut method to set default storage areas for Panels and Panel Linear Joints (which we will look at later). We shall store both types of element under the same SubFrame which we have been using for our basic framework design. Navigate to TESTSBFR and then click the (Panels) and (Panel Linear Joints) buttons in turn. These automatically set the storage areas to the current element. The current storage area settings are shown like this:

Panel storage area

Linear Joint storage area

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8.4

Creating Simple Panels


We will first create a panel which defines the overall area of a large floor plate and will then divide this up into more manageable sizes such as might be specified for fabrication purposes. These panels will represent the schematic areas only; we will defer detailed trimming of the edges to fit around structural sections etc. until a little later.

Exercise continues: 97. Select Create>Panel. You will see a Create Panel form which provides, among its other settings, various ways of specifying the positions of vertices. We will not enter the optional names for panels in this exercise. Set the Justification to Bottom (this will let us position the bottom face of our panels on the top of their supporting sections) and set the Thickness to 30. Leave the Representation set to Predefined: Default for now. These settings (Levels and Obstruction) affect the way items are shown in 3D views and how they are dealt with when checking for clashes between design items; the defaults should be adequate for our current purposes. We will define the positions of four vertices, V1 V4, which define the overall area of the floor plate shown shaded in the following diagram (all bracing members omitted for clarity):

V1

V2

V4

V3

U E

(The broken lines A A and B B show where we will later split the panel into three.)
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The Create Methods buttons give you the following ways to define each vertex: lets you pick a point graphically using any of the standard cursor picking options lets you construct a point using the intersections of plines with an existing panel (not relevant here, since no panels exist yet) lets you create a set of vertices which follow the shape of an existing panel (not relevant here, since no panels exist yet) lets you specify a position by entering explicit coordinates relative to the position of an existing element lets you specify a distance and direction relative to the preceding vertex lets you construct a fillet arc by specifying its radius, then picking two lines (tangents) between which the fillet is to occur lets you construct a fillet arc by picking three points through which it is to pass lets you construct a fillet arc by specifying its radius, then picking two points through which it is to pass, then picking a control point defining its position In the next steps, we will use two of these options to illustrate the principles. 98. Click the button. The Positioning Control form will show that you are now in event--driven graphics mode, ready to pick the position of the first vertex. Set Pick Type to Element and set Pick Method to Intersect. Now pick the column and either of the beams whose intersection coincides with V1 in the preceding diagram. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form will change from No vertices currently defined to 1 Vertices defined (no Panel created). NOTE: The first vertex defined for a new panel becomes the panels origin by default. You can change this later if required.
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99. Repeat this point--picking procedure to define V2 and V3, in that order. As soon as you have defined three vertices, the plane of the new panel will be shown in the graphical view (as a triangle) and a PANE element will be added into the Members List. 100. As a demonstration, we will position V4 relative to V3. Click the button. You will see a Define Vertex form on which you can specify the required offset. Set the Direction to West and the Distance to 20000. Click Apply to create the vertex. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form will now say 4 Vertices defined (Panel created). 101. Leave the Display modification form button set to Off (you would set this to On only if you wanted to modify the panel vertices immediately). Click OK to complete the panel creation operation. Note that the Members List now includes one PANE, one PLOO and four PAVE elements (as defined in Section 8.2).

8.5

Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model


When we completed the Define Vertex form in Step 100, we had to enter the required distance between V3 and V4; that is, the overall length of the structure in the East West direction. The figure which we entered (20000) was derived from knowledge of the original design data. Instead of calculating this, we could have measured it by means of a useful utility, as follows:

Exercise continues: 102. Either select Query>Measure Distance or click the button. You will see a Measure form and a Positioning Control form which together let you measure the distance between any two points or lines in the design model. On the Positioning Control form, set Pick Type to Element and Pick Method to Snap, then pick near the tops or bottoms (but not one of each) of the columns through the V4 and V3 positions. Hint: Zoom in if
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necessary and pick carefully at the ends connected to bracing sections to avoid snapping to the secondary nodes rather than the column extremities. The Information area on the Measure form will show the direct distance between the Neutral Axes of the sections, the XYZ components of that distance, and the direction of the second point relative to the first. The data will also be shown in the graphical view. 103. Experiment with some other graphical picking options to measure a few other distances and directions, including some in skewed directions, then dismiss the Measure form.

8.6

Splitting a Panel
We will now split our new panel along the axes of the intermediate beams which support it (shown by the broken lines A A and B B in the diagram at Step 97), thus forming three smaller panels. 104. Ensure that the panel is the current element (shown as PANEL 1 in the Members List) and select Modify>Split Panel. When prompted to Pick ... to be split on, pick either of the beams aligned along A A in the diagram. (You might need to change the view direction so that the beam you want to pick is not obscured by the panel; alternatively, you can pick either of the other beams which are aligned parallel to A A in the required plane.) The panel will be split along the picked line to form two separate panels, each with its own panel loop and set of four vertices. 105. Note that your current element is still PANEL 1, which is the smaller of the two panels. Navigate to the larger panel, PANEL 2, and split this along B B to give a total of three panels. (Note that you can only split a panel along the axis of an existing element. To introduce a split line anywhere else, simply create a section where you want the split to occur, split the panel, then delete the section.)

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8.7

Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices


The edges of the panels which we have created run from vertex to vertex along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they rest. While this may be an adequate representation for an overall design layout, you will usually need to detail the edges more accurately for fabrication purposes. To do so, you can add, delete or reposition individual vertices which define the shape of the panel loop. To introduce this concept, we will add intermediate vertices between existing panel corners so that the edges fit round the columns which intersect them. We will also set a radius for some of the vertices to give rounded corners. NOTE: When we split our original panel into three, new vertices were created automatically, so the vertex numbers for the current panels do not correspond to those of the original panel. As you insert new vertices, the numbering will change to accommodate them, so care is needed to check that you are at the correct vertex for each panel editing operation.

Exercise continues: 106. Navigate to the westernmost panel (i.e. that between V1 A A V4 in the diagram for Step 97) and select Modify>Extrusion/Panel. You will see a Loop Vertex Editor form which lets you modify the shape of the current panel by manipulating individual vertices, edges between vertices, groups of vertices, etc. Whatever methods you use for picking new positions, all vertices are constrained to remain in the plane of the panel loop (i.e., the underside of the panel) throughout these operations. Check that the options Settings>Confirm and Settings>Confirm on delete from this forms menu bar are both set to On. The active gadgets on the form, and their titles, change to suit the current circumstances as you use the form. As displayed now, you will notice that many of the buttons (especially those relating to Group and Line operations) are greyed out.
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The upper part of the form shows that the current focus is on Vertex 1, while the lower part shows the coordinates and fillet radius of this vertex, thus:

Navigate to vertex by picking

Step through vertices

The geometry of the current panel in Plan view (not to scale) is as follows:

V2

V3

P
V7

L
V6

V1
V8 V5

V4

Y
V1 V4

New vertices to be inserted

Origin at V1

We will insert four new vertices between V4 and V1, as shown in the inset view, so that this panel edge fits round the column (note that V4 comes before V1 when defining this edge, since vertex numbering is clockwise as viewed in the diagram). 107. Each new vertex is added to the sequence immediately after the current vertex, so first navigate to V4 in either of the following ways:
D

Click the select vertex/edge button on the Loop Vertex Editor form and pick the p--point at V4. Note that, because this position is within the column, you might find it easier to switch to wireline mode to see it.
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Use the up/down arrow buttons next to the displayed vertex number to step through the vertex list sequentially. Notice how the current vertex and the edge direction to the next vertex are shown in the 3D View as you do this. If you know the number of the vertex you want, you can type it directly in the Vertex number field. Do not forget, though, that the numbering may change as you edit the list; it is usually safer to pick a vertex graphically.
D

108. Click the Create points button in the Mode Selection area of the Loop Vertex Editor form. Set the Positioning Control to Element Snap and position the vertex at the end of the beam which joins the column from the direction of V4. A New vertex tag is added to the graphical view so that you can check the proposed position; if it is correct, click the Create button at the bottom of the Loop Vertex Editor form to confirm the creation. Notice that the new vertex is now the current vertex (labelled <5>), ready for the next one to be added after it. 109. Position the next vertex, V6, at the intersection of the corner of the column with the panel. To do so, click the button again, set the Positioning Control to Pline Snap, and pick the column pline which passes through the required point (RBOS or LBOS; see diagram in Section 5.2.1). If you cannot pick the pline you want, select Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu bar and reset the current filtering rule to No Rule (it is probably still set to Extremities, as in Step 65). 110. Create V7 and V8 by using similar methods to those in Steps 109 and 108, respectively. Rotate the graphical model as necessary and check that the panel now incorporates a cut--out which fits round the column, as shown in the diagram at the end of Step 106. At present the panel edges are abutted against the column flanges. We will next introduce a small clearance gap by moving the relevant vertices using the explicit editing facilities. 111. To change from create mode to modify mode, click the button and pick V5. Note how its current settings are copied into the Vertex area at the bottom of the form (X, Y and Radius
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text--boxes). To introduce a 10mm clearance, change the setting in the X box by adding 10 (the axes, shown at the panels origin, are useful here for checking directions in the panels coordinate system). Click the Modify button to confirm the new setting. 112. Repeat the procedure from Step 111, adding or subtracting as necessary, to move V6, V7 and V8 to give a 10 mm clearance all round, noting that V6 and V7 must be moved in both the X and Y directions. 113. Pick V6 and change the Radius setting from the default of zero to 15 mm. Update the V6 data to the new setting, then repeat the process for V7. The final result will be as follows:
V7 PANEL V6

V8

V5

(Set the view to Look>Down and zoom in to see this in detail. You might find it easier to see the detail if you switch to wireline mode.)

8.8

Moving Panel Edges to New Positions


So far, we have aligned the panel edges along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they are supported. We will now move the panel edges linking V4 V5 and V8 V1 to the outer edges of the beams. We will specify the new position by aligning the edge with the appropriate pline of the beam on which it rests (LTOS in the following diagram), thus:

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V7 PANEL

V6

RTOS

Move edge
V1 V8 V5

Move edge
TOS LTOS

V4

Exercise continues: 114. Still using the Loop Vertex Editor form, click the select edge to modify button in the Mode Selection area and then pick a point on the panel near the edge between V4 and V5. Notice how the upper part of the form now shows the current focus as Edge 4, while the lower part shows the coordinates of the Start of the edge (i.e. V4) and the length of the edge, thus:

Navigate to edge by picking

Step through edges

Notice also that the gadgets in the Line area are now active (they were previously greyed out). These are examples of how the form changes to suit current circumstances, as mentioned in Step 106. 115. By default, the next modification would be applied only to the Start position of the edge; as shown by the Start option, and the fact that START is tagged in uppercase letters in the 3D View. We want to move the whole edge (that is, we want to move V4 and V5 simultaneously), so change the option to Aligned, thus:

Pick the LTOS pline on the top outer edge of the beam and then click the Modify button to move the panel edge to this position.
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116. Select Settings>Tag edges from Loop Vertex Editor menu. Repeat the method of Steps 114 and 115 to move Edge 8 (V8 V1) to the outer edge of its supporting beam. 117. Use the same process to move the non--abutting edges of all three panels to the outer edges of their supporting beams (but do not modify any more edges to fit round columns yet; we will look at other ways of doing this later).

8.9

Creating Negative Extrusions


In exactly the same way that you position Panel Vertex elements to define the shape of a 2D Panel Loop and then extrude this by the required thickness to create a 3D Panel, as illustrated in Section 8.2, so you can also position Vertex (VERT) elements to form a 2D Loop (LOOP) and then extrude this to create a 3D Negative Extrusion (NXTR). The difference is that, as its name implies, the negative extrusion represents a negative volume, that is, a hole. (We have already encountered negative volumes used in the catalogue definition of a bolted flange, where they were used to remove the end of the section to accommodate the joint and to represent bolt holes through both the joint and the flange of its owning column; see illustration in Step 85.) A negative extrusion is owned by the panel through which the hole is required. When created, its justification is set automatically to be the same as that of its owning panel, although you can move it later if necessary. We will use this facility to create a hole through the floor plate where one of the columns passes through it. The negative extrusion will have the same shape as that created by the interposed vertices (V5 V8) in the preceding diagram, namely:

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V3
PANEL

V4

Panel V3 V2

NEGATIVE EXTRUSION

Panel V2 V1

NOTE: Vertices V1 V4 in this diagram define the negative extrusion; their numbering is independent of the panel vertices. (Negative extrusion vertices are shown in italic to distinguish them from panel vertices.) Notice how the outer edge of the negative extrusion (V1 V2) extends beyond the outer edge of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates through the panel edge. Similarly, the thickness of the negative extrusion should exceed the thickness of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates completely through the panel. Exercise continues: 118. We will create the negative extrusion where a column passes through the midpoint of the easternmost edge of the largest panel (that is, at the opposite end of the structure from the vertices added in Section 8.7). Navigate to that panel (which should be PANEL 3 in the Members List) and select Create>Negative Extrusion. You will see a Create Negative Extrusion form (similar to the Create Panel form which you used earlier). 119. To see the negative extrusion volume in the graphical view when you create it, select Settings>Graphics>Representation and set Holes Drawn to Off (we set this to On in Step 85; we will see the effect of this setting in more detail shortly). Set Update all Graphics to On and OK the change. 120. To achieve the correct justification and orientation for the negative extrusion relative to its owning panel, click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form, then pick the
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upper face of the panel. The hole will penetrate into (or, in our case, through) the panel thickness from this surface. Set Hole Depth (equivalent to the thickness of the negative extrusion) to 250. This large depth will make it easy to see the volume of the negative extrusion once you have created it: a depth slightly greater than the panel thickness would normally suffice, since the application automatically adds 1 mm to ensure that the hole always cuts through the referenced panel surface. The settings should now be as follows:

121. Using any combination of the methods which you used to create and modify panel vertices (Sections 8.4 and 8.7), create the four vertices needed to define the required hole round the column, as shown in the preceding diagram. For ease of positioning, align V1 and V2 with the outer face of the column (although any position beyond the panel edge would be satisfactory). Introduce a clearance of 10 mm round the column and set the radii of the two vertices within the panel area to 15 mm. Note that the origin plane of the negative extrusion is its bottom face, as shown by the positions of the graphical aids when you are creating and modifying its vertices. 122. When created, the negative extrusion will appear as an outline volume superimposed on the design in the graphical view. If you have positioned it correctly, its upper face will just protrude from the top face of the panel, thus:
Look>West: Look>North:

Negative extrusion

Negative extrusion Panel

V2

V1

V3

V2

(If not, use the Position>Relatively (BY) menu option to move the negative extrusion vertically to a position where it cuts both faces of the panel.)
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123. To see the result of applying the negative volume represented by the negative extrusion to the positive volume of the panel, revert to Holes Drawn On representation (see Step 119). Notice how the negative extrusion creates a hole only through its owning panel; it does not affect the column.

Note the effects of the Holes Drawn setting on the Representation form:
D

When Holes Drawn is Off, negative volumes are shown as outline shapes in the graphical view and can be picked using the cursor (you must pick a visible edge, not an invisible surface). Their effect of removing material from positive (solid) items in the design is not shown. Use this mode when explicitly creating or modifying a negative item. When Holes Drawn is On, negative volumes are not shown explicitly in the graphical view and cannot be picked using the cursor (although you can still navigate to them using the Members List as normal). Only their effect on positive volumes through which they pass is visible. Use this mode for normal design work to view a realistic 3D representation of the design model.

That concludes the addition of simple panels to the structural framework, including two methods for representing holes in the panels where they fit round structural members. In the next part of the guide, we shall look at ways of adding predefined catalogue fittings to panels.

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Using Panel Fittings

In this chapter we will introduce the concept of Panel Fittings and then incorporate such a fitting into our design to represent a manhole giving access through a floor plate.

9.1

How Panel Fittings are Defined


A Single Panel Fitting (PFIT) is a catalogue item which can be used to represent any type of geometric entity which is to be owned by, and positioned relative to, a panel. Typically, the catalogue might include panel fittings representing doors, windows, access manholes, lifting lugs, and so on. As with the bolted joint which we used earlier, panel fittings can incorporate (or consist entirely of) negative volumes which represent holes in their owning panels. A panel fitting is positioned relative to its owning panels origin by setting its Position (POSI) attribute and is orientated about an axis perpendicular to the panel by setting its Beta Angle (BANG) attribute. It can be justified to align its origin plane with the top face, centre plane, or bottom face of the panel by setting its Justification (SJUS) attribute. As an example, a stylised manhole might be defined like this:
Z Positive volume representing lid Negative volume representing hole through panel Beta Angle defines orientation about Z axis X Origin Plane determines justification relative to panel

Origin

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When you create a new panel fitting, it is positioned automatically at the origin of its owning panel. You can then move it to the required position in any of the standard ways.

9.2

Creating a Panel Fitting

Exercise continues: 124. Navigate to the panel in which you want to insert the manhole and select Create>Fittings>Single. You will see a Create Panel Fitting form giving access to all available panel fitting specifications in the current catalogue. Because we are creating a new panel fitting, rather than modifying the specification of an existing one, the form is set to show New Panel Fitting as the current element. Select the Specification for Standard Access, Access Cover, Standard Manhole Access, ACCESS_COVER (probably the only item in the list). Set the Justification to Top outwards. These options let you specify the panel plane (top, centre or bottom) to be used as the alignment datum and the orientation of the fitting relative to this plane, like this:
Top outwards Top inwards Centre outwards Centre inwards Bottom inwards Bottom outwards

125. By default, the fitting will be positioned at the origin of its owning panel (as shown by the Position field). We will position it by eye, using the cursor. Click the Pick Position button , set the Positioning Control to either Graphics Snap or Graphics Cursor, and pick a point somewhere near the centre of the panel area. OK the Pick Fitting Position form to transfer the coordinates of the picked position to the Create Panel Fitting form, then Apply the latter to create the fitting. The new panel fitting is shown in the Members List as a PFIT owned by the PANE. 126. With the PFIT as your current element, select Orientate> Angle>90 Degrees to rotate the fitting within the plane of the panel. (The default orientation has the Beta Angle set to zero.)
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127. To see the effects of changing the justification, select Modify>Fitting and, on the resulting Modify Panel Fitting form, try each of the Justification options in turn. Zoom in and look at both faces of the panel to see how the negative part of the fitting creates the necessary access hole. Reset whichever justification you think is most appropriate before dismissing the form.

NOTE: Sections can also own Fittings (FITTs rather than PFITs in this case) which can serve a similarly wide range of purposes. We will not look explicitly at these in the exercise, but similar principles apply to their creation and manipulation. You may want to experiment with these yourself by switching to the Beams & Columns application; see Appendix D.5 for some examples. Note that such a fitting is positioned along its owning section by setting its distance from the sections start (the Zdistance). More complex fittings may be represented by Compound Fittings, each of which can own a set of Subfittings. You will see an example of how these may be used when we look at Penetrations in the next chapter.

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10

Penetrating One Item With Another

Several of the design applications include the concept of a Penetration to allow one or more items to pass through another such that there is a logical link between the penetrating and penetrated items (in contrast to, say, a negative extrusion which can be positioned and dimensioned independently of any item which passes through it or through which it passes). In this chapter we will use this facility to show yet another way of creating a hole in a panel where a section passes through it.

10.1

How a Penetration is Defined


Each type of penetration is a selectable catalogue item whose dimensions are parameterised in such a way that they can be derived automatically from the dimensions of the component which passes through the hole. You can modify the final dimensions by specifying clearance distances etc. to allow for any special requirements of the local design geometry. Such a penetration can be used where pipes or sections pass through a panel, or, with some restrictions, through a section. The element types used to represent a panel penetration are as follows:
D

The point along a pipe at which it passes through a penetration is represented by an Attachment (ATTA) element owned by the appropriate Branch. The point along a section at which it passes through a penetration is represented by a Fitting (FITT) element. The point at which a penetration is positioned through a panel is represented by a Compound Panel Fitting (CMPF) element which owns a separate Subfitting (SBFI) for each associated penetrating item.
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When you create a panel penetration, the application sets up cross-references between the ATTA or FITT and the CMPF/SBFI, like this:
FITT owned by Section SBFI owned by CMPF; CMPF owned by panel SBFI owned by CMPF; CMPF owned by panel

ATTA owned by Branch

Branch

Panel

Section

Panel

CREF of ATTA points to SBFI CREF of SBFI points to ATTA

CREF of FITT points to SBFI CREF of SBFI points to FITT

(These diagrams show only single penetrations, where each CMPF owns just one SBFI. For a multiple penetration, each CMPF would own one SBFI for each penetrating pipe or section.) For our present purposes, we will consider only the case of a structural section passing through a panel, so we will be concerned with specifying a FITT and a SBFI for each penetration.

10.2

Creating a Steelwork Penetration


Our design model currently looks like this (bracing members and manhole omitted for clarity), showing the two methods so far used for allowing columns to pass through panels:

Vertices fitted round column

PANEL 1

PANEL 2

PANEL 3

Negative extrusion

Penetrationt o go here
N U E

We will now add a penetration, as indicated in the above diagram, to allow the column to pass through the corner of Panel 1.
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Exercise continues: 128. You can create a penetration for a section through a panel either from the Beams & Columns application or from the Panels & Plates application. The choice depends on which element is to be dominant in determining the penetrations position and geometry; that is, whether it is the section or the panel which is to be regarded as the owner of the penetration. Here we want the penetration to be owned by the section, so change to the Beams & Columns application. 129. Select Utilities>Steelwork Penetration. This starts the Steelwork Penetration subapplication, whose menu bar will be displayed in addition to the existing Beams & Columns Application menu. Both menus are active: one gives access to the general steelwork design functions, the other accesses those functions specific to penetration design. 130. From the Steelwork Penetration Application menu, select Create>Penetration. You will see a Create Section Penetrations form. This form requires you to specify four types of data:
D

Whether the penetration is to allow for a single penetrating item or for multiple items. How you want to identify the panel(s) through which the penetration is to pass (the penetrated items). How you want to identify the section(s) which are to pass through the penetration (the penetrating items). The default specification of the catalogue penetration which is to be used (the first penetration in the selected specification will be used by default).

Set the Penetration Type option to Single Penetration. Set both the Elements to be penetrated and Elements that penetrate options to Pick using cursor, showing that you will identify each item individually by picking it in the graphical view. Set the Defaults: Spec. option to Penetrations.
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Set the Confirm before penetrating button to On and click Apply. You will be prompted to Identify item to be penetrated. Pick the panel and Escape the next prompt. When prompted to Identify items that penetrate, pick the column and Escape the next prompt. Check that the picked intersection point is correct, as tagged in the 3D view, and confirm the creation of the penetration. 131. You will now see a Penetration Item List form; this is displayed automatically so that you can complete the specification of the penetration elements. It shows all data settings relevant to the penetrating item (FITT) and the penetrated item (or hole; SBFI). The upper scrollable list acts as a specific members list for the rapid selection of, and navigation to, elements relevant to penetrations. It displays the penetrating and penetrated items in a hierarchic (indented) format. Leave the Show option set to Items. The List option controls how the hierarchy is sorted. Since our penetration is owned by the section rather than by the panel, the options work as follows: Penetrating Items Owner lists all FITTs for each section; Penetrating Items Attached lists all FITTs for each panel (grouped by CMPF), thus:

(We have only a single penetration, so the difference here is less significant than when you have several penetrations.) Select Penetrating Items - Owner. The middle list, labelled Penetrating Item, shows the relevant attribute settings for the current FITT (as selected in the upper list). It is in this list that you select the settings which you want to modify.
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The lower list, labelled Hole Information, shows the relevant attribute settings for the SBFI which is referenced from the current FITT. This data is shown for reference only; we will see how to modify it later. Set the Navigate on selection button to On. Any item picked in the upper list will then automatically become the current element in the normal Members List. 132. We have only one FITT which we can modify, so select this in the upper list. Its relevant attribute settings appear as follows:

We want to set the specification, so select SpecRef in this list (the > symbol shows that this is an editable entry). You will see a Modify Fitting form. From the list of fitting specifications displayed, select Steel Sections, Steel Sections, Rectangular, PENI/RECT. Set the Justification to NAL or NAR (it does not matter which). The Zdist(ance), which determines the position of the fitting along its owning section, is set automatically from the calculated penetration coordinates; leave this value as it appears. Leave the Beta Angle (which determines the orientation of the fitting about the section) at the default value of 0. Click the Properties button. The resulting Modify Properties form lets you set the local geometry for the fitting (similar to the way in which we specified joint details in Step 84). Set the X-Clearance and Y-Clearance to 20 so that the fitting extends beyond the section extremities by 20mm in each direction. Leave the X-Offset and Y-Offset set to zero, so that the fitting is centred on the sections neutral axis. OK these settings and Apply the Modify Fitting form. When you have finished setting the specification for the FITT, Dismiss the Penetration Item List form and its associated forms.
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133. Having fully specified the part of the penetration which relates to the penetrating section (the FITT), we must now do the same for the part which relates to the penetrated panel (the CMPF and its SBFI). Navigate to the panel and select Modify>Penetrations from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu. The resulting Penetration Display form lets you specify whether you want to modify penetrating or penetrated items: select List Penetration Holes and click Apply. You will see a Penetration List form. This is very similar to the Penetration Item List form which you used in the preceding step, except that the lists are now based on the CMPF and SBFI data rather than the FITT data. The navigation lists now look like this, so the owner/attached definitions have been reversed when compared with the equivalent lists shown in Step 131:

Note that the middle list now shows Hole Information ready for modification, while the lower list now shows Penetrating Item data for the referenced FITT. 134. Select the SBFI in the upper list. Before we modify the SBFIs specification, we need to ensure that it is correctly aligned with the FITT from which it is to derive some of its settings. To do this, select Position>Align with Ref. from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu. 135. Select SpecRef in the middle list to show the Modify Panel Fitting form. Set the specification to Hole Penetrations, Hole Penetrations, Rectangular, PENH/FITT/RECT2. Click the Properties button to display the Modify Properties form for the dimensions of the hole. Although you could set
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X-Length and Y-Length explicitly to match those of the penetrating item, there is an easier way of doing this by copying the data automatically from the referenced item (namely the FITT). Leave all properties at their default values of zero and OK/Apply the forms to set the SpecRef. 136. From the Steelwork Penetration Application menu, select Modify>Copy like ref. The effect is to change the attributes of the current SBFI to match the corresponding settings of the FITT to which it refers. In this case, the effect is to set the X and Y dimensions of the SBFI to be compatible with those of the FITT. To check this, look at the Ref Data settings shown in the Hole Information list on the Penetration List form:

137. Close all of the forms relating to penetrations and zoom in for a close inspection of the new penetration. Save your design changes to conclude this part of the exercise.

In the next part of the exercise, we will look at some ways of checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from the database settings.

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11

Checking and Outputting Design Data

To ensure maximum design integrity, the structural applications let you check the data in several ways so that any potential mistakes are drawn to your attention. In this chapter we will look at one of these checking facilities, namely the method of checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements. Finally, we will look at three ways of outputting design data derived from the structural model: the generation of a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design (categorised by section profile); the analysis of some mass properties of the steelwork members (centre of gravity, surface area and weight calculations); and the creation of a plot showing the structural layout. NOTE: The facilities which we will be using here are available from both the Beams & Columns and the Panels & Plates applications (from all design applications, in fact), so it does not matter which application you are currently using.

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11.1

Checking for Clashes


The types of clash identified depend on two factors:
D D

The obstruction levels of the clashing elements The current touch and clearance tolerances

Obstruction Levels All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the primitive represents:
D

A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable object, such as a steel beam or a plant vessel. A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid but which needs to be kept clear for access. Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and is ignored for clash checking purposes.

Extent Of Clashing As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items, the checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them, depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each others allocated space. These categories are:
D

A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a specified amount. This usually means that a definite interference exists. A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less than a specified distance. This may simply mean that one item is resting upon another as intended, or it may indicate a problem. A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a specified clearance distance. This represents a near miss, which you may want to investigate. Touch limits: Clearance limit: 5mm overlap to 2mm gap 8mm
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These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications:

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so that the following criteria apply:


D D D

If the items overlap by more than 5mm, a clash is reported If the items overlap by less than 5mm, a touch is reported If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm, a touch is reported If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm, a clearance is reported If the items are separated by more than 8mm, no interference is found

overlap > 5mm A Physical Clash

overlap < 5mm

gap < 2mm

2mm < gap < 8mm A Clearance

Touches

The Clash Detection Process Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a current obstruction list. Items which are not in the obstruction list are ignored during the clash checking operations. By default, the obstruction list includes all elements in the database, so that each element to be clash checked is tested against every other element. To control the amount of checking carried out in a large database, you can restrict the obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be confined. To highlight the locations where clashes are found, the clashing and obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view (two shades of red, by default). Exercise continues: 138. We will start by using the defaults for all clash checking settings. To see what these are, select Settings>Clasher> Defaults to display the Clash Defaults form. Think about the
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meaning of each setting shown (refer to the preceding introduction; ignore the reference to Branch, which relates to piping designs only); then Cancel the form. 139. We will check the westernmost panel (PANEL 1) for clashes against all other elements in the test framework. The default obstruction list (all elements in the current design database) will include the regular structure created in Chapter 6, so we must edit the list to remove this. To do so, select Settings>Clasher> Obstruction>List. You will see an Add/Remove Obstruction Items form which is used in a similar way to the Members+Draw form (as introduced in Step 12). Remove all current entries and then Add the framework /TESTFRMW. 140. Navigate to the panel which you want to check and select Utilities>Clashes. You will see a Clash Display form. The left--hand side of this form controls the clash checking process; the right--hand side consists of a 3D view in which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. Select Control>Check CE from the forms menu bar to run the clash checking process and, when completed, study the Clash List which shows all clashes found. You will see a hard--hard (HH) clash at both points where the panel has a column passing through it, and a hard--hard touch where the panel rests on each of its seven supporting beams and where it abuts the adjacent panel. To see a summary of all clashes found, select Query>Clash>Summary from the forms menu. The resulting Summary form shows the total number of clashes in each category:

Note, in particular, that there are no clashes where the panel has been modified to fit round the columns.
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141. To study any clash in detail, select the corresponding line in the Clash List and then select Query>Clash>Detail. The Clash Detail form shows the extent of the clash, the identities of both the clashing and obstruction items, and the calculated position at which the clash was diagnosed. Notice how the clashing items are highlighted in different colours in the graphical view. To change these colours, display the Clash Defaults form again (as in Step 138) and choose the colours you want to use. 142. Experiment with some of the other options on the Clash Display menus and then close the form.

NOTE: If the Auto Clash button is set to On, thus: , each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many new elements, but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to an existing design which has already been checked for clashes.

11.2

Generating a Data Output Report


The reporting utility lets you read selected types of information from the design database and present the output in a convenient tabulated format. Each report can be customised by specifying some or all of the following:
D

Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for printing). Any introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the report. The page length (if the report is to be paginated). The page layout, including number and positions of columns, column headings, etc. Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of each page. The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be included in the report.
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Once such a report has been designed, its specification can be saved for future use in the form of a report template file. The ways in which you define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond the scope of this exercise, but we will look at the results of the process by using a pre--prepared template which outputs a material take--off list for each type of steel profile used in our design. (You will probably use your companys standard templates for most reports anyway, in which case this is the method you would normally use in practice.) Exercise continues: 143. Select Utilities>Reports>Run to initiate the reporting process. You will see a File Browser listing all files in the current reporting directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the project setting--up procedure). Select the ...\REPORTS\TEMPLATES directory. All files with a .tmp suffix are report templates. Select steel_mto.tmp, which has been designed to produce a material take--off report for steelwork sections. Click OK on the File Browser. 144. To run the report defined by the chosen template, you must specify two things (as determined by the rules within the template): where the report is to appear, and what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting the required types of data. When you OK the File Browser to specify the template, a Report Details form will appear which lets you do this. Leave the Filename text--box empty (which will send the report to the screen automatically). In the Hierarchy text--box, enter /TESTFRMW, since we want to list the material take--off for the whole of the design model. Click OK to run the report. 145. The tabulated report output will be displayed in a Command Output window which is opened automatically, like this:

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Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Checking and Outputting Design Data

This report shows the total cut length for each of the steel profiles used in the design and the number of lengths into which each profile is divided. (Do not worry if part of the heading seems inappropriate for your project; this wording is written into the template simply as an example of the type of heading which you might want to use.)

11.3

Querying Mass Properties


You can calculate the surface area, volume, mass and the position of the centre of gravity (CofG) of a structural item from a knowledge of its geometry and the properties of the material from which it is made. The calculation can be set to derive either a gross or a net result; for example:
D

Gross weight is the weight of material needed before any negative geometry (such as end preparations) is applied. This data is appropriate for material cost estimating etc. Net weight is the weight of material after any negative geometry is applied. This data is appropriate for determining as--built weights for loading calculations, transport planning etc.

(The detailed way in which positive and negative geometry is used in calculations is determined by the Representation Level settings. These are beyond the scope of this introduction and we will use the default levels throughout this exercise.)
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Checking and Outputting Design Data

In the same way that the geometry of a section profile, joint, fitting etc. is specified by setting the design elements SpecRef attribute to refer to an entry in a Catalogue database (as explained in Section 5.1), so its material properties are specified by setting its Material Reference (MatRef) attribute to refer to an appropriate entry in a Properties database. It is the material density which is the significant property used in the mass calculations. In the next steps of the exercise, we will first specify the material for each structural element in our design model and will then use this data to derive some mass--related details. Exercise continues: 146. We will specify the same material for all structural items (sections, joints, fittings, panels etc.), so first navigate to the subframework TESTSBFR and then select Modify>Material from the main menu. You will see a Set Material form listing all available material specifications in the Properties database. Leave the option set to CE and set Cascade Material to all offspring to On. (The latter will set the MatRef for all elements below the current subframework to the selected material automatically.) From the Materials list, select GR275 (density 7850.00 Kg/M3) and click Apply. The whole framework will be highlighted in the graphical view to show that all design elements have been selected for modification to the selected material. Confirm the change. 147. Select Query>Mass Properties. You will see a Mass Properties form which lets you make all necessary calculations based on the current material density. Set the upper option to CE (still at subframework level), set the Results option to Gross, and click Apply. The calculated gross surface area, volume and mass for the whole subframework will be shown in the Mass Properties list, together with the position of the centre of gravity. The centre of gravity will also be tagged in the graphical view.
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Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Checking and Outputting Design Data

148. Change the Results option to Net, set the Append to list button to On (so that you can compare the next result with the existing one in the list), and click Apply again. Note the difference between the calculated net and gross weights; this small difference is due to the material removed for joint allowances, panel cut--outs, etc. 149. Set the upper option to Pick, click Apply, and perform similar calculations for individual items or groups of items which you pick using the cursor. (Use Escape to terminate each picking sequence in the usual way.)

11.4

Plotting the Design Model


PDMSs drawing module provides very powerful facilities for generating annotated and dimensioned plots of all or part of the design model. We will use just a small part of this power to produce an isometric plot of our structural layout using default settings only.

Exercise continues: In order for the drawing facilities to apply the correct rules for representing structural items, we must set a design attribute which will tell the drawing module how to interpret the design data. The attribute used for this purpose is the Function attribute of the parent Zone. 150. Navigate to the Zone which you created in Step 6 (/TESTZONE) and select Modify>Attributes. You will see a Modify Attributes form listing the current settings for the Zone. The Function attribute will probably say unset; it is this setting which we need to change. Select the Function line in the list. You will see a small Function form showing the current setting. Edit the text to replace unset by Steelwork. OK/Apply the changes. We must now switch from the DESIGN module, which we have been using to create the design model, to the DRAFT drawing module.
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Checking and Outputting Design Data

151. Select Design>Modules>Draft>Macro Files. When the DRAFT applications have been loaded from their macro files, you will see the DRAFT General menu bar and tool bar, and an empty 2D view window (the Main Display, analogous to the 3D View which we have been using in DESIGN), thus:

Drawing sheet will be displayed here

We must next set up an administrative hierarchy to define how plots are to be stored (in a real project this would probably have been done for you already). The parts of the hierarchy with which we are concerned here are as follows:

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

DEPARTMENT (DEPT)

REGISTRY (REGI)

LIBRARY (LIBY)

DRAWING (DRWG) SHEET (SHEE) VIEW Design database elements to be drawn

LIBRARY (LIBY) Standard symbols, annotations etc.

152. Select Create>Department and name the element STRUCDEPT. Click OK. You will now see a Department Information form. Attributes set at Department level are cascaded down to all lower levels. To set them, click the Attributes button to display a Department Attributes form. On the latter form:
D

Select the A4 drawing sheet size (note that this sets the Width and Height automatically). Leave all pen definitions, hatch patterns and terminators at their default settings. From the Ruleset Reference options, select /DRA/PRJ/REPR/GEN/STRU. Set Backing Sheet Reference to Reference and select /DRA/MAS/BACKS/MET/A4_Land. This will apply standard borders and data areas to all drawings created in this Department.

The settings should now look like this:


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Checking and Outputting Design Data

Click Apply, then Dismiss.

Check that the Create Registry button on the Department Information form is set to On and OK this form. You will see a Create REGI form. 153. Name the Registry STRUCREGI and click OK. You will see a Registry Information form. Note that all attribute settings for the Registry have been copied from its owning Department (any individual attribute cascaded in this way can be overwritten at a lower level if required). Set Create Drawing to On and select Explicitly. Click OK. You will see a Create DRWG form. 154. Name the Drawing STRUCDRWG and click OK. You will see a Drawing Definition form. Enter the Title as Structural View. Note that the Date and Drawn By entries are derived automatically from your system log--in data. Click Apply, then Dismiss.
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Checking and Outputting Design Data

That completes the setting up of the drawing administration hierarchy; we are now in a position to define the content of a drawing sheet ready for viewing and plotting. 155. Select Create>Sheet>Explicitly and OK the Create SHEE form. The Main Display view will show the backing sheet specified in Step 152. You will also see a Sheet Definition form. Note that all settings have been cascaded down from Department level. Click Apply, then Dismiss. The detailed design data, extracted directly from the Design database, is applied to the sheet in the form of individual Views. 156. Select Create>View>User-defined and OK the resulting form. A User-defined View form will be displayed, and a default rectangle will be added to the Main Display to show where the design data for this view will be plotted. We will plot a single view on the sheet, so we will first resize the default view area to fill the available space. To do so, select Frame>Size>Cursor from the User-Defined View menu and, when prompted, pick points just inside the top--left and bottom--right corners of the drawing area within the backing sheet layout. On the User-defined View form, enter the Title as ISO3 View; set the Type to Global Hidden Line; and set the Direction to ISO3 (select this using the options from the middle Direction gadget). The part(s) of the design model which are to be plotted are specified by means of a drawlist (similar to the way in which the content of a 3D View was specified in DESIGN). Select Graphics>Drawlist from the User-Defined View menu to display the Drawlist Management form. In the Reference List Members list, navigate to the subframework holding the design model (/TESTSBFR) and click the Add button to add it to the drawlist.

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

We must now set the drawing scale so that the plotted model representation fits sensibly into the area available on the sheet. First click the Auto Scale button on the User-Defined View form and notice how the precisely calculated scale is displayed in the adjacent text--box. To modify this to the nearest smaller standard scale, click the Nearest button. The chosen standard scale will now be displayed (e.g. 1/200). Click Apply to implement the new scale calculation. The final settings will look something like this:

Click the Update Design button to plot the drawlist element(s) in the Main Display at the chosen scale, thus:

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

This is as far as we will go with Draft in this exercise, although the full range of 2D drafting facilities available is extensive, allowing you to add dimensioning and labelling data derived directly from the design model, and to add any other specific 2D annotation which you require.

In the next, and final, chapter, we will look at some of the facilities available for creating and modifying some nonlinear structural design elements.

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11-15

12

Adding Some Curved Steelwork

So far we have built our design model entirely from straight steelwork sections. In this final chapter we will add some nonlinear sections. In order to provide some reference points for use when routing a curved section, we will construct a temporary working grid.

12.1

How PDMS Represents Curved Sections


Curved structural items are represented by Generic Section (GENSEC) elements, the geometry of which is defined by sweeping a 2D catalogue profile along a path. This path is represented by a Spine element, owned by the GENSEC, whose route is specified in terms of a sequence of member Spine Points (POINSP) and Curves. For example:
End POINSP CURVE

PROFILE Start POINSP

CURVE = SPINE = POINSP

The Beams & Columns application menu provides options for creating two versions of the GENSEC: A ring section, restricted to an arc of a circle (up to a full circle), comprising two Spine Points separated by a single Curve. A more general curved section, comprising any number of Spine Points and Curves.
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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

12.2

Creating a Semicircular Platform


In order to demonstrate the principles, we will create a semicircular ring section which projects out from our existing structure. The ends of the ring section will be positioned near the ends of the topmost beam at the western end of the structure, and it will be supported from below by two straight sections, like this (only sections shown, not panels): Looking Down:
End

Support 180 Ring Section Support


N E

Existing diamond bracing

Start

Looking East:
End End

Inset 100

Inset 100

Start
U N

Existing cross bracing

Exercise continues: 157. In the Beams & Columns application, set the default profile specification to British Standard, Equal Angle, 70x70x10.0,
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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

with Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA. 158. From the main menu bar, select Create>Sections>Ring. You will see a Ring Section form, the buttons on which provide many different ways of specifying the sections geometry. We do not want to create a full circle, so set Circle Definition: Arc to On. We will define the path of the section (the GENSECs Spine) by picking the two positions at its ends plus a third point which specifies how the arc is directed (that is, whether it curves towards the East or the West). The diameter of the circle will be derived automatically from the distance between the first two positions. To do this, click the Derived diameter button (fourth button, second row). To define the start of the ring section (prompt says Define ... first point), set the Positioning Control to Pline, Distance 100 and pick near the southern end of the NA pline of the beam. You will probably need to unset the pline picking rules (Settings>Pick Filters>Plines)and zoom in very close to distinguish between the plines. To define the end (prompt says Define ... second point), use the same procedure at the northern end of the same pline. The third prompt says Define ... control point. The point you pick will determine the plane in which the ring section lies (the plane through all three points) and the direction in which the section curves (depends on the position of the third point relative to the line joining the first two points). We want the ring section to lie in a horizontal plane and to curve towards the west, so pick any point on the NAR pline of the beam. (This has the same elevation as the NA pline and lies to its west.) 159. We will now create two straight sections which run from the mid--point of the beam below the ring section, and which support the ring section at points equispaced along its length (as shown in the preceding diagram).
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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

Select Create>Sections>Straight. Both sections will have the same start point, so on the Section form set String Method to Radial. Set the Positioning Control to Pline, Mid-Point and pick the TOS pline of the lower beam. To position the upper ends of the two supports, set the Positioning Control to Element, Fraction 3 and pick the ring section twice, about one third of its length from each end, then Escape. You may, if you wish, modify the angle sections to give more realistic geometry at their ends, although the current configuration is adequate for our present purpose. 160. We will complete the semicircular platform by positioning a floor plate inside the supporting angle section. Change to the Panels & Plates application. Select Create>Panel. On the Create Panel form, set Thickness to 20 and Justification to Centre. We will define the panel boundary by picking points around the ring section (GENSEC) whose shape it is to follow. Click the Derived arc passing through three points button .

Pick the three points defining the panel boundary as follows: S S S First point: snap to one end of GENSEC. Second point: snap to mid-point of GENSEC. Third point: snap to other end of GENSEC.

Escape the next prompt. The 3D View will show a circle, half of which follows the ring section, as a construction aid. Notice that, although you have only picked three points, the message 4 vertices defined is shown. These vertices are positioned thus:

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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

First pick

V1

V4 Third pick

fillet radius V2 Second pick Click OK to complete the panel creation.

fillet radius V3

12.3

Creating a Runway Beam with Multiple Curves


To demonstrate how you can create and modify a section which follows a multiply--curved path, we will position an overhead runway beam along the southern end of the structure, thus:

7 End

Start

Y
Grid origin
N E

12

20

= existing structure = working grid (1000mm spacing) = runway beam (curved section)

The upper face of the runway beam will, for convenience, be positioned against the lower faces of the beams from which it is suspended. In practice, you would probably want to interpose hangers or bolted flanges to support the runway beam.
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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

To make it easier to position the points and curves defining the GENSECs spine, we will first create a horizontal working grid as a working aid (as shown in the diagram). Exercise continues:

12.3.1

Defining a Working Grid


161. From the Beams & Columns Application menu, select Utilities>Working Plane. The resulting Working Plane form lets you define a plane onto which all graphical picks will be projected, with an optional grid superimposed on the plane to help you position graphical picks without needing to refer to existing parts of the design model. From the Working Plane forms menu, select Define>Linear Grid. The resulting Working Plane - Linear Grid form lets you define the number and spacing of the grid lines, and the position and orientation of the grids plane. Set both the X and Y Spacing to 1000 and enter the Number of visible lines as 40. (The grid behaves as though it is of infinite size; this setting controls only the size of the grid shown in the 3D View.) 162. The default position of the planes centre and its orientation are shown by the blue square in the 3D View. Leave the Orientation as it is (Y is N, Z is U, X is E). We want the elevation of the plane to be at the lower faces of the beams, so set the Positioning Control to Pline, Intersect and pick the BOS plines for the two beams which meet at the required origin (see preceding diagram). The Position should be East 0, North 0, Up 4696.6 (the latter is the height of the column less the depth of the beam). Click the Preview button to see the grid in the 3D View. Set the Detail toggle to On and click Preview again to number the grid lines. OK the Working Plane - Linear Grid form. 163. On the Working Plane form, set the Active and Visible toggles to On (so that the grid will be both effective and visible in the graphical view). Set the Working Grid Snap to On, which means that when you later pick positions on the grid, the picked point will always snap to the grid intersection nearest to the cursor position.

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Select Control>Close from the Working Plane forms menu to complete the operation.

12.3.2

Creating a Curved Section


NOTE: In the following steps, we will identify positions along the path of the spine by their (X,Y) coordinates on the working grid; for example, (X 20, Y0) is the position of the south-eastern corner of the overall structure.

164. Set the default profile specification to British Standard, Joists, 203x152x52kg/m. Set the Justification to TOS, so that the upper face of the runway beam will coincide with the working plane and, therefore, with the undersides of the supporting beams. (See generic type DINI in Appendix D.3 for a diagram of a similar profile.) 165. Select Create>Sections>Curved. You will see a Curved Section form, the buttons on which provide various ways of specifying the path of the sections spine. Because our section follows a complex path which does not conform to the simplified standard geometry provided by most of the buttons, we will use a free--form definition which will let us build up any sequence of spine points and curves. Click the Free definition button .

Notice that the Working Plane toggle at the left--hand side of the Positioning Control form is now set to On. This provides a way of switching the working plane on or off without having to display the Working Plane form each time. The red highlight on the toggle button is intended as a reminder when the working plane is active, since you can get unexpected results if you forget it is on when you make graphical picks. 166. You are now in event--driven graphics mode, ready to pick the sequence of positions which will define the spine. Set the Positioning Control to Screen, Snap. Any cursor pick you make will be projected onto the working plane and will then snap to the nearest grid intersection point (remember that you set Working Grid Snap to On when you defined the grid in Step 163). If you make a mistake at any stage, the Undo button on the Curved Section form lets you delete one or more points in reverse order.
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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

With reference to the grid coordinates, pick position (X0, Y2) to define the start (origin) of the GENSEC. Set the Radius to 2000 and pick (X4, Y2) to define the position of the first curve. With Radius still set to 2000, pick the following positions, in this order: (X4, Y6), (X8, Y6), (X8, Y2), (X18, Y2), (X18, Y6), (X20, Y6). When you pick the last position, you will be warned that it is not possible to fit in a curve with 2000 radius so close to the preceding position and will be asked if this represents the end point: click Yes to complete the operation. Close the Curved Section form.

12.3.3

Modifying a Curved Section


167. To demonstrate how easily you can modify a curved section, we will reroute part of the runway beam as follows:

7 End

Start 1 4 5

Y
0

12

20

= original path = modified path = curve number (at new fillet position)

Check that the new GENSEC is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Definition. You will see a Modify Section (Curved) form which lets you edit the position and/or radius for each individual point/curve in the spine. Set the first Spine Point option to Start and pick the new start position at (X0, Y1). Click the Modify button to implement the move.
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Change the first Spine Point option to Curve and set the second Spine Point option (up/down arrows) to 1. Move Curve 1 to (X4, Y1), leaving its Radius set to 2000. NOTE: The graphical aids show the position and radius of the current and adjacent curves as you modify the spine shape. The X and Y Attributes on the Modify Section (Curved) form show the coordinates relative to the GENSECs origin (start), not in terms of the working grid positions.

Move Curve 4 to (X8, Y1) and change its Radius to 3000. Select Curve 5 and change the third Spine Point option from Fillet to Centre:

Notice how the graphical aid now shows the radius centre at (X16, Y4) instead of the radius fillet at (X18, Y2). Move the centre to (X15, Y4), press Modify, then change the Radius to 3000. The latter operation illustrates the two ways of specifying a curves position: Fillet position Radius Centre position 168. Repeat the clash checks which you carried on the earlier version of the design model in Section 11.1. Think about the reasons for the extra clashes which are diagnosed for the current design. 169. Save your design changes and exit from PDMS.

12.4

Conclusion
That concludes both the tutorial exercise and this introduction to some of the ways in which PDMS and the Cadcentre structural

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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

applications can help you in your design work. We hope that working through this book has given you an insight into the potential power of PDMS and that you will have gained sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on your own. For further technical details, refer to the sources of information listed in Appendix E. If you have not already done so, you are strongly advised to attend one or more of the specialised PDMS training courses, which will show you how to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working environment (see Section 1.3).

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Part III Reference Appendices

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

The Menu Hierarchies


This appendix shows the principal menu hierarchies in a quick-reference format, to allow you to find the option you want rapidly.

A.1

The Beams & Columns Application Menus


Design

Save Work Get Work Extract Control... Session Comment... General... Equipment... Pipework... Cable Trays... HVAC Designer... Structures Hangers & Supports... Design Templates... Modules Exit

Panels & Plates... Walls & Floors... ASL Modeller... Monitor... Compare Spooler Draft Isodraft Export Paragon Specon Propcon * Lexicon * Admin...

>

>

> > > > > >

Users Binary... Default Binary... Select Binary... Macro Files... Saint...

Note: These modules are available only if you are logged in as a Free user (e.g. System)

Display Graphical View View Control... Plot View... Members... Advanced Members... Drawlist... Command Line... Save Restore > >

Forms & Display Forms & Display As... Forms As... Display As... Forms & Display Forms & Display From... Forms From... Display From...

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-1

The Menu Hierarchies

Query

General... Attributes... Properties... Project DB Changes... Measure Distance... Axes... End Connections... Mass Properties... > Status... Users... Teams... DBs... MDBs... User Rights...

Settings

System... Graphics Naming... Units... Clasher Properties... Pick Filters * Purposes * Check Defaults... Storage Areas... Tolerances... * Draft Edge Defaults...

>

Picking... View... Representation... Colour... Aid CE Arrow... Mark section Unmark section

> > >

Auto Clash Defaults... Obstruction Define... Relationships...

>

List... Limits... Elements... Plines... Ppoints...

* Note: These options are available only if you are logged in as a Design administrator.

Utilities

Data Consistency... Data Checker... Clashes... Autonaming Working Plane... Constructs... Lists... Claimlists... DB Listing... Reports Quick Reports... Export Reference Data... Beams & Columns... Steelwork Penetration...

>

CE only CE offspring Run... Create... Modify... Delete... Run... Create... Modify... Delete... Dump Attributes... Select Driver...

> >

A-2

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The Menu Hierarchies

Create Offset... Rotate... Mirror... Straight... Curved... Ring... Bracing Configurations... Multiple attached... Specials... Single... Compound... Sub- Compound...

Copy Site... Zone... Group... Structure... Framework... Sub- Frame... Sections Compound Joint... PNode at SCTN End Fitting

>

> >

Modify

Name... Attributes... Attributes Global... Angle... Like Lock... Hierarchy Group... Properties... Re- evaluate Rules Unlink from Original Sections Joints... Fitting Bracing Gap... Draft Edge Drawing... Material...

> >

picked element current element CE into list Include... Reverse Order... Reorder...

Specification... Definition... Justification... Member Line... Joint Line... Split... Splice... Merge...

> > >

Specification... Position Line... Joint Line... Joint Like Definition... Position Line...

CutPlane... Mitre Ends > Maintain Pline Use copied Pline

Delete

CE Identified List Name... Members Tidy Joints... Tidy Nodes...

>

Selection... All

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-3

The Menu Hierarchies

Position

Orientate

Explicitly (AT)... Relatively (BY)... Extend Drag Explicitly... Align Secondary Nodes

>

Through... By...

Axes... Rotate... B Angle Flip

>

- 180 Degrees - 90 Degrees 0 Degrees 90 Degrees 180 Degrees

Connect

Disconnect Connect Trim to Pline Trim to Section Joint Dominant Joint Subordinate > >

Pick Pick (force) All attached Pick All attached

Window

Help

Members 3D View (1) etc. depending on current windows

On Context Contents Index About

A-4

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The Menu Hierarchies

A.2

The Panels & Plates Application Menus


Design

Save Work Get Work Extract Control... Session Comment... General... Equipment... Pipework... Cable Trays... HVAC Designer... Structures Hangers & Supports... Design Templates... Modules Exit

Beams & Columns... Walls & Floors... ASL Modeller... Monitor... Compare Spooler Draft Isodraft Export Paragon Specon Propcon * Lexicon * Admin...

>

>

> > > > > >

Users Binary... Default Binary... Select Binary... Macro Files... Saint...

* Note: These modules are available only if you are logged in as a Free user (e.g. System)

Display Graphical View View Control... Plot View... Members... Advanced Members... Drawlist... Command Line... Save Restore > >

Forms & Display Forms & Display As... Forms As... Display As... Forms & Display Forms & Display From... Forms From... Display From...

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-5

The Menu Hierarchies

Query

General... Attributes... Properties... Project DB Changes... Measure Distance... Axes... Joint Connections... Mass Properties... > Status... Users... Teams... DBs... MDBs... User Rights...

Settings Picking... View... Representation... Colour... Aid CE Arrow... Auto Clash Defaults... Obstruction Define... Relationships... List... Limits... Elements... Plines... Ppoints...

System... Graphics Naming... Units... Clasher Properties... Pick Filters * Purposes * Check Defaults... Storage Areas... Tolerances... * Draft Edge Defaults... *

>

> > >

>

Note: These options are available only if you are logged in as a Design administrator.

Utilities Data Consistency... Data Checker... Clashes... Autonaming Working Plane... Constructs... Lists... Claimlists... DB Listing... Reports Quick Reports... Export Reference Data... Panels & Plates... Penetrations...

>

CE only CE offspring Run... Create... Modify... Delete... Run... Create... Modify... Delete... Dump Attributes... Select Driver...

> >

A-6

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The Menu Hierarchies

Create Offset... Rotate... Mirror...

Copy Site... Zone... Group... Structure... Framework... Sub- Frame... Panel... Negative Extrusion... Fittings

>

>

Single... Compound... Sub- Compound...

Modify

Name... Attributes... Attributes Global... Angle... Like Lock... Hierarchy Group... Properties... Re- evaluate Rules Unlink from Original Representation... Extrusion/Panel... Justification... Specification... Thickness... Split Panel... Fitting... Draft Edge Drawing... Material...

> >

picked element current element CE into list Include... Reverse Order... Reorder...

Delete

CE Identified List Name... Members Tidy Joint...

>

Selection... All

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-7

The Menu Hierarchies

Position

Orientate

Explicitly (AT)... Relatively (BY)... Panel Origin Level Vertices

Axes... Rotate... B Angle

>

- 180 Degrees - 90 Degrees 0 Degrees 90 Degrees 180 Degrees

Connect

Disconnect Connect Trim

>

Panel Edges Edge Vertex

Window

Help

Members 3D View (1) etc. depending on current windows

On Context Contents Index About

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The Menu Hierarchies

A.3

The Penetration Application Menus

Control Close

Display

Settings

Navigate

Create

Modify

Scrap View on/off Clip Box... Penetration List...

Active Item Referenced Item Identify Penetration Hole Identify & Select

Defaults... Angled Penetrations...

Penetration Hole... 1 To 1 Penetration... Penetration...

Name... Penetration Hole... Penetrations... Merge Penetrations... Undo Merge Penetration Shape... Copy like ref.

Delete Delete Penetration Delete Multi Penetration Tidy Multi Penetrations

Position

Orientate Rotate... Align with ref. Angle...

Penetration... Link Penetration Align with ref.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-9

The Menu Hierarchies

A.4

The 3D View Menus (Right-Hand Mouse Button)

Zoom F2 Pan F3 Rotate F5 Walk F6 Up Down North South East West Plan North Plan South Plan East Plan West Explicit...

One Two Three Four View Control Look Iso Limits Rotate Clipping Settings > > > > > > > CE Owner Pick Drawlist Obstruction Window Clipbox Restore Explicit...

Enable Capped Colour... CE Owner Limits Box Pick item Explicit...

CE Origin CE Centroid Pick Origin Pick Centroid Limit Box Clip Box Explicit...

Eye F7 Shaded F8 Borders F9 Perspective F4 Background... Save View Restore View Copy like view Long Menus > >

Save 1 Save 2 Save 3 Save 4 Restore 1 Restore 2 Restore 3 Restore 4

shows option is selected Note: If Settings>Long Menus is Off, fewer options will be available.

A-10

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

The Menu Hierarchies

A.5
Control

The 3D Aid Constructs Menus


Settings Create Modify Move Cut Copy Paste... Toolbar... Definition... Position Radius Extend Project onto Plane > Delete Pick All Constructs Offset... Rotate... Mirror...

List... Save... Load... Close

Repeat Size...

Toolbar... Through 3 points Fillet... Point to tangent Point to tangent, radius <val>... Tangent to 2 points, radius <val>... Tangent to tangent... Tangential to 3 lines Diameter 3 points Diameter <val> 3 points... Diameter 2 points Diameter <val> centre... Radius 3 points Radius <val> 3 points... Radius 2 points Radius <val> centre... Derive Explicit... Toolbar... Between 2 points Angle from line... Two planes Bisect two lines Point to tangent Tangent to tangent Derive Explicit... Toolbar... Derived position Explicit... Toolbar... Through 3 points Explicit... Toolbar... Linear... Radial... Plant...

Offset... Rotate... Mirror... Copy Circle Line Work Point Plane Grids > > > > > >

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-11

The Menu Hierarchies

A.6

The Reference Definition Application Menus

Control Close

Display

Graphics Tag Gridlines Untag Gridlines

Settings

Create

Modify

Gridlines... Planes...

Gridline Plane Storage Areas Active Plane > Define... for Gridlines for Planes

> >

Area... Grid... Area... Element...

Name... Position Orientation Definition... Plane

Explicit (AT)... Relative (BY)... > > > Explicit... Definition... Set to Size

> >

Design Point Pline Intersection 3 Points times 2 Half Size

A.7

The Lists/Collections Menus

Control Close

Add

Remove

CE CE Members Identified Selection... List...

CE CE Members Identified from List All Selection... List

A-12

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

The Menu Hierarchies

A.8

The Working Plane Menus

Control Close

Define Pick Reposition Plane... Linear Grid... Radial Grid... Plant Grid...

A.9

The Section Cut Plane Menus

General CE Owner Perpendicular

Cursor

Intersection

Points Elements Design Points

Element Design Point Pline Start Cut Plane End Cut Plane

to Element to Design Point to Pline Element Design Point Plines > > > to Design Point to Element to Pline to Pline to Design Point to Element

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A-13

What the Icons Represent


This appendix gives a brief explanation of the meanings of the principal icons which you will encounter on the forms and menus. It is intended as a reference guide for use while you are learning to use the applications; you will soon become familiar with the icons once you have used them a few times.

B.1

Switching Between Structural Applications


These buttons, in the main application window, let you switch rapidly between the structural applications. (The icon for the current application will be inactive.)

Switch to Beams & Columns application.

Switch to Panels & Plates application.

Switch to Walls & Floors application.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

B-1

What the Icons Represent

B.2

General Defaults
Automatic clash checking Off / Automatic clash checking On (current element clash checked after each modification). Set default specification for Profiles. Set default storage area for Sections and GENSECs. Set default storage area for Primary Nodes.

B.3
B.3.1

Creating and Modifying Beams and Columns


General Defaults
Primary Node creation Off / Primary Node creation On (Primary Nodes created automatically when new sections are created). Profile Off (new sections have no catalogue reference) / Profile On (new sections have automatic cross--reference to current default catalogue profile).

B.3.2

Specifying Section Start and End Positions


Enter explicit coordinates for start or end position.

Specify end position in terms of its distance and direction from the start position.
B-2
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

What the Icons Represent

B.4

Creating Curved Sections


Use buttons to pick position; enter Radius for next curve. Free Definition: Pick three or more points in sequence to define section of any shape (constrained to be planar). Right Angle: Pick three points to define right--angled (L--shaped) section. Closed Rectangle (Fillet): Pick three points to define closed rectangular section, where direction changes are defined by fillet positions outside rectangle. Closed Rectangle (Centre): Pick three points to define closed rectangular section, where direction changes are defined by radial centre positions inside rectangle. Open Rectangle (Fillet): Pick three points to define open rectangular (U--shaped) section, where direction changes are defined by fillet positions outside rectangle. Open Rectangle (Centre): Pick three points to define open rectangular (U--shaped) section, where direction changes are defined by radial centre positions inside rectangle. Swan Neck: Pick three points to define section with two opposed right--angled bends. Obloid: Pick two points to define centres of semicircular ends, plus third point to show in which of the straight sides the section start/end are to be positioned.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

B-3

What the Icons Represent

B.5

Creating Ring Sections


These options provide various ways of constructing a circle. The ring section will then follow all or part of the circumference of this circle. Where ambiguity might occur, arcs are defined as minor arcs. Through 3 points: Pick three points through which circle is to pass. For an arc: first point will be start of ring section; third point will be end of ring section. Derive from a picked item: Pick design element from which radius and centre of circle can be derived. Ring section will be superimposed on this circle; you can then reposition new section as required. Fillet: Enter radius on separate form. Pick two linear design items which are tangential to required circle. For an arc: point of contact with first line defines start point; point of contact with second line defines end point. Plane of ring section is normal to both lines and through first line. Tangential to 3 lines: Pick three linear design items. Circle will be constructed to fit between these tangents. Plane of ring section is normal to, and midway between, first two lines. Fixed radius, tangential to a circle: Enter radius on separate form. Pick position towards which circle is to be directed (control point), then pick design item from which circle can be derived. Ring section will be tangential to derived circle, on side specified by control point. Fixed radius, passing through 2 points: Enter radius on separate form. Pick two positions defining start point and end point for ring section, then pick position towards which circle is to be directed (control point). Tangential to a circle: Pick position defining centre of ring section, then pick design item from which circle can be derived. Ring section will be tangential to derived circle and radius will be distance from first pick to tangent point. Tangential to 2 circles: Enter radius on separate form. On two coplanar circular design items, pick positions near to points at which ring section is to touch tangentially; then pick position near to centre of ring section.

B-4

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

What the Icons Represent

Derived diameter: Pick two positions representing opposite sides of circle (so that distance between picks defines diameter), then pick position towards which circle is to be directed (control point). For an arc: first point will be start of ring section; second point will be end of ring section. Derived diameter on working plane: Working plane must be active. Pick two positions representing opposite sides of circle (distance between picks defines diameter). Picked positions will be projected onto working plane and ring section will lie in this plane. For an arc: first point will be start of ring section; second point will be end of ring section. Fixed diameter: Enter diameter on separate form. Pick position of centre of ring section, then pick two positions aligned with start and end of ring section (in that order). Ring section lies in plane through the three points. Fixed diameter on working plane: Working plane must be active. Enter diameter on separate form. Pick position of centre of ring section. Ring section will be 180 arc, created anticlockwise from X--axis of working plane. Derived radius: Pick position of centre of ring section, then position of start point of ring section (distance between picks defines radius). Then pick position aligned with end point of ring section. Ring section lies in plane through the three points. Derived radius on working plane: Working plane must be active. Pick two positions representing centre and start of ring section (distance between picks defines radius). Picked positions will be projected onto working plane and ring section will lie in this plane. Ring section will be 180 arc, created anticlockwise about Z--axis of working plane. Fixed radius: Enter radius on separate form. Pick position of centre of ring section, then pick two positions aligned with start and end of ring section (in that order). Ring section lies in plane through the three points. Fixed radius on working plane: Working plane must be active. Enter radius on separate form. Pick position of centre of ring section. Ring section will be 180 arc, created anticlockwise from X--axis of working plane. Define explicitly: Displays form on which to enter centre, radius, plane orientation, and subtended start/end angles for ring section. These can each be typed in explicitly or picked graphically.
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

B-5

What the Icons Represent

B.6
B.6.1

Creating and Modifying Panels


Specifying Panel Vertex Positions
Pick position graphically using any standard cursor--picking method. Construct position using intersections of two plines with existing panel. Create vertices which follow outline of existing panel.

Identify position relative to position of existing element.

Specify position in terms of distance and direction from preceding vertex. Construct fillet arc with specified radius between two picked tangent lines.

Construct fillet arc passing through three picked points.

Construct fillet arc with specified radius, passing through two picked points, with bulge in picked direction.

B.6.2

Modifying Vertices or Edges of Panel Loops


Selects all vertices in the loop, so that you can modify them as a group. Lets you select any number of individual vertices so that you can modify them as a group. Lets you pick an edge to be modified. The adjacent Edge area shows the current edge number.

B-6

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

What the Icons Represent

Lets you pick a vertex to be modified. The adjacent Vertex area shows the current vertex number. Lets you create a new vertex, which will be allocated the next number in the sequence after the current vertex. Lets you navigate to a vertex or an edge by graphical picking. Reverses group definition by implicitly renumbering group vertices in the opposite sense (clockwise/anticlockwise). The origin moves to the other side of the gap. Note that this change affects only the groups behaviour; it does not affect the vertex numbering for the panel loop. Moves open--side of group, and origin, one position forwards (i.e. in same sense as vertex numbering). Moves open--side of group, and origin, one position backwards (i.e. in opposite sense to vertex numbering). Expands group area by moving each edge outwards, by distance entered in text--box, normal to its own direction. This affects all edges, including those in cut--outs, so excessive expansion can give invalid loop geometry. Contracts group area by moving each edge inwards, by distance entered in text--box, normal to its own direction. This affects all edges, including those on panel protrusions, so excessive contraction can give invalid loop geometry. Moves Start vertex along edge direction to align it through a picked position or to intersection with a picked line. Edge length can change during this operation. Moves End vertex along edge direction to align it through a picked position or to intersection with a picked line. Edge length can change during this operation. Moves free vertex (lowercase tag) around reference vertex (uppercase tag) to align edge with a picked line. Edge length is unchanged. Rotates group or edge anticlockwise through specified angle. Edge length is unchanged.
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

B-7

What the Icons Represent

Rotates group or edge clockwise through specified angle. Edge length is unchanged. Lets you move vertex group by inserting it at a different position in the loop sequence. Group will be inserted after current vertex. Moves current vertex, edge or group such that new positions are derived by reflecting original positions about a picked line (i.e. gives mirror image). Deletes current vertex, edge or group.

Lets you manipulate a fillet arc at the current loop vertex.

B.6.3

Connecting Panels
Makes a vertex--to--vertex connection.

Makes an edge--to--surface connection.

Makes an edges--to--surface connection.

Makes an edge--to--surface connection by dragging edges as necessary. Makes an edge--to--edge connection.

Makes an edges--to--edge connection.

Makes an edge--to--edge connection by dragging edges as necessary.

B-8

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

What the Icons Represent

Makes an edge--to--section connection. Makes an edges--to--section connection. Makes an edge--to--section connection by dragging edges as necessary. Trims all edges of a panel to suit its current connections.

B.7

Standard Bracing Configurations


(These are not icons, but they show the standard configurations represented by the listed options on the Bracing form. Letters A, B show specified gaps; numbers 1, 2 ... show order of picking sections between which bracing members are to be connected.)
B 2

1 A B2 1 A

Cross Bracing

3 4 B2

A/K Bracing (1), 4 picks

A/K Bracing (2), 4 picks


1 A 4 B2 3

A/K Bracing (3), 3 picks


1 A 3

1 A

B 2

Single Bracing (1)

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

B-9

What the Icons Represent

2 B

Single Bracing (2)


A 1 2 B 1 A B2 A 1

Knee Bracing (1)

Knee Bracing (2)

B2 A 1 4 3

Diamond Bracing

B-10

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

The Structural Design Database

The part of the Design database hierarchy which holds structural elements is as follows (elements in italics, e.g. RELEASE, are for analytical purposes only):
STRUCTURE (STRU)

FRAMEWORK (FRMW)
optional

ROUTING PLANE GROUP (RPLG) LOAD CASE DESCRIPTOR (LCDE) ROUTING PLANE (RPLA)

SUBFRAMEWORK (SBFR)

SECTION PRIMARY NODE (SCTN) (PNOD)

PANEL (PANE)

PANEL LINEAR JOINT (PALJ)

PANEL FITTING PANEL LINEAR JOINT negative (PFIT) (PALJ) PANEL LOOP COFITTING primitives (PLOO) PANEL VERTEX (COFI) (PAVE) PANEL VERTEX NEGATIVE EXTRUSION (PAVE) (NXTR) LOOP PRIMARY JOINT PRIMARY COMPOUND JOINT(LOOP) (PJOI) (PCOJ) RELEASE NODAL LOAD (RELE) (NOLO) VERTEX GENERIC SECTION NODAL DISPLACEMENT SUBJOINT (VERT) (SUBJ) (GENSEC) (NODI) SPINE (SPINE) SPINE POINT (POINSP) CURVE (CURVE) JOINT LINE DATUM (JLDATUM) POSITION LINE DATUM (PLDATUM) FIXING (FIXI)

SECONDARY NODE FITTING SECTION LINEAR JOINT (SNOD) (FITT) (SELJ) SECTION POINT LOAD (SPLO) SECTION VERTEX SECONDARY JOINT (SEVE) (SJOI) NODAL LOAD RELEASE (NOLO) SECTION DISTRIBUTED LOAD (RELE) (SDLO) NODAL DISPLACEMENT SECONDARY COMPOUND JOINT (NODI) (SCOJ) SUBJOINT (SUBJ) C-1

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

This appendix gives a much--simplified introduction to the way the structural catalogue is used in creating the design model and lists the principal features of some standard catalogue components to which you may want to refer when creating your design model. (For full details of the way in which the catalogue is built up and used, see the PDMS PARAGON Reference Manual.)

D.1

The Basic Features of the Catalogue


All profiles, joints, fittings etc. used in the design are selected from the Catalogue database by setting the Specification Reference for the corresponding design element so that it points to the required catalogue entry. Each catalogue item is defined in terms of two subsidiary sets of data:
D

A Geometry Set, which defines the overall physical shape of the item in terms of a set of 2D and/or 3D basic shapes (known as primitives). A sectional profile is made up of 2D primitives only (which are extruded to form a 3D section in the design model); a joint or a fitting is made up of 3D primitives which define its complete volume. A geometry set can include negative 3D primitives to represent holes. A Point Set, which defines a number of reference points and directions superimposed on the geometric shape so that individual parts of that shape can be identified and manipulated. These reference points can include p-points, which represent a 1D point position and a direction, and p-lines (or plines), which represent a 2D line and a direction.
D-1

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

A range of catalogue components with similar overall geometry will all reference the same geometry set and point set, so that the amount of data needed to represent all possible items is kept to a minimum. The dimensions of the items are not fixed in the catalogue but are expressed in terms of design parameters. Values are allocated to these parameterised dimensions when the item is used in a specific part of the design model: they may either be set explicitly or derived from associated dimensions of other design components to which the item is to be connected.

D.2

P-line Identification
Each p--line is identified by a two, three or four letter code (known as its PKEY) which identifies its relative position in the 2D profile (remember that each p--line is extruded in the design model to represent a line running along the length of a section). The most commonly referenced PKEYs use the following naming conventions (each profile uses only a subset of these): BBH BBHL BBHR BLW BLWT BOC BOS BRW BRWT FOC HBA HOA IOC LBOA LBOC LBOS LBTS LTBA LTBS LTOC LTOS Bottom bolt hole Bottom bolt hole, left Bottom bolt hole, right Bottom left of web Bottom left web top Bottom of channel Bottom of steel Bottom right of web Bottom right web, top Face of channel Hole, bottom of angle Hole, outside of angle Inside of channel Left bottom of angle Left bottom of channel Left bottom of steel Left bottom top of steel Left top bottom of angle Left top bottom of steel Left top of channel Left top of steel
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-2

Structural Catalogue Guide

LTTA NA NAB NAL NALO NAR NARO NAT RBOA RBOC RBOS RBTS ROA ROC RTBS RTOC RTOS TBH TBHL TBHR TLW TLWB TOAX TOAY TOC TRWB TOS TRW

Left top top of angle Neutral axis Neutral axis bottom Neutral axis left Neutal axis left outside Neutral axis right Neutral axis right outside Neutral angle top Right bottom of angle Right bottom of channel Right bottom of steel Right bottom top of steel Right of angle Right outside of channel Right top bottom of steel Right top of channel Right top of steel Top bolt hole Top bolt hole, left Top bolt hole, right Top left of web Top left web, bottom Top of angle, X orientation Top of angle, Y orientation Top of channel Top right web, bottom Top of steel Top right of web

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-3

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.3

Some Standard Profiles


The following pages illustrate the principal catalogue profiles, showing the p--lines and parameterised dimensions associated with each.

D-4

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: BOX


PARA 2 TOS LTOS PARA 4 RTOS

PARA 7

PARA 3

NA LEFT PARA 1 RIGH

PARA 6

LBOS BOS

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-5

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: ANG


PARA 2 PARA 10 PARA 5 NAT TOAX RTTA TOAY PARA 8 RTOA NAB LOA PARA 9 PARA 7 HBA

PARA 4

NA NAL PARA 1 NAR

HOA

PARA 3

LBOA

RBOA

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length

D-6

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: TUBE


HH II JJ GG FF EE DD

KK NAII NAKK MM NAMM NAOO NN NAQQ OO

NA & NAGG NAEE NACC NAAA NAWW

CC

LL

BB

AA

PARA 1

XX NASS NAUU WW

PP QQ RR SS TT PARA 2 UU

VV

There are three types of Pline: S AA- XX every 15 degrees round the circumference S NAAA- NAWW every 30 degrees from the centre S NA equivalent to NAGG

Other Parameters: PARA 3 = Weight per unit length

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-7

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: BEAM


PARA 2 LTOS TLW TOS TRW PARA 4 RTOS

LTBS

TBHL TLWB PARA 6 TRWB

TBHR

RTBS

PARA 3 NA NALO NAL NAR

PARA 8 PARA 1 NARO

BLWT BBHL LBTS

BRWT BBHR RBTS

LBOS

BLW BOS

BRW PARA 12

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 7 = Cross Sectional Area PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Nominal Width PARA 11 = Surface Area per unit length

D-8

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: DINI


PARA 2 PARA 4 LTOS TOS PARA 7 RTOS

TBHR TBHL

PARA 6 PARA 3 NA PARA 8 NALO NAL NAR PARA 1 NARO

BBHL

BBHR PARA 10 (as percentage)

LBOS

BOS PARA 11

RBOS

PARA 4 measured midway between TOS and LTOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 9 = Nominal Depth

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-9

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: BSC


PARA 2 LTOC TOC PARA 4 RTOC

TBH

PARA 5

NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1

PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (degrees)

PARA 8 LBOC BOC PARA 13 RBOC

PARA 4 measured midway between LTOC and RTOC

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width

D-10

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: DINU


PARA 2 PARA 14 LTOC TOC = PARA 4 = RTOC

TBH

PARA 5

NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1

PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (as percentage)

PARA 8 LBOC BOC PARA 13 RBOC

PARA 4 measured midway between the PARA 14 limit and RTOC PARA 14 is usually either zero or equal to PARA 3

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-11

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: TEE

PARA 1 LTOS TOS PARA 4 RTOS

PARA 5

LTBS

TBHL TLWB PARA 7 NA TRWB NAR

TBHR

RTBS

NALO

NAL

NARO

PARA 3

PARA 2

LBOS BOS

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight

D-12

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

Generic Type: DINT


PARA 1 PARA 13 TOS PARA 4 PARA 14

LTOS

RTOS

PARA 16 (as percentage)

PARA5 TBHL NA TBHR PARA 7 NAR PARA 3 NARO PARA 2

NALO

NAL

PARA 15

BOS

PARA 3 measured midway between TOS and BOS PARA 4 measured midway between LTOS and TOS Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-13

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.4

Some Standard Joints


The following diagrams illustrate the principal types of joint in the catalogue, showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each joint is connected to a section in the design.

D.4.1

Column Connections
Column Flange: c a

Dist from TOS = a Dist from BOS = b Thk of Plt = c

Column Web: c a d

d b

Dist from TOS = a Dist from BOS = b Thk of Plt = c

Notch Depth = d

D-14

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.4.2

Cleated Connections
Bolted Web: 4M20_bolted_web_cleats

Length of cleats = a

Cutback Bolted Web:

Length of cleats = a

Welded Seat:

Extension Width of Bottom Angle = a

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-15

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.4.3

End Preparations
Single Clearance:

a
Radius of Rathole = a

Double Clearance:

Flush_p_cutback:

a
Radius of Rathole = a

Flush_p_cutback_with_snipe:

a
Radius of Rathole = a

D-16

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.4.4

Baseplate Connections
30mm_thick_attached_baseplate:

a
Dia of Bolt = a

30mm_thick_user_defined_baseplate: c e
Depth of Plt = a Width of Plt = b Bolt wrt Depth = c Bolt wrt Width = d Dia of Bolt = e

c d b d

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-17

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.4.5

Double Notched End Plates


Dble Notch End Plate: 4M6_10mm_thk_plt

D.4.6

Single Notched End Plates


Sgle Notch End Plate: a b
1st Row = a 2nd Row = b 3rd Row = 0 (in this example)

D-18

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.5

Some Standard Fittings


The following diagrams illustrate some typical fittings from the catalogue, showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each fitting is added to the design.

D.5.1

Stiffeners
Single Full Depth: 10mm_flange_stiffener

Double Full Depth: 8mm_double_stiffener

Single Partial Depth: 8mm_single_stiffener a b Long length = b


Short length = a

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

D-19

Structural Catalogue Guide

D.5.2

Fire Insulation
Parallel Flange Beam:

a c d b f e g

Top Flange Top Thickness = a Top Flange Width = b Top Flange Bottom Thickness = c Web Thickness = d Bottom flange Top Thickness = e Bottom flange Width = f Bottom Flange Bottom Thickness = g Position Line NA Zdistance (measured from POSS of section) determines start of insulation

D.5.3

Lifting Lugs
General Lifting Lug (GEN-LL):

d e a
Height of Pad Eye = a Width of Pad Eye = b Vertical Distance = c Shape Radius = d Hole Radius = e Pad Eye Thickness = f (not shown)

b Lifting Lug, Bolted:

D-20

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Other Relevant Documentation

This guide is intended only as an introduction to those parts of PDMS most relevant to structural design. As such, it describes only the main concepts needed to get you started. Should you need more detailed information about any topic, the following documents are available.

E.1

On-Line Help
For detailed instructions on the use of the forms and menus via which you control the application, on--line help is provided as an integral part of the user interface. The Help option on the menu bars gives you the following choices: Help>on Context This gives you help on any window currently visible in the display. When you select this option, the cursor changes to a question mark (?). Move the question mark into the window on which you want help and click the left--hand mouse button. Help>Contents This displays the Help window so that you can find the required topic from the hierarchical contents list. Help>Index This displays the Help window so that you can find all topics relevant to a selected keyword. Help>About This displays information about the current operating system on your computer and about the versions of PDMS and its applications to which you have access.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

E-1

Other Relevant Documentation

Pressing the F1 key at any time will display the help topic for the currently active window (equivalent to Help on Context for the current window).

E.2

PDMS Introductory Guides


The following guides introduce the principal PDMS facilities to new users (this Structural guide is part of the set): Industrial Building Design Using PDMS DESIGN Accessways, Stairs and Ladders Application User Guide Introduction to PDMS Design Templates Drawing Production Using PDMS Introduces the range of facilities available in the DRAFT module. Reporting from PDMS Introduces the database reporting utility available from within most PDMS applications, including the use of expressions to select relevant data.

E.3

PDMS Reference Manuals


The full PDMS documentation set includes a number of reference manuals which give detailed explanations of all the technical concepts involved. These manuals also describe the underlying command syntax which can be used to control PDMS directly (thus bypassing the forms and menus interface). Those particularly relevant to structural design work include: DESIGN Reference Manual Covers concepts and commands for all design disciplines. DRAFT Reference Manual Explains the commands for the PDMS 2D drafting facilities. PARAGON Reference Manual Explains how to set up a PDMS Catalogue.

E.4

General Guides
The following guides are intended for use only by experienced PDMS users who want to write their own applications:

E-2

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Other Relevant Documentation

Plant Design Software Customisation Guide Explains how to write your own application macros using PML (Cadcentres Programmable Macro Language) and how to design your own forms and menus interface. Plant Design Software Customisation Reference Manual Supplements the Customisation Guide. Includes a list of PML 2 Objects, Members and Methods. For Forms and Menus objects, the command syntax relating to the objects is included.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

E-3

Some Sample Plots

This appendix comprises some examples of typical (though relatively simple) plots showing the sorts of structural designs which may be created using PDMS with the CADCENTRE structural applications.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

F-1

Index
3D view, 3--4 Clash checking auto checking, 11--5 checking process, 11--3 clash limits, 11--3 extent of clash, 11--2 obstruction levels, 11--2 obstruction list, 11--3 principles, 11--2 Clash limits, 11--3 Clashing extent, 11--2 Clearance, definition, 11--2 Collection. See List B Bottom of steel (BOS), 5--2 Bracing creating individual members, 7--4 creating standard configurations, 7--9, B--9 modifying bracing gaps, 7--5 Button control, 3--9 option, 3--8 radio, 3--7 toggle, 3--7 C Catalogue database, 5--1 Centre of gravity calculations, 11--7 Check box, 3--7 Clash, definition, 11--2
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

A Application Beams & Columns, 4--1 definition, 1--3 loading, 8--1 Panels & Plates, 8--1 Attachment, pipe penetrations, 10--1 Attribute, definition, 4--2

Compound panel fitting, penetrations, 10--1 Control button, 3--9 Copying mirror option, 7--7 offset option, 5--21 Current element, definition, 4--3 Curve, definition, 12--1 Curved section creating, 12--6 definition, 12--1 modifying, 12--7 D Database hierarchy, 4--2 Draft data, 11--11 Density, 11--8 Design parameters, D--2 Design session, ending, 5--25
Index-1

Index

Display restoring, 7--1 saving, 5--25 Distance, measuring, 8--6 Draft applications, loading, 11--10 Draft database hierarchy, 11--11 Draft module, 11--10 Drag, panel edge, 8--11 Drawing sheet, Draft, 11--13 Drawlist, 5--9 E Edge definition, 8--2 dragging, 8--11 picking, 8--9 Element, definition, 4--2 End position definition, 5--2 identifying, 6--5 Ending design session, 5--25 Escape key/button, 5--19 Event--driven graphics mode, 5--13 F Fillet radius definition, 8--3 setting, 8--11 Fitting, section penetrations, 10--1 Forms and display restoring, 7--1 saving, 5--25 Framework (FRMW) creating, 4--4 definition, 4--2 Function attribute, setting for Draft, 11--9
Index-2

G Generic Section (GENSEC), definition, 12--1 GENSEC, definition, 12--1 Geometry set, D--1 Graphical view, 3--4 Gross weight, 11--7 H Hard obstruction, 11--2 Help, on--line, 3--9 Holes negative extrusion, 8--13 penetrations, 10--1 I Isometric view, 5--10 J Joint beta angle, 7--13 connection references, 7--13 cutback, 7--14 cutting plane, 7--14 dominant/subordinate, 7--17 joint freedom, 7--17 origin plane direction, 7--13 position and orientation, 7--13, 7--15 position line, 7--13, 7--15 secondary, 5--20 selecting from catalogue, 7--14 specifying, 7--12, 7--14 Joint line, definition, 5--5 Justification definition, 5--5 specifying, 5--16
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Index

L Leaving design session, 5--25 Limits, setting for view, 5--10 Linear grid, defining, 12--5 List adding members, 5--21 creating, 5--21 definition, 5--20 scrollable, 3--8 Loop (LOOP), definition, 8--13

Node definition, 5--2 deleting, 6--6 primary, 5--3 secondary, 5--3, 5--20 O Obstruction levels, 11--2 Obstruction list, 11--3 On--line help, 3--9 Option button, 3--8 Owner, definition, 4--3 P P--point, definition, D--1 Panel (PANE) creating, 8--4 definition, 8--2 Panel edge definition, 8--2 dragging, 8--11 picking, 8--9 Panel fillet radius definition, 8--3 setting, 8--11 Panel fitting (PFIT) beta angle, 9--1 definition, 9--1 justification, 9--1 position, 9--1 Panel loop (PLOO), definition, 8--2 Panel origin, definition, 8--5 Panel thickness, definition, 8--2 Panel vertex (PAVE) definition, 8--2 modifying, 8--8 picking, 8--9 Panel vertex creation, 8--5
Index-3

M Mass calculations, 11--7 Mass properties, querying, 11--7 Material reference (MatRef), 11--8 MDB selection, 3--2 Measuring facility, 8--6 Member, definition, 4--3 Member line, definition, 5--5 Members list, 3--4 Menu, pull--down, 3--5 Menu bar, 3--4, 3--5 Module, definition, 1--3 Module selection, 3--2 Mouse buttons, functions, 3--4 Multiple database selection, 3--2

N Negative extrusion (NXTR), definition, 8--13 Negative volume, 8--13 Net weight, 11--7 Neutral axis (NA), 5--2
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Index

Panning view, 5--11 Parameters, D--2 Password entry, 3--2 Penetration creating, 10--2 definition, 10--1 detailing, 10--4 Physical clash, definition, 11--2 Pick mode prompt, 5--10, 5--13 PKEY, D--2 Pline definition, 5--2, D--1 examples, 5--2 identification, D--2 Pline rule function, 7--2 setting, 7--3 Plotting facilities, 11--10 Point set, D--1 Primary node, automatic creation, 5--4 Primitives, D--1 Profile (PROF) definition, 5--1 specifying, 5--4 Project selection, 3--2 Prompt, cancelling, 5--19 Prompts, 3--6 Properties, setting, 7--14 Properties database, 11--8 Pull--down menu, 3--5 R Radio button, 3--7 Regular structure, creating, 6--1
Index-4

Reports generating, 11--5 principles, 11--5 templates, 11--6 Representation, setting graphical view, 7--15 Representation level, 11--7 Ring section creating, 12--3 definition, 12--1 Rotating view, 5--11 S Save work facility, 5--25 Saving design changes, 5--25 Screen layout, saving, 5--25 Scrollable list, 3--8 Secondary joint (SJOI), 5--20 Secondary node (SNOD), 5--20 Section, extending/shortening, 6--5, 7--2 Section (SCTN), definition, 5--1 Sheet, Draft, 11--13 Site creating, 4--4 definition, 4--2 Snap function, 5--14 Soft obstruction, 11--2 Specification reference (SpecRef), D--1 definition, 5--1 specifying, 5--4 Spine, definition, 12--1 Spine Point (POINSP), definition, 12--1 Split facility panels, 8--7 sections, 5--19
Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Index

Start position definition, 5--2 identifying, 6--5 Status bar, 3--4, 3--6 Status form, 3--6 Storage area, specifying, 5--3, 8--3 Structure (STRU) creating, 4--4 definition, 4--2 Subfitting, penetrations, 10--1 Subframework (SBFR) creating, 4--4 definition, 4--2 Submenu, 3--5 Surface area calculations, 11--7 T Text box, 3--7 Tidy nodes facility, 6--6 Toggle button, 3--7 Tool bar, 3--4, 3--6 Top of steel (TOS), 5--2 Touch, definition, 11--2 Training courses, 1--2 Trimming sections, 7--2

U User name entry, 3--2 V Vertex (VERT), definition, 8--13 Vertex creation (panels), 8--5 View 3D/graphical, 3--4, 5--9 centre of interest, 5--12 panning, 5--11 representation setting, 7--15 rotating, 5--11 zooming, 5--11 View direction, 5--10 Volume calculations, 11--7 W Weight calculations, 11--7 Working grid, 12--5 Working plane, 12--5 World, definition, 4--2 Z Zone creating, 4--4 definition, 4--2 Zooming view, 5--11

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4

Index-5