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Cover

Pidilite Industries Ltd

Hess Concrete Machinery India (P) Ltd (Hess Group)

Metecno India Pvt.Ltd

Loya Constructions Pvt. Ltd

Greaves Cotton Ltd

Marini India Pvt Ltd (Fayat India)

EDITOR'S COMMENT
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Editor-in-Chief K.P . Pradeep editor@masterbuilder.co.in Vice-Chairman K G K Moorthy moorthykgk@yahoo.co.in Director Editorial, Construction Chemicals Dr. Y P Kapoor Editor-in-Charge Ravi Damodaran Editor Nigel Narayan Associate Editors M.J. Krishna, M.K. Prabhakar Head - Content Development CE, Infrastructure & Environment Sadagopan Seshadri Contributors Bhavani Balakrishna, Sonjay, Priya, Chaitanya Raj Goyal Vice President Marketing H. Usha Devi Head-New Media Initiative Pradeep Nair Credit Controller G.B. Muralidharan Finance R. Prema Manager Digital Production K. Sravanthi Kiran Manager Digital Media Lakshmi Creative Head S. Nithiyanandam Production Manager Caroline D'sylva Digital Production Assistant R. Anand, Sudhir Kumar Singh Subscription & Circulation Team Sateesh Kuniyil, S. Sasi, Rajesh Corporate Office MB Publishers Pvt. Limited 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Ph: 044-28555248 Telefax: 28586703. Subscription & Circulation subscription@masterbuilder.in Website www.masterbuilder.co.in Karnataka No.40, 2nd Floor, 7th "C" Cross, Ashwini Layout, Koramangala, Bangalore - 560047. Phone: 080 - 25701079 / 25705888 Mobile: 09343833191 Owned and Published by K.P . Pradeep 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Printed By Ashok Natarajan Times Printers & Publishers, New No. 57 (29), Dr. Besant Road, Ice House, Chennai - 600 014. Disclaimer All rights reserved. Reproduction, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, in whole or part without prior written permission is prohibited. All views expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, neither do the publishers endorse any of the claims made in the advertisements.

Cloudy Skies Ahead


hen one of the worlds largest and most promising economies shows signs of slowing down it results in the loss of investor sentiments and pullback in long-term investments. It stands as an argument that the current scenario in India does not qualify to be called a slow down if one goes by developed standards and not just by the various micro and proxy indicators. Indias growth forecast, which currently stands at 6.9 percent as per IMF for 2012 is still reasonably strong. But a slow down it is: the economy has decelerated from projected rates of more than 8 percent, and negative surprises may bring a further decline. The government reported a YOY growth in the Oct-Dec quarter of only 6.1 percent. However, whats worrying most observers is the fact that much of this decline seems to be distributed unevenly, with the greatest burden falling on the Aam Aaadmi. If the slower growth rate continues or worsens, millions of Indians, whom UPA supposedly stands for, will be trapped in poverty for a long time to come. Now coming to the primary and critical question, why, at all, is India slowing down? The reasons are wide-ranging. Some of these include a rather bizarre attitude towards foreign investors looking to set shop in India: how can we forget UPAs complete turnaround of its 2011 willingness to allow overseas players such as Wal-Mart Inc, Tesco plc to enter the retailing sector? The chaos in the telecom sector on account of 2G licence cancellations and re-auction. The diesel subsidy hole, a firm and masterly inactive bureaucracy apart from assessing retroactive taxation on foreign businesses. An additional concern is the countrys energy infrastructure and coal mining issues that clearly indicate that we are not heading anywhere towards further liberalization and market-oriented reforms. One can take solace that the above are issues are likely to be resolved if the numbers change in favour of UPA. However, the problems that have no instant remedy are, for instance, in the agricultural sector. The Indian agricultural sector provides employment for over 50% of Indias work force, yet the green revolution that this country experienced in the 70s and 80s has disappeared. Crop yields remain surprisingly low, transport and water infrastructure is poor, and the legal system is hostile to both foreign investments in basic agriculture and to modern agribusiness. Another major concern is that the Indian service sector is entering a new historical cycle that is characterized by significant new competitive challenges and an increasingly savvy and demanding customer base. A true global marketplace without distinctions among offshore and domestic vendors is taking shape. As it does, it is putting pressure on profit margins and growth rates, and challenging the ability to maintain a stable workforce. India also has one of the worlds most cumbersome legal systems where reforms are hugely required. A recent WB report on the ease of doing business ranks India at 132 out of 183 listed countries behind Honduras and the West Bank and Gaza, and only marginally ahead of Nigeria and Syria. As a matter of fact most industry captains believe that the days of the license Raj have returned, referring to the countrys earlier subpar economic performance under a regime of heavy government regulation. While everything so far looks so shadowed, there is an optimistic side to the current state of affairs. India fosters an urban population with outstanding talent, zeal and communication skill that is continuously trying to work for a living and in trying to improve their lot, they are not only pushing up the per capita income of the country but also continuously thinking of innovative ideas thereby creating new business opportunities regularly. A talent pool those posse world class competencies to bring a topsy-turvy change to the current scenario. Nonetheless, the previous pace of progress no longer seems possible unless one believes in miracles. A miracle it has to be!

K.P Pradeep, Editor-in-Chief


editor@masterbuilder.co.in

Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd

Contents

Steel Buildings: An Analysis


M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

Economics, Versatility and Sustainability: 'Pitch-forking' Steel Buildings into Limelight!

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106
Chaitanya Raj Goyal

Editor's Comment.........................8 News & Events............................22 E-Scape......................................216 Advertisers Index........................18 Classification Index....................20

44

Focus: Composite Materials Construction Materials: Composites Get Thumbs-up from the Industry
Chaitanya Raj Goyal

Steel Structures: Thermal Bridging Thermal Bridging: Reducing Structural Steels Impact on Building Envelope Energy Transfer

50

Rajamane N. P.1, Nataraja M. C.2, Lakshmanan N3, and Ambily P S 4 Head, CACR, SRM University, 2Professor, Dept. of Civil Engg, SJCE, 3 Former Director, CSIR-SERC, 4Scientist, CSIR-SERC
1

Geopolymer: Concrete Literature Survey on Geopolymer Concretes and A Research Plan in Indian Context

112 120 128 136 144 154

Insulation Radiant Heat Barriers for Thermal Comfort Excellence

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Prof. Dr. Vlastimir Radonjanin1, Mirjana Malesev1 and Snezana Marinkovic2 Department for Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade

Recyling: Concrete Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

Sonjoy Deb, B.Tech,'Civil'. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

Steel Buildings: Bracing Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Structured Steel Buildings

Sonjoy Deb, B.Tech,'Civil'. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

Floor Systems: Flat Plate Construction Flat Plate Flooring Systems: The "Win-Win" Solution

82 90 98

Steel Buildings: Trendsetting Steel Buildings: Symbols of Modern Architecture


Sadagopan Seshadri Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

Roofing & Cladding: Analysis Roofing & Cladding Industry: In Dire Need for Fresh Air

Sonjoy Deb, B.Tech,'Civil'. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

Steel Structures: Retrofitting Retrofitting Techniques for Steel Structures

Green Roofing Green Roofing Systems: The Need of the Hour!


Bhavani Balakrishna

Sonjoy Deb, B.Tech,'Civil'. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

PEB: Steel Bending The Fine Art of Steel Bending

Chaitanya Raj Goyal

Roofing: Technology Aerial Roof Measurement Technology: The Eye in the Sky

136 44
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144

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Kirby Building Systems India Ltd

Contents

160 170

Communication Feature BIM Software for Building and Construction Industry Modern Waterproofing Solutions

211 Quick Stopper Plug for Leakages


Tail Lifts that are Easy to Use, Safe and Offer Flawless 212 Performance

Roofing, Cladding and Natural Ventilation Systems 174 Innovative from a Trend Setter

188 Event FICCI Specialty Chemicals Conclave -2012- Focus on

Immense Potential of Specialty Chemicals Industry in India

178 A Total Solution Provider for Pre-Engineered Buildings


Organizes Panel Discussion on 186 BASF Building a Sustainable Tomorrow

Insulation 164 Building: Next Gen Insulation for Buildings: Vacuum Insulated Panels
Bhavani Balakrishna

192

Prevention of Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Exposed to Severe Conditions

Aggregates 180 Recycling: Recycled Concrete Aggregate: An Idea Whose Time Has Come
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

196 Modern Loaders 'Moving More and Making More 208 The All-Amrican Zipper: "Churning A Success Story!" 210 New Products Same Proven Quality

Focus: Formwork 200 Equipment Formwork - Future Approach in India


A. L. Sekar, B. Murugesan and C. N. V. S. Rao Larsen & Toubro Ltd

Equipment: Maintenance 204 Concrete Concrete Equipments: The Art of Caring

164 154
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The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd

Contents

Advertisers Index
1
16th National Congress on Corrosion & its Control (16th NCCC) 3rd Annual SICI 2012 - Bangalore Edition 4th International Seminar on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering Action Construction Equipment Ltd Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt.Ltd Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Asons Enterprise Atul Fasterners Ltd Baicon - 2012 Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited (BRDC) Case New Holland Construction Equipment (India) Pvt.Ltd Cera Chem India Pvt.Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd Conmat System Pvt.Ltd Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd Cosmos Sales Corporation DCS Trading & Services Pvt.Ltd Doka India Pvt. Ltd Esquire - CMAC Pvt.Ltd Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Gourav Industries Greaves Cotton Ltd H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd Hess Concrete Machinery India (P) Ltd (Hess Group) 215 189 205 Igloo Tiles INSTRUCT JBA Associates (JBA Concrete Solutions Pvt.Ltd) Kalyan Industries Kirby Building Systems India Ltd Larsen & Toubro Ltd Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd Liugong India Pvt.Ltd Loya Constructions Pvt.Ltd Macmillan Insulations India Pvt. Ltd. Marini India Pvt Ltd (Fayat India) Marsman India Ltd Metal Tech Constructions Pvt. Ltd. Metecno India Pvt.Ltd Meva Schalungs-Systeme GmbH MM Castings (P) Ltd Multicolor Steels (India) Pvt. Ltd. My Communications (MC - Bauchemie) Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd Peri (India) Pvt. Ltd Pidilite Industries Ltd PKM Metal Building Company Regional Conference of the Int'l network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWISE) Reliance Industries Ltd Relyon Facility Services Pvt.Ltd Roljack Industries Pioneer Coldstore & Cladding Pvt. Ltd.

I
171 197

Roof India - 2012 ROTHO - Robert Thomas Metall- and Elektrowerke GmbH & Co. KG Sany Heavy Industry India Pvt.Ltd Satec Envir Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. SAVCOR India Private Limited Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt. Ltd Sleek Boards (India) Ltd Soilmec Foundation Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Speedcrafts Ltd STP Ltd Sunbeam Tac System Formwork Sdn Bdh Techny chemy Techobl 2012 Tekla India Pvt.Ltd Texsa India Pvt. Ltd. The Masterbuilder Corporate ad The Masterbuilder Subscription form The Supreme Industries Ltd Thermoshield India P.Ltd Toshaniwal System & Instrument Pvt. Ltd. Trueventus, Malaysia Ultratech Cement Ltd (Aitya Birla Group) Unisteel Engineering Works United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd Universal Construction Machinery Equipment Ltd Venus Equipment and Tools Pvt. Ltd. Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt.Ltd

193 187

J
139

S
35 19 105 53 37 27 175 73 187

A
167 153 65 97 111

K
191 11

L
47 93 57 5

STA Flooring (Sanjay Tekale Associates) 69 / 143

B
195 161

M
109 7 149 81 Front inner (2) 25 131 100 / 101 61

T
Back inner 117 203 89 31 199 209 41 185 179 207

C
23 39 33 183 159 173 177

N
157 123

D
169 21

U
Back Cover 119 85 127

P
113 29 Front inner (1) 191 185

E
141

G
9 183 6

R
213 163 191 147

V
133 / 135

H
17 2nd Wrapper

W
49

Z
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Satec Envir Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd.

Contents

Advertisers Index / Classification


Cement UltraTech Cement Ltd. Concrete Batching Plant Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd. Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd. Concrete Blockmaking Machine Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt Ltd. Concrete Curing Equipment Rotho - Robert Thomas Metall-und Elektrowerke GmbH & KG Construction Chemicals MC - Bauchme (I) Pvt Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd. Pidilite Industries Ltd.( Dr. Fixit) STP Ltd. Technychemy Concrete Paving Machine Conmat System Pvt. Lt. Construction Equipment & Machinery Action Construction Equipment Ltd. 167 Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. 153 Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. 65 Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited 161 Case New Holland Construction Equipments (India) Pvt. Ltd. 23 Chetra Mahinery India Pvt. Ltd. 33 Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipment (P) Ltd. 173 Esquire Cmac Pvt. Ltd. 141 Greaves Cotton Limited 6 Liugong India Pvt. Ltd. 57 Marini India 7 Marsman India Ltd. 149 Sany heavy industry India Pvt.ltd 35 Speedcrafts Limited 175 Toshaniwal System & Instrument Pvt. Ltd. 179 Unisteel Engineering Works 119 Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd. 127 Venus Equipment and Tools Pvt. Ltd. 133 / 135 Wirtgen India 49 Cranes Action Construction Equipment Ltd. 167 159 61 123 Front Inner (1) 73 117 187 183 65 53 127 Back Cover DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd Crushing Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Roljack Industries Doors Automatic Gandhi Automation Pvt. Ltd. ECC L&T Facility Services Relyon Facility Services Pvt Ltd. Fibre Reinforced Concrete Kalyan Industries Nina Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd. Flooring JBA Concrete Solution Kalyan Industries Nina Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd. Reliance Industries Ltd. STA Concrete Flooring Solutions Formwork Doka India Pvt. Ltd. MEVA PERI (India) Pvt. Ltd. Tac System Formwork Sdn Bdh Metal Building Metecno India Pvt. Ltd. OEM Suppliers M M Casting (P) Ltd. Paving Machinery Venus Equipment and Tools Pvt. Ltd. PEB Gourav Industries Kirby Building Systems Loya Peb Metal Tech Constructions Pvt. Ltd. Metecno India Pvt. Ltd. Multicolor Steel India Pvt. Ltd. Pioneer Coldstore & Cladding Pvt. Ltd. PKM Metal Building Company Satec Envir Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd. Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt. Ltd. Piling Machinery Soilmec Foundation Equipments Pvt. Ltd. 27 183 11 5 81 Front Inner (2) 100 / 101 113 191 185 19 85 77 133 / 135 131 Front Inner (2) 21 25 29 Back Inner 139 191 123 163 69 / 143 191 123 191 47 9 157 147 169 Porta Cabins Satec Envir Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd. Precast concrete Pipe Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Repair & Rehabilation Cera-Chem Pvt. Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd. Pidilite Industries Ltd.( Dr. Fixit) STP Ltd. Technychemy Repair & Rehabilation Software SAVCOR India Private Limited Roofing Lipi Polymers Pvt Ltd Metal Tech Constructions Pvt. Ltd. Multicolor Steel India Pvt. Ltd. Pioneer Coldstore & Cladding Pvt. Ltd. Texsa India Pvt. Ltd. Thermoshield India (P) Ltd. United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd. Roofing Fastners Asons Enterprises Atul Fastners Ltd. Rubber Doors Sleek Board (India) Ltd. Scaffolding Cosmos Sales Corporation Software Tekla India Pvt Ltd Steel Building Kirby Building Systems PKM Metal Building Company Thermal Isnulation Macmillan Insulations India Pvt. Ltd. Tiles Manufacturers Igloo Tiles TMT-Technology Suppliers H & K Rolling Mills Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Waterproofing MC - Bauchme (I) Pvt Ltd. Nina Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd. Pidilite Industries Ltd.( Dr. Fixit) STP Ltd. Technychemy The Supreme Industries Ltd. 61 123 Front Inner (1) 73 117 41 17 171 109 11 185 89 177 37 97 111 93 81 100 / 101 191 31 185 85 105 39 123 Front Inner (1) 73 117 183 19

2nd Wrapper

Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd.

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The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Doka India Pvt. Ltd

News & Events

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
the backhoe loaders that the suppliers of barrier lift attachments are targeting since. Backhoe loaders continue to be the largest selling types of construction equipment in India.

L & T Komatsu Launches PC210LC-8 Excavator with KOMTRAX Tracking System


Competition seems to be getting tougher by the day in the 20-tonne class excavator segment in India. L&T- Komatsu, a market leader in earthmoving equipment has announced the launch of its PC210LC8 excavator in the 20-tonne class. The new model comes with a bucket capacity range of 0.95-1.2 cu.m, operating weight of 21,600 kg and net Horsepower of 110 kW/148 hp @ 2000 rpm. Effective fuel management is ensured with the ecot3 engine that powers the excavator. The 'Autodecel' feature incorporated in the system means that fuel is saved automatically with engine speed dropping during idle time. Remote monitoring of construction machinery is the trend globally nowadays and the PC210LC-8 features the unique KOMTRAX satellite-based advanced tracking system, which facilities monitoring of the excavator's performance and efficiency parameters without being at the jobsite. The satellite based tracking system means that for fleet managers, regular updates on the mean machine's

Powerscreen Lines up Enhanced Products for Hillhead

performance is now only a click away. The system is also programmed for issuing timely alerts for scheduled maintenance. The cab has been designed for optimum operator comfort with ergonomically placed controls. The LC undercarriage is built for better machine stability, so very vital for working on different terrains that the machine will have to face in a country like India. Another key highlight of the PC210LC8 is the 5 working modes that the operator can choose from, which adds to its versatility when it comes to different applications. The rugged machine also features 7 spools for rock breaker adaptation, making it ideally suited for mining jobs also. Powerscreen, one of the global leaders in mobile crushing and screening equipment will be unveiling its latest products at the Hillhead Exhibition to be held from 19-21 June 2012 at Buxton, UK. Powerscreen is eagerly awaiting the 2012 Hillhead exhibition as we have a number of enhanced products to showcase to our customers, said Damian Power, Powerscreen Global Product Line Director. He added that Traditionally, Hillhead has been one of the most anticipated exhibitions on the Powerscreen calendar for team members, distributors and customers and we fully expect the 2012 exhibition to be one of the best. With the opportunity to demonstrate the capabilities of our enhanced equipment and the volume of international visitors already registered, we are looking forward to a successful Hillhead. Visitors to the company's booth will see five machines working. The Powerscreen XA750S jaw crusher will be feeding the giant Powerscreen Warrior 2400 screen, while the Powerscreen XA400 jaw crusher will be working separately to showcase its new pre-screen feature. Finally, the enhanced Powerscreen XH320X impact crusher will be working with the Powerscreen Warrior 1400X screen.

Barrier Lift Attachments have Huge Market Potential in India


Not a single day seems to pass without the launch of innovative products in the construction equipment industry. Nowhere is this trend seen more than in the case of India, which is among the fastest growing construction equipment markets in the world. One particular product that could have a huge market potential in India is the barrier lift attachment. These attachments are used to lift concrete median barriers, so common across highways in the country. They can also be used in piling and curbing works. These attachments are compatible with excavators and backhoe loaders. It is

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The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Case New Holland Construction Equipment (India) Pvt.Ltd

News & Events

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
Additional new product developments will be on display at the stand including a Powerscreen XA400S jaw crusher, the Powerscreen XH320X and Powerscreen XH500 impact crushers and a Powerscreen Warrior 1400X screen. Established models- the Powerscreen 1000 Matrax cone crusher, a dual power Powerscreen Chieftain 2100X screen and the Powerscreen Warrior 800 screen will also give greet visitors at the boot, according to a recent media release from the company.

Increasing use of Aerial Work Platforms due to Spurt in Rental Companies

tors and providers of crawler cranes, tower cranes and mobile cranes for the heavy construction industry. Recently four Manitowoc Crane Care technicians were challenged with mounting a Manitowoc 18000 crawler crane to a barge while the barge was still under construction. The vessel will eventually work on a liquefied natural gas project in India, but is being built at a shipyard in Dubai, UAE. The Crane Care team was sent from Manitowoc's Dubai facility. The Manitowoc 18000 and barge both belong to Afcons, one of India's leading infrastructure companies. The crane has a 750 t capacity and will be working with a 97 m main boom on the LNG field Afcons is developing for the Gujarat State Petroleum Company.

Sany Heavy Industry Placed Sixth on International Construction's 2012 Yello Table

The construction equipment industry in India is witnessing rapid changes. One of the trends that are being noticed in recent times is the gradual growth in the use of equipment, which till now were considered niche machinery. Take aerial work platforms for example. The articulated ones, especially scissor lifts are now making an increasing number of appearances across the country, especially in urban centers. It is not surprising that then that several leading global players who are into manufacturing aerial work platforms are eyeing the lucrative Indian market.

With US $ 7.861 billion in capital, Changsha, China-based Sany Heavy Industyr has been placed sixth on International Construction's 2012 Yellow Table, a ranking of the world's largest construction machinery manufacturers. A company news release on the occasion said that the company ranked 43rd in 2004, one year after the magazine first published the list. Since then, the company has consistently increased its market share and become a major participant in the global heavy equipment industry. The Yellow Table has listed Caterpillar and Komatsu in the number one and two positions, followed by Volvo, Hitachi and Terex.

Leading the growth story for aerial work platforms in India are the rental companies. With the rental market getting more organized, there are specialized construction equipment rental companies coming forward to offer this type of equipments. With the rental sector getting more organized, customers are assured of technical support services. One of the big advantages when hiring equipment such as aerial work platforms with rental companies is that they are accompanied by trained operators.

All workers, both from Manitowoc and Afcons, were trained in the dock's safety regulations and procedures before the pedestal mounting work began. This involved preparing the equipment and materials in line with the facility's requirements, and ensuring all workers received additional safety training. Communication between the various parties involved was crucial for the success of the operation. With safety clearance granted, work on the installation began. Engineers from Manitowoc drafted specific installation plans as construction took place in dry dock.The engineers also had to consider that the barge deck was a full 6 m above ground level. This is much higher than when installing a pedestalmounted crane on water. The custom-build pedestal was to be

Barge Mounted Manitowoc Crane on its Way to India


Manitowoc is a name that is recognized globally as one of the premier innova-

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The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Meva SchalungsSysteme GmbH

News & Events

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
installed on the barge deck in the first stage. With this in place, the Manitowoc Crane Care team installed the slew ring and upper works of the crane. This was followed by the mast and counterweight before the full main boom was installed. The entire process took 20 days for the team of 10 workers. According to Mr.K.Radesh, project manager, Afcons, the smooth installation of the crane helped the barge build stay on schedule. On major jobs, such as this, there are often additional challenges, such as conforming with local regulations or fitting around other work schedules. That's what the guys at Manitowoc Crane Care really understand, and that's why we continue to turn to them for our lifting equipment, added Mr.Radesh. The 18000 is the largest Manitowoc crane in the Afcons fleet. Other models in the fleet include the 4000W, 4100W, 3900W, 8500, 10000, 14000 and 999 cranes with capacities ranging from 80 t to the 750 t Manitowoc 18000. After work on the barge is complete, it will be towed 1,600 km to India where it will spend 16 months at the Mundra LNG terminal in north-western India. It will build offloading facilities and a jetty, and most of its duties will involve placing steel piles and lifting precast structures of up to 100 t. Developed by Gujarat State Petroleum Company, one of India's leading oil and gas companies, the LNG terminal will cover more than 28 hectares of reclaimed land. The site will be operational in 2014. Mr. Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia, Mr. Klaus Dittrich, Chairman & CEO of Messe Mnchen International, and Mr. Walter Hess, the VDMA's Special Envoy for the bauma Partner Country of Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e.V.), is coordinating this partnership initiative. The signing of the MoU is the official confirmation of the acceptance of Indonesia's nomination as the 'Partner Country' of bauma and its support for the world's largest trade show taking place from April 15 to 21, 2013 in Munich. Mr. Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia, while speaking on the development said, Being the partner country of bauma 2013 is a good opportunity for Indonesia to promote itself as a developing market. We expect that bauma as the world's biggest platform could attract new investments for Indonesia's infrastructure and provide new business activities and networks between Indonesian companies and bauma exhibitors. Sharing his views on the occasion, Mr. Klaus Dittrich, Chairman & CEO of Messe Mnchen said, Last year alone the construction industry in Indonesia grew by almost seven percent. It is the most dynamic sector in the Indonesian economy. Investment in all segments is showing a significant upwards trend. All of which makes Indonesia the ideal Partner Country for the next bauma." The goal of the Partner Country concept is to further boost the profile of bauma in Indonesia, and to enter into dialogue with the decision makers in the country. Mr. Walter Hess, the VDMA's Special Envoy for the bauma Partner Country of Indonesia, while explaining the signing of the agreement stated, "We want to convince them to invest in the right technology and modern standards and for that bauma offers an excellent platform. Only at bauma can investors get a truly comprehensive picture of all the latest technology and find out just what is possible in terms of sustainable investment in the construction, building materials, and mining industry." The initiative aims to promote contacts between Indonesia companies, government offices, associations and their German and international counterparts in the construction, building materials and mining industry. The event also offers an opportunity for Indonesian representatives to showcase their country as an investment destination.

Remote Controlled Construction Equipment is the Future


One of the recent trends that have been seen in the field of construction equipment is the increasing use of machinery which can be operated using a handy remote control. From cranes to demolition robots, there are models available these days that can be operated from a safe distance. The advent of these models holds immense potential in a country like India, where such equipment is particularly useful considering the fact that many a times construction machinery needs to work in urban areas where space is a major constraint and could possibly impact the safety of the operators. Remote controlled demolition equipment is a good example for modern equipment that also scores high on the safety front. These mean machines can be now operated from a safe distance. Remote controlled cranes are other popular pieces of equipment that is widely used. They are again extremely useful in urban areas in India. They allow precision placement of the crane boom, while also allowing for speedy completion of work in a safe manner.

Memorandum of Understanding signed Indonesia now Partner Country of bauma 2013


It is official now. Indonesia is the partner country for bauma 2013. On May 2, 2012, on the occasion of the Conbuild Mining Indonesia Trade Show,

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The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Soilmec Foundation Equipments Pvt. Ltd.

News & Events

INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN
Boost to Construction off Farm Storage Facilities FDI in Steel Sector has Increased says Verma
The Minister of Steel, Mr. Beni Prasad Verma has said that there is a net increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the country in the metallurgical sector, including steel sector, during the last three financial years. The minister in a written reply in the LokSabha said that in order to monitor and coordinate various issues concerning major steel investments in the country; an Inter-Ministerial Group (IMG) has been constituted. The IMG on steel sector is a forum to coordinate, monitor, and review issues affecting major steel sector investments. The individual issues raised during the IMG meetings are further dealt by the concerned Ministries/Departments and State Governments in accordance with the provision of the extant rules and policies. has informed visiting Indian Minister of Commerce Industry and Textiles Mr.Anand Sharma that most of German Companies in India are happy with the business environment in India and expressed his desire to further deepen economic engagement with India. FDI inflows from Germany into India is around US $ 4.55 billion and it ranks 8th among investors in India. FDI flow from India into Germany is US $ 5.9 billion in 2011. Reciprocating the positive sentiment, the Indian Minister for Commerce said, Indian industry majors such as Tata Motors, Bharat Forge, Suzlon, Mahindra's, Wipro, Infosys have all established their base in Germany. There are 215 Indian companies active in Germany employing over 24,000 people, making an enriching contribution to the local economy. About 600 Indo-German joint ventures are presently in operation in India.

The Ministry of Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution has formulated a scheme for construction of storage godowns through the PPP mode with the Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) and State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs). Assessment of additional storage needs under the scheme is based on the overall procurement/consumption and the storage space already available. Under the scheme, the Food Corporation of India (FCI) would provide a guarantee of ten years for assured hiring to the private entrepreneurs and construct 20 lakh tones of storage capacity in silos, within the overall storage requirement of FCI, through the PPP mode. The government has also finalized a plan for construction of storage capacity of 151 lakh tones in 19 States under the scheme through private entrepreneurs and Central and State Warehousing Corporations and 5.4 lakh tones in the North Eastern States. The Ministry of Agriculture is implementing GrameenBhandaranYojna for creation of scientific storage capacity to meet out various requirements of farmers for storing farm produce and processed farm produce etc. During XIth plan 13,719 godowns with capacity of 135 lakh tonnes have been sanctioned under the scheme with subsidy of ` 511.60 crore and during 2012-13 an amount of ` 716.00 crore has been allocated under the scheme. (Photo Courtesy: www.llenrock.com)

According to the data provided by the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce, there has been a steady increase in FDI inflow in the steel sector. While the figure was ` 1, 999.30 crore in 2009-10, it was ` 5, 023.34 crore in 2010-11 and ` 8, 242.42 crore in 2011-12. (Photo Courtesy:thehindu)

POWER
Maharashtra Plans More Solar Plants
The competition among various states for setting up renewable energy projects is getting more intense by the day. Now it is Maharashtra's chance to plan more solar power projects in the near future. The Maharashtra State power Generation Company (Mahagenco) is planning

German CEOs Happy with Indian Investment Climate


German entrepreneurs have expressed their happiness, vis--vis the Indian investment climate. Dr. Philipp Roessler, German Federal Minister of Economics & Technology of Germany

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Coastal States can Plan offshore Wind Energy Farms says Expert
India with a coastline stretching over 7500 km offers huge potential for setting up of offshore wind energy projects. According to Mr.Swaminathan Krishamurthy, Associate Director, Climate and Sustainable Services, Ernst & Young India, the country can use this natural advantage and go in for offshore wind energy projects. setting up of four more plants in the state. The plants would have a combined capacity of about 200MW and are expected to be completed by 2015. The planned projects are likely to be set up in the districts of Parbhani, Beed, Sangli and Osmanabad. According to a senior official, the government is looking towards non-cultivable lands for setting up the projects in these districts .Neighboring state of Gujarat has taken the lead when it comes to renewable energy projects, especially solar power projects. The senior expert's remarks came when he was addressing the India Wind Energy Summit held in Chennai organized by Lnoppen India recently. He further added that the contribution of renewable energy was only 12.5 percent of the total power generation in the country. India has taken rapid strides in adding wind energy capacity in

recent times. The country ranks fifth when it comes to installed wind power capacity globally. Tamil Nadu leads the race among states that have opted for wind energy farms for augmenting their power generation capacities.

Thermal Power Plant Using Advanced Ultra Supercritical Technology Planned

to set-up an 800 MW capacity coalbased thermal power plant, using the Advanced Ultra Supercritical Technology is under consideration. The location of that plant is yet to be decided stated The Minister of State for Power, Mr.K.C.Venugopal in a written reply to a question in the LokSabha. The commissioning of the plant has a time frame of 7 years from the date of sanction by the Government of India. This time frame includes 2 years of research and development work, with the balance 4 years devoted to actual project implementation. Kerala has now sought 500 MW power from the Kudankulam nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu. The Chief Minister of Kerala, Mr.Oomen Chandy has reportedly written to the Prime Minister asking for 500 MW of power for his state in view of the severe power crisis Kerala has been facing off late. It is interesting to note here that the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J.Jayalalithaa had also recently written to the Prime Minister demanding the entire power generated by the plant to be released to the state. The reaction of the PMO is being awaited. It remains to be seen as to how the Centre manages this tightrope walking where it has to satisfy both the states.

The government is considering setting up of a thermal power plant using Advanced Ultra Supercritical Technology. Advanced Ultra Supercritical Technology employing steam temperature of 700 degree C is under development in Europe, Japan and U.S.A. Action has been taken for indigenous development of this technology and a proposal

Kerala Wants Power from Kudankulam Plant


While the dust may have just about settled on the Mullaperiyar dam issue with the committee constituted by the Supreme Court declaring the dam absolutely safe, there may be another controversy brewing between Tamil Nadu and neighbouring Kerala.

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Total Installed Capacity of Solar Projects is now over 900 MW
The total installed capacity of solar power projects in the country has increased from 2 mw in 2009 to over 900 MW during 2012. Providing this information in a written reply to a question in the RajyaSabha Dr.Farooq Abdullah, the Union Minister for New & Renewable Energy said that that under JNNSM, 20,000 MW capacity addition of solar power projects is envisaged by 2022. The minister's reply stated that there is no requirement of getting go ahead from the Government of India for setting up solar projects. There are some schemes under which some support is provided as per guidelines contained therein. The Government is encouraging setting up solar energy projects. The official statement further added that the government has brought out schemes for setting up grid

RAILWAYS

` 7.35 Lakh Crore Modernization Plan Proposed for Railways

connected solar power projects and to promote various off grid applications. In addition, the Government notified reduced customs duty and exemption from excise duty on all items of machinery required for the initial setting up of a solar power generation project or facility. The government provides capital subsidy up to 30% of the benchmark cost and / or soft loan at a rate of 5% interest to support deployment of various off grid solar applications. India is emerging as one of the leading countries in the field of solar power.

Transfer of Land of Ministry of Mines for Chennai Metro Project

capacity addition requirement during the 12th Plan is 75,785 MW on all India basis, according to Mr.K.C.Venugopal, Union Minister of State for Power, who gave this information in a written reply to a question in the RajyaSabha. The Sector-wise and fuel-wise break up of 12th Plan capacity addition programme as per the report of the Working Group on Power is as under (in MW).
Central State Private Total Hydro 5632 1456 2116 9204 Thermal 11426 12340 40015 63781 Nuclear 2800 0 0 2800 Total 19858 13796 42131 75785

Modernization is an integral part of investment by Railways under various Plan heads. An outlay of ` 7.35 lakh crore has been proposed by the Ministry of Railways for the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The major objectives of the Twelfth Five Year Plan are improving safety, modernization, and capacity augmentation. Modernization is an ongoing exercise and many activities for augmentation of safety and capacity augmentation also result in modernization. The Minister of State for Railways, Mr.Bharatsinh Solanki, in a written reply in the RajyaSabha said that for financing these projects allocation of adequate Gross Budgetary Support as envisaged in the proposal of the Twelfth Five Year Plan, successful implementation of Public Private Partnership (PPP) and mobilization of internal resources through conventional and nonconventional means, would be necessary for which all out efforts are made. Pressure has been increasing on the railways to implement modernization plans on a war footing. There has been a long felt need for introduction of high speed train routes in the country, the clamor for which is growing by the day.

As per the 18th Electric Power Survey Report, peak demand of 1, 99,540 MW and energy requirement of 13, 54,874 BU has been estimated at the end of Twelfth Five Year Plan i.e2016-17. The Working Group on Power constituted by the Planning Commission to formulate the 12th Five Year Plan for the Power sector has submitted its report. As per the report of this Working Group, The minister's statement said that at the end of 11th Five year Plan i.e. 2011-12 the country was facing peak shortage of 13815 MW (10.6 %) & energy shortage of 79313 MU ( 8.5 %).(Source: MOP )

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Slow Pace of Progress Plagues Prefeasibility Studies on Bullet Train Corridors
It looks like India will have to wait quite some time to seek sleek bullet trains running through the country. The prefeasibility studies being carried on bullet train corridors have not progressed at the desired pace, if the latest information from the government are to be seen. The Union Minister of State for Railways, Mr.Bharatsinh Solanki in a written reply in the RajyaSabha gave the details of the various studies that are going on and their progress rates. Prefeasibility study has been completed only on the Pune-MumbaiAhmedabad corridor. For the Delhi-Chandigarh Amritsar and the Delhi-Jaipur-Ajmer-Jodhpur corridors consultants are yet to be engaged. The study is in progress for the Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-VaranasiPatna, Howrah-Haldia, and HyderabadDornakal-Vijayawada-Chennai corridors. In the case of the Chennai-BangaloreCoimbatore-Ernakulam-Thiruvananthapuram corridors technical bids have been evaluated and financial bids are under evaluation

PORTS & DAMS

Minister Urges Coastal States to Set up New Major Ports

Work in Progress on Western Dedicated Freight Corridor

signed, according to a recent official statement from the Ministry of Railways. The tendering process in Phase-I has commenced and Pre-Qualification for civil works for 624 kms. has been completed. Against the total requirement of 5860 hectare of land, award has been declared for 3780 hectares. The project was targeted for completion by December 2016. The target has been shifted to March 2017 on account of change in alignment which meant fresh efforts for land acquisition. Delay has also occurred on account of some environmental & wildlife clearances, not being readily available. The project implementation is being monitored by Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL), the Ministry of Railways, Planning Commission, and Prime Minister's Office on a regular basis. Project implementation schedule, timeliness, and milestones have been drawn up and are being periodically monitored by Prime Minister's Office to ensure timely completion of the work.

The Union Minister of Shipping, Mr. G.K. Vasan has informed the LokSabha in a written reply to a question that the Government has requested all coastal states in the country to explore the possibility to set up a new major port or a new ship building yard or a composite port-cum-shipbuilding yard in their states and submit a comprehensive proposal to the Ministry of Shipping. Proposal has been received from the State Government of Andhra Pradesh for which a Technical Committee has been constituted to identify a suitable location out of the three locations suggested by the state government for development of another major port. The government is expected to announce further policy initiatives to encourage development of port infrastructure in various parts of the country.

Construction work on 54 major and important bridges between Vaitarna and Bharuch of Western Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFC) is in progress through budgetary resources. Other than this, the entire Western DFC is being funded through Official Development Assistance (ODA) loan from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Funding for Phase I (RewariVadodara, 930 kms.) has been tied up and loan agreement for first tranche

Govt Committed to Developing Inland Water Transport Infrastructure says Minister


The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was constituted for development and regulation of the inland water transport sector in October 1986 after which five waterways have been declared as national waterways for their systematic development for shipping and navigation. IWAI strives to promote inland water

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Traffic had been disrupted between the two neighboring states over the row a few months ago, before normalcy was restored. This recent report of the committee that has come as a setback to Kerala also states that the demand for a new dam should also be reconsidered as an alternative. It remains to be seen as to what kind of impact the report of the committee makes to the two sides. constructed by BRO along the border. Neither any road project is being constructed by BRO along the border nor does the government have any proposal under consideration in this regard.

transport infrastructure by providing the targeted depth and width for most part of the year in the navigational channels; aids for day and night navigation; fixed/ floating terminals at selected locations for berthing and loading/ unloading of vessels; and intermodal connectivity at selected locations. This information was given by the Union Minister of Shipping, Mr.G.K.Vasan in the RajyaSabha recently. Further, for development of waterways of North-Eastern region by the respective State Governments, there exists a central sector plan scheme under which 100% grant is provided by the Ministry of Shipping to the States.

Vadodara-Mumbai Expressway Corridor being Given Priority


Under National Highways Development Project (NHDP) Phase VI, construction of 1,000km of expressway has been approved by the Government. Main criterion for selection of expressway corridors has been the volume of the traffic on the corridors. Vadodara-Mumbai Corridor (400 km) being the highest density corridor has been given priority, according to Dr.TusharA.Chaudhary, Minister of State for Road Transport & Highways. Other identified stretches include DelhiChandigarh (249km) on NH-1 & NH-22, Bangalore-Chennai (334km) on NH-4, Delhi-Jaipur (261km) on NH-8, DelhiMeerut (66km) on NH-58, KolkataDhanbad (277km) on NH-2, and DelhiAgra (200km) on NH-2, out of which remaining 600 is km to be undertaken based on outcome of pre-feasibility studies.

ROADS
Road Projects in North East being given Importance

Mullaperiyar Dam is Safe says Committee


The Centre has been taking steps to improve road connectivity in the north eastern states in order to facilitate speedier economic growth in the region. The Border Roads Organization (BRO) maintains a road network of length 11672 Km in North- Eastern region. Further, roads are being developed to Double Lane/Class 9 (enhanced) Specifications under the Special Accelerated Road Development Programme, Strategic roads, Arunachal Pradesh packages, and General Staff Long Term Perspective Plan (Priority -1). Giving this information in a written reply in the RajyaSabha, the Union Minister of Defence, Mr.A.K.Antony added that Nagaland shares a stretch of 215 Km length along the India-Myanmar border and no road project is being

The Mullaperiyar dam row took another turn with the 5 member committee appointed by the Supreme Court stating that the dam is safe. The report as expected has been greeted with cheers in Tamil Nadu. The committee has recommended that the water level at the dam be raised to 142 ft from the existing 136 ft. The dam row had threatened to blow into a major law & order situation for both the states.

The Minister in a written reply to a question in the LokSabha stated that originally, it was targeted to award concession by 2009-10. Delays have been mainly on account of issues pertaining

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to consultations with State Governments regarding finalization of alignment; as a result final feasibility reports were delayed. Delhi-Jaipur expressway is also part of pre-feasibility studies. Presently work relating to fixing the alignment of the expressway is going on.

AIR PORTS

Greater Noida Airport Project among those in Consideration with Government

Separate Funds under PMGSY for Roads in Punjab

More funds have been announced for improving road connectivity in rural areas of Punjab. Mr.Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister for Rural Development, Drinking Water & Sanitation has announced that the Rural Development Ministry would be providing separate funds under the Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojna (PMGSY) for enhancing road connectivity in the six border districts of Punjab. These six border districts include Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Ferozepur, Fazilka, TaranTaran, and Pathankot. The Minister said this while addressing a gathering of Ministers, MLAs, Deputy Commissioners, and other senior functionaries of the Government of Punjab at the Seminar on Rural Development Policies &Programmes recently. The Chief Minister of Punjab, Mr. Prakash Singh Badal, and Mr. Sunil Jakhar, Leader of the Opposition in Punjab were also present on the occasion.

The addition of one more airport in the Delhi-NCR region had set the business circles abuzz recently. The project is among several Greenfield airport projects that the government is considering.According to an official statement from the Ministry of Civil Aviation, proposals for setting up of Greenfield airports have been received for Itanagar in Arunachal Pradesh; Greater Noida in Uttar Pradesh; Dholera region and Dwaraka in Gujarat; Machhiwara near Ludhiana in Punjab; Ongole, Prakasham district in Andhra

Pradesh; Aranmula-Pathamathitta district in Kerala; Solapur and Bolera in Maharashtra; Rohtak in Haryana; Alwar in Rajasthan; Bellari in Karnataka; Jamshedpur in Jharkhand and Rumari village in Assam. The statement said that all these proposals are at different stages of examination in accordance with the policy for Greenfield airports. Work on several key airport projects is expected to be expedited given the tremendous growth in air traffic in the country in last decade.

Andal Airport Project may be completed by September 2012


The government had given 'in-principle' approval for setting up of a domestic airport in Andal in Barddhaman district, West Bengal. The new airport in the region has been a long pending demand. The Union Minister of Civil Aviation, Mr.Ajit Singh informed the LokSabha in a written reply that the Government of India has granted 'in-principle' approval for setting up of a domestic Greenfield airport at Andal in 2008. The project has been awarded to M/s

Bengal Aerotropolis Projects Ltd (BAPL). The minister's reply stated that the construction works have already been started with the scheduled completion date of September 2012.

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POLICY & NEWS MAKERS


The move which was proposed with an aim to increase transparency in realty deals and check black money in realty transactions was earlier criticised for being another retrograde step for the realty sector by several quarters.

Priority to Power Sector in Allocation of Coal Blocks


The power sector is being given priority in allocation of coal blocks as well as in authorization of Letter of Assurance (LoA) for long term coal linkage, according to the Union Minister of State for Coal, Mr.Pratik Prakashbapu Patil. Out of 195 captive blocks having 44.24 billion tonnes of geological reserves that stand allocated till date, power sector has been allocated 81 coal blocks, including coal blocks for tariff based bidding, having reserves of 24.15 billion tonnes, the minister stated in a written reply in the Lok Sabha. Based on the recommendations of

Tata BP Solar CEO Quits

the Standing Linkage Committee (SLC (LT) ) for Power, the subsidiary companies of Coal India Limited (CIL) have issued 172 Letter of Assurance covering about 1,08,878 MW for setting up power projects in the country.

Tata BP Solar, which is a leading provider of solar power solutions, has said in a statement that it's CEO, Mr.K.Subramanya has resigned. The company's Chief Financial Officer, Mr.D.Guru will be taking over as the acting CEO, the statement further added. Tata BP Solar is considered a trendsetter in the Indian market with its full range of solar power solutions. The company's manufacturing hub is located in Bangalore and it has a widespread network of dealers and service centers spread throughout the country.

Govt should have nothing to do with Finding Land for Private Players says Panel

private partnership mode. It remains to be seen as to how the government tackles the situation, given the sticky issue that land acquisition has become in the country.

TDS on Realty Transactions Rolled Back


The realty sector collectively heaved a sigh of relief as the Union Finance Minister, Mr.Pranab Mukherjee announced a roll back of the proposed 1 % TDS (tax deducted at source) on property transactions. In what could be a major blow to the government, a parliamentary panel has said recommended that the government should keep away from buying land for private players. The panel's recommendation is in direct contrast to the provisions of the pending land acquisition bill. The land acquisition bill is among the most eagerly awaited pieces of legislation with the issue leading to violence and legal cases in several parts of the country. The panel's recommendation extends to even those projects under the publicThe proposed move that was announced by the Finance Minister during his budgetary speech was to come into effect from October this year. The move was widely criticized by several quarters for being detrimental to the growth of the realty sector. The move has been welcomed by developers who were feeling the heat due to the recessionary trends in the realty market. Mr.Paras Gundecha, President MCHI-CREDAI has reportedly stated that the move would help in generating positive trends, though in a limited way in the real estate market.

Former CIL Chief Joins SAIL as Advisor


The former chief of CIL, Mr.N.K.Jha has joined PSU Steel maker, SAIL as a technical advisor. Mr.Jha will be identifying coal blocks that can be allocated to the steel major and also to chalk out strategies for their development. Mr.Jha, who is considered an authority in mining technology will also suggest ways to develop Tasra and Sitnala coal blocks, the Union Minister for Steel, Mr.Beni Prasad Verma stated in the Rajya Sabha. Shortage of coal linkages has become a raging issue plaguing the Indian industry in recent times. Several leading players are looking towards coal imports to tide over the situation.

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The Supreme Industries Ltd

Focus Composite Materials

Construction Materials:
Chaitanya Raj Goyal

Composites Get Thumbs-up from the Industry


esearch and development do not necessarily yield positive results at every attempt. But, our race has tried, and tried hard over the ages, innovating and developing, rising from the ashes of failed attempts, overcoming the unyielding roadblocks in the path of our development, never giving up and finally making us reach this still unremittingly evolving current era. Definitely one of the greatest in the history of mankind! Throughout this development we have discovered and

invented many technologies, materials, products and processes. But, the day we conceptualized on exploring the possibility of manufacturing and integrating composites with our technology, we struck gold! The materials revolution, together with information technology and biotechnology is considered to be the major driving force of a new industrial paradigm. Advances in areas, such as the theoretical understanding of physical and biological matter, experimental techniques, and processing technology

have now enabled us to have composite materials designed to meet specific demands, and these are called the new, smart or advanced materials. In fact, with the technological leaps in recent times, focus has been on developing the materials required to perform in stringent conditions - high temperature & pressure, highly corrosive environment, higher strength but without much weight implications etc. which the conventional materials failed to service. Thus the construction industry,

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Focus Composite Materials

a largely material driven sector is also benefitting considerably from these advancements in the material technology. What is Composite Construction? A composite is when two or more different materials are combined together to create a superior and unique material. Thus Composite construction is a generic term to describe any building construction involving such multiple dissimilar materials. In civil engineering, composite construction exists when two

different materials are bound together so strongly that they act together as a single unit from a structural point of view. The parts of these composite members are rigidly connected such that no relative movement can occur. The first uses of composites date back to the 1500 B.C. when early Egyptians and Mesopotamian settlers used a mixture of mud and straw to create strong and durable buildings. Composite construction aims to make each material perform the function it is best at, or to strengthen a given cross section of a weaker material. The main components of composites are reinforcing agents and matrix. The fibers, particulates & whiskers act as the reinforcement and provide most of the stiffness & strength. The matrix binds the reinforcement together thus effecting the load transfer from matrix to reinforcement. Other substances such as fillers are used to reduce the cost and improve process ability & dimensional stability. Fiber reinforced composites can be further divided into those containing discontinuous or continuous fibers. Another commonly practiced classification is by the matrix used: polymer, metallic and ceramic. Most commonly used reinforcements include glass, carbon and aramid fibers, these being available in a variety of forms (continuous, chopped, woven & non-woven, multi-axial) as well as combinations of these. Careful selection of reinforcement type enables finished product characteristics to be tailored to almost any specific engineering requirement. Glass fiber is by far the most widely used fiber reinforcement and hence the terms "GRP" (glass reinforced plastic), "Fiberglass" and "FRP" (fiber reinforced plastic) are often used to describe articles fabricated from composites particularly for application in civil engineering. Why Composites? Engineers can utilize over 50,000 materials for the design and manufacture of engineered products, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites. While metals and polymers are

currently the dominant materials for engineering applications, composite utilization is gradually increasing due to superior strength, low weight, and improved thermal and electrical performance characteristics. Composites are also ideal for use in the construction industry because of their dimensional stability, impact resistance, low flammability (with the appropriate mix of resins and additives), low maintenance and design flexibility. Lower composite manufacturing costs would accelerate this trend, especially in cost-sensitive industrial mass markets. As an example of superiority of composite materials such as fiber reinforced polymers or glass reinforced plastics over the conventional ones, we can compare a carbon fiber reinforced composite with its steel counterpart. The carbon fiber composite can be five times stronger than high grade steel while having only one fifth the weight. Aluminum (specific grade) is much nearer in weight to carbon fiber composite (though still somewhat heavier), but the composite can have twice the modulus and up to seven times the strength. Structures made of composite materials have long service life and are unaffected by rain, frost and salt, requiring cosmetic attention only. Maintenance costs are therefore lower than those for similar structures in traditional materials such as concrete, steel and wood. Composite profiles can be machined as quickly and easily as wood - on equipment fitted with diamond tooling. Also due to their light weight the structural members can be made in the factory and then transported to the installation site. There they can be erected on prepared foundations in a matter of hours. Installation can also be done at night, causing negligible disturbance to road or rail traffic. Highspeed structure installation means minimal noise and traffic disruption along with significant cost savings. Application of advanced composites in civil infrastructure Such materials have been used in the industry since long (couple of de-

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Carbon fiber reinforced tube

cades), especially in the developed countries. But the applications have varied, improved and widened over the time with research based progress and composites have kept surprising the engineers time to time through their growing potential and tremendous abilities. With the completion of every successful project, they have gradually found their way into various civil engineering fields for good! These applications range from non-structural gratings and claddings to full structural systems for industrial supports, buildings, long span roof structures, tanks, bridge components and complete bridge systems. Their benefits of corrosion resistance and low weight have proven attractive in many low stress applications. An extension to the use of high performance FRP in primary structural applications, however, has been slower to gain acceptance although there is much development activity. Composites present immense opportunities to play increasing role as an alternate material to replace timber, steel, aluminum and concrete in buildings. The contribution of composites can be divided into two parts as in, the rehabilitation of the existing structures comprising of their repair, strengthening and retrofitting, and applications in new construction. Fiber reinforced concrete is one such wonder composite. Fiber reinforcement is mainly used in Shotcrete, but can

also be used in normal concrete. Fiber reinforced normal concrete is mostly used for on-ground floors and pavements, but can be considered for a wide range of construction parts (beams, pillars, foundations, etc.), either alone or with hand-tied rebars. Concrete reinforced with fibers (which are usually steel, glass, or plastic fibers) is less expensive than hand-tied rebar, while still increasing the tensile strength many times. Steel is the strongest commonlyavailable fiber, but the premium fibers are carbon reinforced plastic fibers, which are nearly as strong as steel, lighter-weight, and corrosion-proof. FRC is also used in construction of domes, curtain walls, parapets etc. Reinforcement in concrete structures has become another important application of composites. Over the last decade, considerable attention has been devoted to the development of composites as alternative reinforcement for concrete in place of conventional steel rebar and tendons. A significant amount of this effort stems from the First world research community, especially in the development of carbon fiber and aramid fiber based reinforcing elements ranging from round and deformed (spirally wound) bars to ribbon like elements and even grids. Carbon fiber based tendons and cables are increasingly being used globally for reinforcement of concrete

structures required to exhibit high performance. With easier field installation compared to steel, these elements also cause significantly less sag under their own weight, which increases load capacity while enabling the construction of longer bridge spans. Carbon fiber composite cables (CFCC) are a good example of such elements. The fiber is used in prepreg tow form that is stranded to make a primary strand. The surface of the strand is specially coated. Then multiple strands are used to form a twisted cable. Once the strands are twisted together, the entire assembly is heated to cause adhesion between the coatings and resin around individual strands. CFC cables have been extensively used for pre- and post-tensioned concrete structures, external post tensioning of wooden members and as earth anchors. The cables are also available in the form of shear reinforcement and as continuous spiral hoop reinforcement for columns. Aramid fiber reinforced composites have also become increasingly popular in the industry because of their high toughness/tenacity, high elongation at break (significantly exceeding that of carbon fiber based elements) and nonmagnetic /nonconductive characteristics. Glass and aramid FRP rods for pre-stressing and as tensile reinforcement in structures have also been used and turned out to be a successful experiment. Thus FRP composites can be used as combined permanent shuttering and tensile reinforcement in concrete structures under the designed guidelines. Aramid fiber based linear reinforcing elements have been used in a large variety of applications in structures ranging from bridge decks and girders to precast irrigation channel sections. NEFMAC, or New Fiber Composite Material for Reinforcing Concrete, is made from glass, aramid, or carbon fibers (or combinations of each) impregnated with an appropriate resin system, such as polyester, vinylester or epoxy to form a grid. NEFMAC grids have been used in tunnels, runways and aprons for airstrips/tarmacs, roads,

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Focus Composite Materials

buildings, channels, rehabilitation, and for general architectural elements. They are often used as lightweight reinforcement in building fascia and curtain walls, where the lower requirements for cover applications result in thinner and lighter panels. Due to their non-magnetic properties, these grids have been used as reinforcement in hospitals and in free-access floors, as well as in sensitive structures such as scientific laboratories and observatories. In coastal areas and regions where rapid corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, NEFMAC elements can be used by themselves or in combination with heavier steel bars. Also, composite ground anchors consisting of cables or rods connected to a bearing plate are often used for the stabilization of steep slopes or slopes consisting of softer soils, as well as the enhancement of embankment or foundation soil capacity, or to prevent excessive erosion and landslides. They have excellent advantages over the conventional steel anchors. Fabric reinforcement for rehabilitation and retrofit of existing structures is perhaps one of the most required and appreciated uses of the composites. The industry faces a critical need to retrofit and rehabilitate its civil infra-

structure ranging from buildings and parking structures to bridges, tunnels and irrigation channels due to their incapability to handle current loads or requirements, existing deformations, cracking, corroded reinforcement, etc. The use of fiber-reinforced composites presents an attractive option in such cases due to their enhanced mechanical performance, environmental durability, corrosion resistance, light weight and rapid application potential. Some composite based solutions include the use of fiber tow through the wet-winding process but it is restricted to use on chimneys and some columns. Its use is decreasing in favor of another process, which consists of the external placement of fabric sheet forms onto the surface of the structural element to be repaired/ retrofitted. This process has been used extensively, primarily with carbon fiber, and to a lesser extent with aramid fibers. Applications range from use on columns, floors, beams and slabs in buildings, girders and deck soffits of bridges, to use on chimneys, retaining walls, tunnel linings and other concrete structural elements. In addition, the fiber sheet material has often been used as a protective coating for aging and deteriorating material as a preventive measure.

Looking Forward The world's energy system is bound to change rather radically in the upcoming decades. New, efficient and clean technologies will have to be introduced since the scale of what needs to be done is nerve-racking. In this context, we need to encourage breakthroughs and radical ideas, since incremental progress in existing solutions may not be enough. To make real progress, we must create an environment in which high-risk, high reward research is encouraged. Materials research is probably the most important element for the development of the necessary technologies needed to provide a clean, reliable supply of efficient energy. Today, the composites marketplace is widespread. Material science research has taken off in India in recent years, but the research is still confined to academic level. Application oriented research is minimal. Substantial activity takes place within the theoretical area though. The preferred areas of collaboration with major countries were superconductivity, metals & alloys, and electronic and magnetic materials. The collaboration appears to be driven more by academic interest and opportunities rather than by any consideration of national priorities for India. As most of the markets across the globe continue to grow, composites have found their place in the world and seem to be gaining market share, especially in products where performance is critical. Some of these products are very new, but isnt it interesting that construction is still a major market for composites, just as it was in 1500 B.C. when the Egyptians and Mesopotamians were using straw to reinforce mud bricks. Additionally, composites are on the path towards being more environmentally friendly. Resins will soon incorporate recycled plastics and biobased polymers. Composites will continue to make the world lighter, stronger, more durable, and a better place to live. Photo Courtesy
www.buildipedia.com, www.metrocrete.com

Glass fiber reinforced concrete

48

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Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd

Geopolymer Concrete

Literature Survey on Geopolymer Concretes and A Research Plan in Indian Context


Rajamane N. P.1, Nataraja M. C.2, Lakshmanan N3, and Ambily P S 4
1 3

Head, CACR, SRM University, 2Professor, Dept. of Civil Engg, SJCE, Former Director, CSIR-SERC, 4Scientist, CSIR-SERC

The literature survey on Geopolymer Concretes (GPCs) presented in the first part of this paper indicated that qualitative information on available on the mechanical properties of GPC mixes is sufficient to develop GPCs for use in civil engineering structures. However, it is seen that with understanding of the similarities and difference between Portland cement and Geopolymer technologies, a rational research plan giving various steps involved can be formulated to achieve desired level of structural and durability related characteristics in structural grade GPC mixes. This aspect is discussed in this paper.
An Overview on Geopolymer Concretes The general literature study on GPs, as presented earlier, indicate that often GPs are studied by many scientists at paste level, using processed materials such as Metakaolin and industrial waste materials such as fly ash and slag. GPCs are studied for structural applications by few scientists. It would be worthwhile to have an overview on GPC technology so that further studies on actual implementation of GPC technology for civil engineering applications as a rational alternate to P-C can be planned. The geopolymers (GPs) initiated by Davidovits (1988) has great potential for adoption by concrete construction industry as an alternative binder to the Portland cement (Duxson et al, 2007). GPs could significantly reduce the CO2 emission to the atmosphere caused by the cement industries Gartner (2004). The alkaline liquid was proposed by Davidovits (1988; 1994) for reacting with the silicon (Si) and the Aluminium (Al) present in an alumino-silicate source material which may be either of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Since, the chemical reaction involved is an inorganic polymerization process (but under alkaline condition), the word polymer in Geopolymer to represent the new binders seems to be logical. The chemical composition of geopolymer material is similar to zeolitic materials, but the microstructure is amorphous. The fast chemical reaction under alkaline condition of Si- Al minerals results in a threedimensional polymeric chain and ring structure consisting of Si-O-Al- O bonds (Davidovits, 1994). The formation of geopolymer material can be described by following two Equations (1) and (2) (Davidovits, 1994; van Jaarsveld et al., 1997):

The Equation 2 indicates that water is released during formation of geopolymers and forms discontinuous nanopores in the matrix. The atomic ratio Si: Al in the polysialate of geopolymer is selected based on the particular application and low Si: Al ratios are suitable for most of the civil engineering applications. Low-calcium (ASTM Class F) fly ash is more common and can be adopted to manufacture geopolymer concrete (GPC). Usually, 80% of the fly ash particles were smaller than 50 m (Gourley, 2003; Gourley and Johnson, 2005; Hardjito and Rangan, 2005; Wallah and Rangan, 2006; Sumajouw and Rangan, 2006; Fernandez-Jimenez

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Geopolymer Concrete

et al, 2006a; Sofi et al, 2006a; Siddiqui, 2007). The reactivity of low-calcium fly ash in geopolymer matrix is found to be adequate (Fernandez-Jimenez et al, 2006b). Coarse and fine aggregates of the conventional concretes are suitable to produce GPCs and grading curves are usually applicable to GPC mixes also (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005; Wallah and Rangan, 2006; Sumajouw and Rangan, 2006; Gourey, 2003; Gourley and Johnson, 2005; Siddiqui, 2007). It is recommended that the AAS is prepared at least 24 hours prior mixing of GPCs. Alkali silicate solutions are commercially available with different solid contents and molar ratios (MR). The ratio of [SiO2]/[M2O] is defined as MR where [SiO2] and [M2O] are contents of SiO2 (silica) and M2O (alkali oxide) in the alkali silicate. The sodium hydroxide is commercially available in the form of in flake or pellet. The primary difference between geopolymer concrete and Portland cement concrete is the binder. The silicon and aluminum oxides in the low-calcium fly ash reacts with the alkaline liquid to form the geopolymer paste that binds the loose coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, and other un-reacted materials together to form the geopolymer concrete. The compressive strength and the workability of geopolymer concrete are influenced by the proportions and properties of the constituent materials that make the geopolymer paste. Experimental works of (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005) indicate: - Higher concentration of sodium hydroxide results in higher strength of GPC. - Higher the ratio of sodium silicate solution-to-sodium hydroxide solution ratio by mass, higher is the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. - The addition of naphthalene sulphonate-based super plasticizer can improves the workability of the fresh geopolymer concrete; however, there is degradation in the compressive strength of hardened concrete. - The slump value of the fresh geopolymer concrete increases when the water content of the mixture increases. Geopolymer concrete can be manufactured by adopting the conventional techniques used in the manufacture of Portland cement concrete. The GSM and the aggregates (SSD condition) are first mixed together dry a concrete mixer. The AAS, liquid component of GPC mixture, is then added and the mixing continued. The fresh GPC is cohesive and can be handled up to about 2hours (depending upon the formulation) without any sign of setting and without much effect on the compressive strength. Moulding of specimens, compaction, including workability measurement are similar

to Portland cement concrete (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005; Wallah and Rangan, 2006). Rangan and his team at Curtin University had steam-cured the fly ash based GPC test specimens at 60C for 24 hours and then storing in ambient conditions till testing. Heat-curing substantially assists the chemical reaction that occurs in the geopolymer paste. Both curing time and curing temperature influence the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete and can be manipulated to fit the needs of practical applications. (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). A two-stage steam-curing regime was adopted by Siddiqui (2007) in the manufacture of prototype reinforced geopolymer concrete box culverts. It was found that steam curing at 80 C for a period of 4 hours provided enough strength for de-moulding of the culverts; this was then followed by steam curing further for another 20 hours at 80 C to attain the required design compressive strength. Also, the start of heat-curing of geopolymer concrete can be delayed for several days (say up to 5 days) without any degradation in the compressive strength. A delay in the start of heat-curing substantially increases the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). The role and the influence of aggregates in GPCs are considered to be the same as in the case of Portland cement concrete. Hardjito and Rangan (2005) suggests that the ratio of sodium silicate solution-to-sodium hydroxide solution by mass may be taken approximately as 2.5 Test data show that the strain at peak stress for fly ash based GPCs is in the range of 0.0024 to 0.0026 (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). Collins et al (1993) have proposed that the stress-strain relation of Portland cement concrete in compression can be predicted using the parameters; peak stress and strain at peak stress. The tensile splitting strength of geopolymer concrete is only a fraction of the compressive strength, as in the case of Portland cement concrete, but, larger than the values recommends by most of the Standards (such as AS3600, IS:456-2000), and Neville (2000) for Portland cement concrete (Sofi et al, 2007a; Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). The unit-weight of concrete primarily depends on the unit mass of aggregates used in the mixture. Tests show that the unit-weight of the low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is similar to that of Portland cement concrete (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). The drying shrinkage of heat-cured fly ash-based GPCs over a period of one year is significantly smaller than that experienced by Portland cement concrete. (Wallah and Rangan, 2006).

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Geopolymer Concrete

The behaviour and failure modes of reinforced geopolymer concrete columns are similar to those observed in the case of reinforced Portland cement concrete columns and hence, reinforced low-calcium (ASTM Class F) fly ashbased geopolymer concrete structural members can be designed using the design provisions currently used in the case of reinforced Portland cement concrete members. (Sumajouw and Rangan, 2006). The studies carried out by Chang, et al (2007), Sarker, et al (2007a, 2007b), and Sofi, et al (2007b) demonstrate the application of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer has also been used to replace organic polymer as an adhesive in strengthening structural members. Geopolymers were found to be fire resistant and durable under UV light (Balaguru et al 1997) Scientists, van Jaarsveld, van Deventer, and Schwartzman (1999) carried out experiments on geopolymers using two types of fly ash. They found that the compressive strength after 14 days was in the range of 5 51 MPa. The factors affecting the compressive strength were the mixing process and the chemical composition of the fly ash. A higher CaO content decreased the microstructure porosity and, in turn, increased the compressive strength. Besides, the water-tofly ash ratio also influenced the strength. It was found that as the water-to-fly ash ratio decreased the compressive strength of the binder increased. Palomo, Grutzeck, and Blanco (1999) studied the influence of curing temperature, curing time and alkaline solutionto-fly ash ratio on the compressive strength. It was reported that both the curing temperature and the curing time influenced the compressive strength. The utilization of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) combined with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution produced the highest strength. Compressive strength up to 60 MPa was obtained when cured at 85C for 5 hours. Xu and van Deventer (2000) investigated the geopolymerisation of 15 natural Al-Siminerals. It was found that the minerals with a higher extent of dissolution demonstrated better compressive strength after polymerisation. The percentage of calcium oxide (CaO), potassium oxide (K2O), the molar ratio of Si-Al in the source material, the type of alkali and the molar ratio of Si/Al in the solution during dissolution had significant effect on the compressive strength. Swanepoel and Strydom (2002) conducted a study on geopolymers produced by mixing fly ash, kaolinite, sodium silica solution, NaOH and water. Both the curing time and the curing temperature affected the compressive strength,

and the optimum strength occurred when specimens were cured at 60C for a period of 48 hours. Van Jaarsveld, van Deventer and Lukey (2002) studied the interrelationship of certain parameters that affected the properties of fly ash-based geopolymer. They reported that the properties of geopolymer were influenced by the incomplete dissolution of the materials involved in geopolymerisation. The water content, curing time and curing temperature affected the properties of geopolymer; specifically the curing condition and calcining temperature influenced the compressive strength. When the samples were cured at 70C for 24 hours a substantial increase in the compressive13strength was observed. Curing for a longer period of time reduced the compressive strength. Fly ash had been used in the past to partially replace Portland cement to produce concretes. An important achievement in this regard is the development of high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete that utilizes up to 60 percent of fly ash, and yet possesses excellent mechanical properties with enhanced durability performance. The test results show that HVFA concrete is more durable than Portland cement concrete (Amphora 2002). Recently, a research group at Montana State University in the USA has demonstrated through field trials of using 100% high-calcium (ASTM Class C) fly ash to replace Portland cement to make concrete. Ready mix concrete equipment was used to produce the fly ash concrete on a large scale. The field trials showed that the fresh concrete can be easily mixed, transported, discharge, placed, and finished (Cross et al, 2005). Pioneering research on fly ash-based geopolymer concrete was conducted at Curtin University and the results is described great details in widely referred Research Reports GC1 to GC4 (Hardjito and Rangan 2005, Wallah and Rangan 2006). Directives from Literature for Research The literature survey related to the use of aluminosilicate based binder, nomenclated now as geopolymer, is actually involves the activation of alumina and silica of any source material (of mineral origin such as fly ash, GGBS, MK, etc) or synthetically produced alumina, silica and their compounds in various forms. Since zeolites now have many commercial applications, the technology of production of these materials [which are also aluminosilicate in nature] is very advanced. Many attempts were made to use the test results of zeolites to geopolymers. But, still the field of geopolymers needs significant amount of research from engineers usage point of view as the standardized simpler models of chemical reactions are not yet available as it

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Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt. Ltd

Geopolymer Concrete

had happened in case of Portland cement where simple concepts as given below have helped engineers to develop the wide variety of uses of P-C based concrete, without need for deeper understanding of chemistry of hydration of P-C in the field: - P-C is basically made of 4 Bogues compounds C3A, C4AF, C3S and C2S. - Bogues composition of any P-C can be computed arithmetically based on its oxide contents. - Properties of P-C concretes can be accounted by relative amount of Bogues compounds in the cement. For e.g. for high early strength, C3S should be more and for high Sulphate Resistance, C3A should be less, etc. - Water for complete chemical hydration reaction of any P-C is about 0.22 to 0.25 by weight of cement. This means, any hydrated cement portion of any matrix contains 22% to 25% by weight of unhydrated cement. - Lower the W/C ratio, the strength and the denseness (hence degree of impermeability, thereby durability) increase. - Setting and rheology (ie, behaviour of cement paste in freshly mixed state) can be controlled fairly reliably by well formulated and commercially available chemical admixtures. - The microstructure of hydrated P-C consists of gel pores and capillary pores whose magnitude can be estimated by simple computations and the microstructure itself can be manipulated easily by processing conditions, addition of admixtures, etc. - Degrees of hydration of cement can be measured approximately by many techniques, the simplest being the determination of non-evaporable water content of hydrated paste. Apart from above, many practically useful tips are available to engineers, as a result of R&D on P-Cs spread over more than 2 centuries. Such a stage has not reached yet in case of geopolymers and hence, there is a need for more intense research. Towards this objective, the present study was taken up. Though the chemical nature of geopolymers is not fully understood, since geopolymers can be made from a variety of source materials and the activation of these source materials can be also carried out by many activating chemicals besides the numerous process conditions themselves. Keeping this in view, using the information available in the literature, following methodology can be utilised to develop various experimental programmes in the investigation taken up.

Stage 1: Selection of GSMs The literature mentions Metakaolin as almost pure source for production of geopolymers, since it is mainly consists of alumina and silica which are basic building blocks of any geopolymer. Since MK is a processed material hence costlier both cost considerations and Embodied Energy point of view, it was decided to adopt fly ash and blast furnace slag as the geopolymeric source materials (GSMs) since these are actually industrial waste products. Disposal problems of these wastes can be efficiently solved by using them in GPCs which can even become a good replacement material for conventional Portland cement based concrete. To avoid the possibility of different types of unexpected/ undesirable chemical reaction during GPs, due to variation in chemical and physical characteristics of FA and GGBS, one producer for each of them was identified and the same source materials were used throughout the experimental programme. Stage 2: Selection of AAS Alkali Activator Solution (AAS) required for initiating chemical reactions in GSMs consist of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate solution (SSS). These are actually industrial chemicals used by many industries. For cost consideration and from practical point of view, it is necessary to use as much as possible the commercially available chemicals (instead of laboratory or reagent grades). Preliminary trials, with these chemicals, on production of GPCs indicated the adequacy of the industrial quality of chemicals for use in GPC mixes which themselves consist of fly ash, GGBS, sand and coarse aggregates, which are not themselves of any particular chemical purity, though for quality control purposes for their use in concretes, general practical guidelines for characterizing them are available in Standard Codes. Sodium hydroxide, in flake from, (SHf) is readily available in market and hence adopted to prepare sodium hydroxide solution (SHS). Sodium Silicate Solution (SSS) are actually available in different Molar Ratios whose chemical natures vary much from geopolymerisation consideration. Hence, a commercial producer was directly contacted and the SSS was obtained; the physical and chemical characteristics of this material were supplied by the producer himself. Since, potable water may contain ions which can be taken as acceptable for drinking purpose, but may not be desirable from geopolymerisation, it was decided to use

54 The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Geopolymer Concrete

distilled water (DW) only in the experiments. However, it was noted that DW is very common commodity available commercially. Since, a large number of combinations of alkali hydroxide and alkali silicate solution are reported in the literature to form AAS, a series of preliminary experiments was conducted on the typical GPC mixes to arrive at the acceptable proportion of SHf:SSS:DW to prepare AAS and the GPS/AAS ratio (i.e., solids/liquid ratio) for achieving desired workability of freshly mixed GPC mix. Stage 3: Curing Type By varying the proportion of AAS, it was possible to achieve desired level of setting / hardening rate in GPC mix such that the test specimens could be demandable after 24 hours of casting, without any need for applying heat or other external treatment for accelerating the geopolymerisation reaction. The main aim of the present work was to avoid steam or hot air exposure to the moulds containing GPC mix, before demoulding. However, information available in the published literature on the contribution of each component of AAS to setting was utilized in preparing AAS such that the moulding and demoulding operations remain essential, same as in the case of CCs. Stage 4: Selection of typical GPC mixes for structural usage The literature showed that slag can be activated at room temperature with AAS containing SHS and SSS. Hence, GGBS was basically utilized to formulate AAS and GPC mixes. It is widely reported in literature that generally fly ash alone when forms the GSM, it requires high temperature for activation and this was also the experience in the present work. However, the GPC mix made with GGBS (which was setting at room temperatures for the purpose of demoulding next day after casting) was modified by replacing GGBS partially with FA and still the modified GPC mixes (containing both GGBS and FA) enabled demoulding within 24 hours of casting. However, when the GGBS replacement level was high, there was need for changing the proportions of the AAS. Stage 5: Mechanical And Durability Properties Selected GPC mixes were evaluated for various mechanical strengths [fc, ft, fb, etc] including stress strain behaviour. This information is needed to decide whether the GPC mixes developed are different from CCs from structural behaviour considerations. Civil engineering structures are usually subjected to durability problems due to exposure to chloride ions, sulphates and acidic environment.

Hence, currently developed GPC mixes were also studied for durability against the above mentioned aggressive conditions. Stage 6: Studies of Steel Reinforced GPCs For any structural usage of concrete, steel reinforcement is a necessity. Hence, the GPCs developed were used to prepare typical beam and column specimens. For confirming the satisfactory structural behaviour of GPCs, the bond between the GPC mix and steel reinforcement should be also adequate. Therefore, this aspect is also to be studied in any planned investigation. Stage 7: Ecological and economic benefits and practical application Since the GPCs are required to be assessed for ecological benefits so that they can be accepted for structural application by engineers, the Embodied Energy (EE) and the CO2 Emission (ECO2e) per unit volume of GPCs were estimated using the information available in the literature on the EE of ECO2e of the individual ingredients of GPCs. For practical application the utility of self curing nature of GPCs developed can be used to join precast slab panels and the joined whole slab could be tested for structural behaviour just after 24 hours of casting. Selected GPC mixes can be employed to produce building blocks of various types in actual block making factory. A Research Plan in Indian Context In order to achieve the above objectives and ensure desirable properties listed under Para 1.4, in concretes made with the new binder in the form of geopolymers, a comprehensive research work can aim towards: - Selection of sources of FA and GGBS suitable to produce geopolymeric binders - Formulation of Alkaline Activator Solution (AAS), to activate FA and GGBS - Development of geopolymer concretes (GPCs) using different combinations of FA, GGBS and appropriate AAS, besides the aggregate system consisting of river sand and crushed granite stone aggregate - Identification of proper curing regime - Determination of demoulding time - Evaluation of rates of strength development in concrete mixes - Selection of GPC mixes suitable for use as structural grade concretes

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Geopolymer Concrete

- Determination of stress-strain characteristics of GPCs - Investigation of the bond behaviour of GPC with steel bars. - Evaluation of behaviour of reinforced GPC flexural specimens (with different percentages of reinforcement) under flexural and shear - Structural behaviour of steel reinforced GP concrete columns under uni-axial loading - Durability aspects of concretes by testing for : - Permeability to water - Permeability to chloride ions - Corrosion of embedded rebar - Resistance to sulphate attack - Resistance to sulphuric acid attack - Statistical variability of characteristic strengths of GPCs - Effect of addition of steel fibres to GPCs - Effect of addition of replacement of normal weight coarse aggregates by fly ash based lightweight coarse aggregates in GPCs - Thermal properties of GPCs - Non-destructive evaluation by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, electrical resistivity, etc. - Techno-economic feasibility of GPCs Vis a Vis Portland Cement Concretes - Eco-friendliness of GPCs - Practical utilities of GPC such as self curing high early strength jointing material for precast concrete, building/ paver blocks Concluding Remarks Based on the literature study using the often mentioned qualitative guidelines and the much quantitative information available, it is possible to practically formulate the AAS for different combination of GGBS and class F fly ash to achieve strength levels useful in most common civil engineering application, in the present investigation. It is therefore possible to prepare typical structural members such as beams and columns using the GPCs [capable of being cured under ambient conditions only] for studying the possibility of applicability in existing structural design

guidelines to new composites. Durability related studies and a few practical applications should be carried out to understand comprehensively the utility of newly developed GPC mixes which are eco-friendly because of their lower carbon foot prints, compared to conventional Portland cement based concretes based on the computation for Embodied Energy and Embodied CO2 emission of the concretes. The research plan proposed can generate enough data for engineers to start considering GPCs as desirable material of construction. Abbreviations/Notations AAS = Alkaline Activator Solution Alumina = Al2O3 CCs = Conventional concretes CGA = Crushed granite aggregates C-S-H = Calcium-silicate-hydrate DW = Distilled Water ECO2 = Embodied carbon dioxide EE = Embodied energy FA = Fly ash FAA = Fly Ash Aggregates GGBS = Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag GP = Geopolymer GPC = Geopolymer concrete HVFA = High volume fly ash IR = Infrared MK = Metakaolin MR = Molar ratios NMR = Nuclear Magnetic Resonance OPC = Ordinary Portland Cement P-C = Portland Cement SHf = Sodium Hydroxide flakes SHS = Sodium hydroxide solution SiO2 = Silica SSD = Saturated surface dry SSS = Sodium Silicate Solution W/C= Water-cement ratio

56 The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Liugong India Pvt.Ltd

Recycling Concrete

Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production


Prof. Dr. Vlastimir Radonjanin1, Mirjana Maleev1 and Sneana Marinkovi2
Department for Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade
1

A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate (NAC) as a control concrete and two types of concrete made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate (50% and 100% replacement of coarse recycled aggregate). Ninety-nine specimens were made for the testing of the basic properties of hardened concrete. Load testing of reinforced concrete beams made of the investigated concrete types is also presented in the paper. Regardless of the replacement ratio, recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) had a satisfactory performance, which did not differ significantly from the performance of control concrete in this experimental research. However, for this to be fulfilled, it is necessary to use quality recycled concrete coarse aggregate and to follow the specific rules for design and production of this new concrete type.

emolition of old and deteriorated buildings and traffic infrastructure, and their substitution with new ones, is a frequent phenomenon today in a large part of the world. The main reasons for this situation are changes of purpose, structural deterioration, rearrangement of a city, expansion of traffic directions and increasing traffic load, natural disasters (earthquake, fire and flood), etc. For example, about 850 millions tones of construction and demolition waste are generated in the EU per year, which represent 31% of the total waste generation [1]. In the USA, the construction waste produced from building demolition alone is estimated to be 123 million tons per year [2]. The most common method of managing this material has been through its disposal in landfills. In this way, huge deposits of construction waste are created, consequently becoming a special problem of human environment pollution. For this reason, in developed countries, laws have been brought into practice to restrict this waste: in the form of prohibitions or special taxes existing for creating waste areas. On the other hand, production and utilization of concrete is rapidly increasing, which results in increased consumption of natural aggregate as the largest concrete component. For example, two billion tons of aggregate are produced each year in the United States. Production is expected

to increase to more than 2.5 billion tons per year by the year 2020 [2]. This situation leads to a question about the preservation of natural aggregates sources; many European countries have placed taxes on the use of virgin aggregates. A possible solution to these problems is to recycle demolished concrete and produce an alternative aggregate for structural concrete in this way. Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is generally produced by two-stage crushing of demolished concrete, and screening and removal of contaminants such as reinforcement, paper, wood, plastics and gypsum. Concrete made with such recycled concrete aggregate is called recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). The main purpose of this work is to determine the basic properties of RAC depending on the coarse recycled aggregate content, and to compare them to the properties of concrete made with natural aggregate (NAC)control concrete. Fine recycled aggregate was not considered for RAC production because its application in structural concrete is generally not recommended [3-6]. 2. Basic Properties of Concrete with Recycled Concrete Aggregate Based on available experimental evidence, the most

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Recycling Concrete

important properties of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and concrete made with recycled aggregate (RAC) are briefly presented in this chapter. Recommendations for production of RAC are also presented. When demolished concrete is crushed, a certain amount of mortar and cement paste from the original concrete remains attached to stone particles in recycled aggregate. This attached mortar is the main reason for the lower quality of RCA compared to natural aggregate (NA). RCA compared to NA has following properties: Increased water absorption [7-9] Decreased bulk density [3,10] Decreased specific gravity [3] Increased abrasion loss [3,11,12] Increased crushability [3] Increased quantity of dust particles [3] Increased quantity of organic impurities if concrete is mixed with earth during building demolition [3] and - Possible content of chemically harmful substances, depending on service conditions in building from which the demolition and crushing recycled aggregate is obtained [3] Available test results of recycled aggregate concrete vary in wide limits, sometimes are even opposite, but general conclusions about the properties of concrete with recycled coarse aggregate compared to concrete with natural aggregate are: Increased drying shrinkage up to 50% [13,14] Increased creep up to 50% [13,15] Water absorption increased up to 50% [3,16] Decreased compressive strength up to 25% [3,7,8,10,17] - Decreased splitting and flexural tensile strength up to 10% [3,8,17] - Decreased modulus of elasticity up to 45% [7,8,17] - Same or decreased frost resistance [3,18,19] Technology of RAC production is different from the production procedure for concrete with natural aggregate. Because of the attached mortar, recycled aggregate has significantly higher water absorption than natural aggregate. Therefore, to obtain the desired workability of RAC it is necessary to add a certain amount of water to saturate recycled aggregate before or during mixing, if no water-reducing admixture is applied. One option is to first saturate recycled aggregate to the condition water saturated surface dry, and the other is to use dried recycled aggregate and to add the additional water quantity during mixing. The additional water quantity is calculated - - - - - - - - - - -

on the basis of recycled aggregate water absorption in prescribed time. Experimental Investigation The aim of this investigation is to compare the basic properties of control concrete (concrete made with natural aggregate) and the properties of concrete made with different contents of recycled aggregate. Three concrete types were tested within the research program [20]. Mixture proportions of the tested concrete types were determined in accordance to the following conditions: - Same cement content, - same workability after 30 min - Same maximum grain size (32 mm) - Same grain size distribution for aggregate mixture, same type and quantity of fine aggregate - Variable type and quantity of coarse aggregate The type and quantity of coarse aggregate were varied in the following way: - The first concrete mix had 100% of natural river coarse aggregate (R0), control mixture, - the second concrete mix had 50% of natural river coarse aggregate and 50% of recycled coarse aggregate (R50) - The third concrete mix had 100% of recycled coarse aggregate (R100) As all the other variables were kept constant, this research enabled us to determine the influence of the coarse recycled aggregate amount (0%, 50% and 100%) on tested concrete properties. The following properties of concrete were selected for testing: - Workability (slump test) immediately after mixing and 30 minutes after mixing - Bulk density of fresh concrete - Air content - Bulk density of hardened concrete - Water absorption (at age of 28 days) - Wear resistance (at age of 28 days) - Compressive strength fc (at age of 2, 7 and 28 days) - Splitting tensile strength (at age of 28 days) - Flexural strength (at age of 28 days) - Modulus of elasticity (at age of 28 days) - Drying shrinkage (at age of 3, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) - Bond between ribbed and mild reinforcement and concrete Ninety nine specimens were made for testing of the listed properties of hardened concrete. Component Materials Component materials for concrete mixtures were:

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- Portland-composite cement CEM II/A-M(S-L) 42.5R, (Lafarge-BFC) - Fine aggregate (river aggregate, separation Luka Leget, grain size 0/4 mm) - Two types of coarse aggregate: river aggregate, separation Luka Leget, and recycled concrete aggregate, grain sizes 4/8, 8/16 and 16/31.5 mm - Water Fine and coarse natural aggregates were derived from River Sava and dominantly consist of quartz grains. Recycled concrete aggregate was produced by crushing of old concrete cubes used for compressive strength testing and one precast reinforced concrete column, which had inappropriate dimensions (Figure 1). The strength class of old concrete cubes was C30/37 and the corresponding value of compressive strength for precast column was C40/50, nomenclature according to Eurocode 2 [21]. The primary crushing was done with a pneumatic hammer (Figure 1) and the secondary crushing was performed in a rotating crusher. The obtained material after the primary and secondary crushing is shown in Figure 2. Crushed concrete particles were separated into standard fractions of coarse aggregate (48 mm, 816 mm and 16 31.5 mm), as seen in Figure 3.

Figure 2. Recycled material after (a) primary and (b) secondary crushing.

Figure 3. Recycled concrete aggregate fractions. From left to right; 48 mm, 816 mm and 1631.5 mm coarse aggregates.

All component materials were tested prior to mix proportion design. The results of natural aggregate testing are shown in Table 1 and grading curves are shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Grading curves of natural aggregate.

The results of recycled concrete aggregate testing are shown in Table 2 and grading curves in Figure 5.
Figure 1. Waste concrete for recycling: concrete cubes and precast column.

Properties of natural and recycled concrete aggregate were tested according to Serbian standards for natural
Grain size Quality requirement
16/32 23.8 1.5 0 29.2 0.3 0.12 2,671 1,460 1,560 <30 <12 <3(4) <30 <5(<1) 2,0003,000 4/8 14.0 1.6 0 26.3 0.4 0.23 2,666 1,490 1,590 8/16 18.6 1.4 0 29.0 0.4 0.15 2,669 1,470 1,570

Tested property
Crushing resistance (in cylinder) Freezing resistance test Content of weak grains Crushing resistance (Los Angeles test) Water absorption after 30 minutes Fines content Specific gravity Bulk density, uncompacted Bulk density, compacted
Table 1. Results of natural aggregate testing.

Measured value
mass loss (%) mass loss (%) (%) mass loss (%) (%) (%) kg/m kg/m
3

0/4 1.8 0.7 1.6 2,655 1,611 1,729

kg/m3
3

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aggregates and quality requirements given in Tables 1 and 2 are also according to Serbian standard for natural aggregates: SRPS B.B2.010:1986 [22]. As it can be seen from Table 2, recycled aggregate with grain sizes of 8/16 and 16/32 dont satisfy the weak grains content and crushing resistance quality requirements for natural aggregates. This was expected because of the mortar and cement paste attached to the stone particles in the recycled aggregate. According to test results, natural river aggregate satisfies quality requirements given in [22] and cement satisfies prescribed quality requirements given in EN 197-1:2,000 [23]. 3.2. Mix Proportion Design Concrete mix proportions were calculated according to above listed conditions and are shown in Table 3. Dried recycled aggregate, basic water content and additional water quantity were used to achieve the required workability of RAC.

Water absorption of recycled aggregates was studied in time intervals for a total of 24 hours. By analyzing the results, it was found that the major changes in the quantity of absorbed water occur in the first 30 minutes. On the other hand, it is known that the major change in the consistency of ordinary concrete (without chemical admixtures) occurs in the first 2030 minutes. Also, after production, concrete must be transported to the site. Taking into account the underlying attitudes, 30 minutes from the moment of adding water to the concrete mixer was adopted as the reference time for the required workability. Additional water quantity was calculated on the basis of water absorption of recycled aggregate after 30 minutes, Table 2. The substitution of natural coarse aggregate with recycled aggregate is made by weight, provided that all mixtures have the same granulometric composition, corresponding to the Fullers curve (Dmax = 31.5 mm). Percentage participation of each aggregate fraction in aggregate mixture is given in Table 4 and corresponding quantity of each aggregate fraction is given in Table 5. 3.3. Results of Fresh Concrete Testing Calculated real amounts of component materials and test results of workability (Figure 6), air content and bulk density for all three concrete types are presented in Table 6. By analyzing the results of fresh concrete, shown in Table 6, it was concluded that: - Approximately the same workability after 30 minutes was achieved for all three concrete types using the additional water for concrete R50 and R100 (Figure 6b).

Figure 5. Grading curves of recycled concrete aggregate.

Tested property
Crushing resistance (in cylinder) Freezing resistance test Chemical testing (mortar part of recycled aggregate)

Measured value
4/8

Grain size
8/16 16/32

Quality requirement
30.7 1.0 0 in traces 9.85 7.1 34.0 2.44 0.36 2,489 1,236 1,325 <30 <12 <0.1 <1.0 <3 (4) <30 <1.0 2,0003,000 -

mass loss (%) mass loss (%) chloride content sulfate content pH (%) mass loss (%) (%) (%) kg/m kg/m
3

18.3 2.0 0 in traces 9.85 0 29.6 4.59 0.45 2,346 1,275 1,388

26.7 1.4 0 in traces 9.85 3.7 33.7 2.87 0.23 2,458 1,239 1,323

Content of weak grains Crushing resistance (Los Angeles test) Water absorption after 30 minutes Fines content Specific gravity Bulk density, uncompacted Bulk density, compacted
Table 2. Results of recycled concrete aggregate testing.

kg/m3
3

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Concrete mixture
R0 R50 R100

Cement (kg/m
350 350 350

Effective water (kg/m


180 180 180

Aggregate (kg/m)
1857 1816 1776

Additional water (kg/m)


0 19 37

Effective water-cement ratio


0.514 0.514 0.514

Total water-cement ratio


0.514 0.569 0.620

Bulk density (kg/m)


2,387 2,365 2,343

Table 3. Design quantities of component materials.

Concrete type 0/4


R0 R50 R100 33 33 33

Natural river aggregate 4/8


16 8 0

Recycled concrete aggregate 16/32


30 15 0

8/16
21 10.5 0

4/8
0 6.5 13

8/16
0 7.5 15

16/32
0 19.5 39

Table 4. Percentage participation of each aggregate fraction in aggregate mixture.

Concrete mixture 0/4


R0 R50 R100 612 600 586

Content of natural river aggregate (kg/m) 4/8


298 145 0

Content of recycled aggregate (kg/m) 16/32


556 272 0

8/16
390 191 0

4/8
0 118 231

8/16
0 136 266

16/32
0 354 693

Table 5. Design amounts of different aggregate fractions.

- Bulk density of concrete depends on aggregate type and quantity. The highest bulk density has concrete with natural aggregate (R0) and the lowest concrete with maximum content of recycled aggregate (R100). The bulk density decrease is about 3%. 3.4. Results of Hardened Concrete Testing Measured compressive strengths of concrete R0, R50 and R100 at age of 2, 7 and 28 days [24], are shown in Table 7 and they represent average values. For each concrete type the following number of specimens (15 cm cubes) were used: three specimens/age 2 days, three specimens/age 7 days and six specimens/age 28 days. Standard deviation for the compressive strength results at age of 28 days is also shown in Table 7. Measured values of drying shrinkage of concrete R0, R50 and R100 are shown in Table 8. The specimens were three prisms (10 10 40 cm) for each concrete type. An extensometer with 25 cm base was used for measuring. Results of the testing of other properties of the hardened concrete are presented in Table 9. Each property of hardened concrete was tested on a group of three appropriate specimens at the age of 28 days. Water absorption of concretes R0, R50 and R100 was tested on 15 cm cubes. Splitting tensile strength of concrete was tested on 15 cm cubes, and flexural strength on 10 10 40 cm prisms. All tests were performed according

Figure 6. Slump test (a) after mixing and (b) after 30 minutes

- Concrete mixture R50 requires about 10% more total water quantity in comparison to mixture R0, and the corresponding value for concrete mixture R100 is about 20%. - Differences in air content ( p) are insignificant. Air content in fresh concrete was determined by standard test method that is based on Boyle-Mariottes Law. In [26] was concluded that the air content of the RAC is higher than concrete made with NA at 100% replacement. However, the author used a gravimetric method for calculation of total air content, including aggregate porosity.

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Concrete mixture
R0 R50 R100

Cement (kg/m)
352 352 348

Total water (kg/m)


181 200 216

Aggregate (kg/m)
1866 1826 1765

Water/ cement ratio1


0.514 0.568 0.620

Aggregate/ cement ratio


5.306 5.188 5.074

Slump2 (cm)
16 14.5 11

Slump3 (cm)
10 8.5 9

Air content (%)


1.5 1.4 1.3

Bulk density (kg/m)


2,399 2,378 2,329

Table 6. Results of fresh concrete testing.

Concrete type
2 R0 (MPa) R50 (MPa) R100 (MPa) R50/R0 (%) R100/R0 (%)

Concrete age (days)


7 35.23 37.14 37.05 105 105 28 43.44 45.22 45.66 104 105

Standard deviation (MPa)


1.5769 1.2089 3.5016

Concrete type
Water absorption, (%) Splitting tensile strength, (MPa) Flexural strength, (MPa) Wear resistance, (cm/50 cm) Modulus of elasticity (GPa) Bond between mild reinforcement and concrete, MPa Bond between ribbed reinforcement and concrete, MPa

R0
5.61 2.66 5.4 13.40 35.55 6.48 8.22

R50
6.87 3.20 5.7 15.58 32.25 5.87 7.50

R100
8.05 2.78 5.2 17.18 29.10 6.76 7.75

27.55 25.74 25.48 93 92

Table 7. Concrete compressive strength and relative compressive strength at different ages.

Concrete type

4 days (mm/ m)

7 days (mm/ m)

14days (mm/ m)

21 days (mm/ m)

28 days (mm/ m)

Relative drying shrinkage*, %


100 90 120

Table 9. Other properties of hardened concrete at age of 28 days.

3.5. Discussion of Hardened Concrete Properties To describe the development of concrete compressive strength fc with time (t), a fraction Function (1) was adopted:

R0 R50 R100

0.017 0.036 0.091

0.124 0.086 0.204

0.203 0.176 0.251

0.277 0.254 0.335

0.339 0.306 0.407

Table 8. Drying shrinkage at different concrete ages.

to Serbian standards for testing the hardened natural aggregate concrete properties. Cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 10 cm and height of 15 cm and with embedded ribbed and mild reinforcement (12 mm diameter) were used for testing the bond between reinforcement and concrete R0, R50 and R100. The length of the embedded part of reinforcement was 15 cm. For this testing, an axial tension procedure and tearing device were used (Figure 7). Relative values R50/R0 and R100/R0 for properties presented in Table 9 are shown graphically in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Relative values R50/R0 and R100/R0 for properties of hardened concrete.

(1) Calculated parameters of this functional relation (a and b) for concrete R0, R50 and R100, together with correlation coefficient (r), are presented in Table 10. Values of correlation coefficients point to the fact that the chosen fraction function realistically represents the development of compressive strength with time for all three tested concrete types.

Figure 7. Testing of bond between concrete and reinforcement.

The test results of concrete compressive strength at age

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of 2, 7 and 28 days (Table 7) and established functional relations fc(t) for concrete R0, R50 and R100 are illustrated in Figure 9.
Concrete type
R0 R50 R100

a
44.242 47.556 48.116

b
1.320 1.761 1.856

r
0.976 0.997 0.996

Table 10. Parameters of functional relationship between the compressive strength and age of the concrete.

freedom = n1 + n2 2 xav,1 = average value (set I) xav,2 = average value (set II) n1 = number of test results (set I) n2 = number of test results (set II) t = critical value of Student distribution for number of degree of freedom = n1 + n2 2 1 = standard deviation (set I) 2 = standard deviation (set II) Results of this statistical test are shown in Table 11. On the basis of the results presented in Table 11 and Criterion (4), it was concluded that differences between measured compressive strengths of concrete R0, R50 and R100 are insignificant (all results belong to the same set of results). This conclusion led to the fact that coarse aggregate type didnt influence the concrete compressive strength value in this experimental research. This conclusion is opposite to results of other authors [8,31,33], who found that compressive strength decreases with increasing quantity of recycled aggregates in concrete with the same effective water-cement ratio. However, in these experiments, recycled aggregate was obtained from demolished concrete structures of unknown compressive strength. Hansen [3] find out that substitution of natural aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate up to 30% has no significant influence on concrete compressive strength.
Test pairs
(R0 and R50) (R0 and R100)

Analysis of the concrete compressive strength values points to the following: - All three concrete types have approximately the same compressive strength development with time - All three concrete types have 28-day compressive strength that is larger than 40 MPa - Differences between compressive strengths of concrete R0, R50 and R100 are negligible for the same concrete age

n1
6 6 6

n2
6 6 6

s
1.406523 2.7163 2.61943

to
2.189924 1.417718 0.29425

t , for = 0.05
2.2281

Figure 9. The compressive strength of concrete at various ages.

(R50 and R100)

To find out if differences between obtained compressive strengths of concrete R0, R50 and R100 at age of 28 days are significant or not, differences between their mean values were statistically tested according to method in [25]. For that purpose, pairs of corresponding 28-day strength were formed (R0R50, R0R100 and R50R100). Tested value is defined with expression:

Table 11. Testing of difference significance for concrete compressive strength.

Our results confirm the statement that compressive strength of RAC depends more on the quality of recycled aggregate than on the quantity. According to the analysis of the 28-day drying shrinkage values (Table 8), it is concluded that: - The lowest shrinkage rate was for concrete R50 (0.3 mm/m), and the highest for R100 (0.4 mm/m), - Drying shrinkage of concrete R100 is 20% higher than shrinkage of concrete R0, - Difference between 28-day shrinkage of concrete R0 and R50 is less than 10%. The obtained results for drying shrinkage of RAC correspond to results of other authors, who found larger or smaller values for drying shrinkage compared to NAC [10,14,29]. The test results of wear resistance are shown in Figure 10. It is concluded that the highest material loss

(2)

(3) Criterion: where: t0 = quintile of Student distribution for number of degree of (4)

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occurs for concrete R100 and the lowest for concrete R0. The analysis of water absorption values (shown in Figure 11), points to the following: - The lowest water absorption was registered in concrete R0 and the highest in R100, - Concrete R50 has 22% higher absorption, while concrete R100 has 44% higher absorption than control concrete R0.

Although all three concrete types have similar compressive strength, the modulus of elasticity is lower for the concrete with recycled aggregate, Table 9. This decrease depends on the content of the recycled aggregate and maximum decrease is for the concrete with maximum recycled aggregate content. The modulus of elasticity of concrete R100 is lower than the modulus of elasticity of control concrete R0 by about 18%. The same decreasing of modulus of elasticity was found in research [14]. 3.6. Load Testing of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Tested concrete types (R0, R50 and R100) were used for producing RC beams (beams R0, R50 and R100). Three beams with a length of 3.0 m and rectangular cross section of 15/25 cm were prepared for flexural testing. Beams were reinforced with ribbed reinforcement 3R 12 in the lower zone, 2R 10 in the upper zone and with stirrups 6/20 (Figure 12). Details of the production of the beams for experimental testing is shown in Figures 13 and 14. The maximum (failure) load was calculated for the RO beam. Stresses in concrete and reinforcement, deflections and characteristic cracks width were calculated using the program CREEP (authors M. Tatomirovic, P . Pavlovic). Calculated values for the beam with referent concrete R0beam R0 are shown in Table 12.

Figure 10. Test results of concrete wear resistance.

By using the same statistical method as for the analysis of measured values of splitting tensile strengths (Table 9), it was concluded that differences between measured splitting tensile strengths are insignificant (all results belong to the same set of results). The same conclusion is drawn for flexural strength results (Table 9). Hansen [3] states that both tensile strengths of RAC are maximum 10% less than the tensile strength of NAC. Other papers [27,28] and [29] also confirmed that RAC tensile strength is not significantly affected by the amount of recycled coarse aggregate. Our analysis of the obtained values of bond between mild and ribbed reinforcement and concrete R0, R50 and R100 (Table 9) shows that: - Difference between lowest and highest bond for both reinforcement types is about 10%, - Bond between tested concretes and ribbed reinforcement is higher at least 15% than bond between tested concretes and mild reinforcement.

Figure 12. Characteristic dimensions of RC beams and arrangement of reinforcement.

At the age of 28 days, the beams were subjected to load testing (bending with concentrated force in the middle of the span). The arrangement of measuring spots for registering deflections and strains in the concrete and reinforcement is shown in Figure 15. The load was increased in six phases

Figure 11. Test results of concrete water absorption.

Figure 13. Moulds with placed reinforcement.

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Phase
I II III IV V VI

Load (kN)
5 10 20 30 40 50

Beam edge
Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower

Stress in concrete (MPa)


4.075

Stress in reinforcement (MPa)


65.569

Deflection (mm)
0.46 1.54

Crack width (mm)


0.017 0.062 0.137 0.207 0.276 failure

7.278 117.092 13.683 220.139 20.087 323.186 26.492 426.233 32.897 529.279

3.87 6.10 8.33

Table 12. Calculated values for cross-section in the middle of the span (beam R0).

Figure 15. Arrangement of measuring spots throughout the beam. (U deflection; Tstrain in reinforcement; Dstrain in concrete).

- Similar disposition and width of cracks was registered on all tested RC beams. The measured deflections and stresses in concrete in the middle of the span are presented in Table 13. Measured stresses in the concrete are based on measured concrete strains. For the purpose of comparing beam behavior during loading, the calculated deflections of beam R0 and measured deflections of all three beam types are presented in Figure 18. In the elastic area all tested beams have similar deflection, which means that for appropriate load level the quantity of coarse recycled concrete aggregate has no significant influence on the beam behavior. Fanthifazl [34] had the similar conclusion in regard to the behavior of beams exposed to bending.

Figure 14. Finishing of the beams concrete surface.

until failure of the beams. During load testing, the following data were registered: deflections, reinforcement strains, concrete strains, arrangement and width and length of cracks. An example of the appearance and development of cracks during the load testing of beam R50 is presented graphically in Figure 16. The photo of a crack pattern in the middle part of the span, after failure, is shown in Figure 17. By analysis of registered cracks on all tested RC beams, it was concluded: - First crack appears in the middle of the span in the third load phase (P = 20 kN). - The maximum width of cracks after collapse is between 2.0 and 2.7 mm.

Figure 17. Crack pattern after collapse of beam R50.

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Figure 16. Development of cracks during load testing of beam R50.

Phase
I II III IV V VI

Load kN
R0 5 10 20 30 40 50 0.55 0.89 2.68 4.66 7.43

Deflection, (mm)
R50 0.67 1.21 2.78 5.97 10.52 R100 0.73 1.37 2.94 6.89 11.78

Concrete compressive stress, (MPa)


R0 1.32 7.00 12.80 20.20 R50 2.64 8.05 10.96 21.12 failure R100 3.04 8.71 14.78 24.02

Table 13. Measured deflections and stresses in concrete in the middle of the span.

At the higher values of the test load, deflection depends on the type and quantity of used aggregate (with increasing quantity of recycled aggregate, the deflection value is increasing also). The different values of modulus of elasticity of used concrete types are the main cause for recorded behavior of tested beams in the post elastic area. According to these test results, concrete compressive stresses depend on the type and quantity of used aggregate. With increasing of recycled aggregate content up to 100%, concrete compressive strength is increasing up to 25%. Conclusions On the basis of our comparative analysis of test results

Figure 18. Calculated and measured values of deflection of all tested beams.

of the basic properties of concrete with three different percentages of coarse recycled aggregate content (0%, 50% and 100%), the following conclusions are made.

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The way of preparing recycled aggregate for concrete mixtures influences the concrete workability: workability of concrete with natural and recycled aggregate is almost the same if water saturatedsurface dry recycled aggregate is used. Also, if dried recycled aggregate is used and additional water quantity is added during mixing, the same workability can be achieved after a prescribed time. Additional water quantity depends on the time for which the same workability has to be achieved. It is determined as water quantity for which the recycled aggregate absorbs for the same period of time. Bulk density of fresh concrete is slightly decreased with increasing quantity of recycled aggregate. The type of coarse aggregate has no influence on the air content in concrete. Concrete compressive strength mainly depends on the quality of recycled aggregate. If good quality aggregate (obtained by crushing higher strength class concrete as in this case) is used for the production of new concrete, the recycled aggregate has no influence on the compressive strength, regardless of the replacement ratio of natural coarse aggregate with recycled aggregate. The same conclusion is valid for concrete tensile strength (splitting and flexural). The water absorption of concrete depends on the quantity of recycled aggregate. The amount of absorbed water is proportionally increased with increasing recycled aggregate content. Water absorption depends on the porosity of cement matrix in the new concrete and porosity of cement matrix of the recycled concrete: if recycled aggregate is produced from low porosity waste concrete, water absorption of the new concrete depends on the achieved structure of the new cement matrix. Wear resistance of the concrete depends on the amount of recycled aggregate. Concrete wear resistance decreases with increasing recycled aggregate content, due to the increased quantity of hardened cement paste, which wears easier than grains of natural aggregate. The modulus of elasticity of concrete also decreases with increasing recycled aggregate content as a consequence of lower modulus of elasticity of recycled aggregate compared to natural aggregate. Shrinkage of concrete depends on the amount of recycled concrete aggregate. Concrete with more than 50% of recycled coarse aggregate has significantly more shrinkage compared to concrete with natural aggregate. Increased shrinkage is a result of the attached mortar and cement paste in the recycled aggregate grains. The bond between recycled aggregate concrete and

reinforcement is not significantly influenced by recycled concrete aggregate, because it is realized through new cement paste. According to these test results, the performance of recycled aggregate concrete, even with the total replacement of coarse natural with coarse recycled aggregate, is mainly satisfactory, not only in terms of the mechanical properties, but also the other requirements related to mixture proportion design and production of this concrete type. The only two properties those are lower than for the natural aggregate concrete properties are the modulus of elasticity and shrinkage deformation. Because of that, it is not recommended to apply this type of concrete for structural elements for which large deformations can be expected. Also, this type of concrete shouldnt be used for structures exposed to aggressive environment conditions without appropriate previous testing, as there are opposing conclusions about durability-related properties of RAC in existing literature [3,16,30,32]. Based on the results of the load tests on the reinforced concrete beams, it is concluded that used coarse aggregate type and quantity has no significant influence on the pattern and width of cracks. First, crack appears in the middle of the span at a load level equal to about one third of the ultimate load regardless of the concrete type. The measured crack widths were approximately the same for all three tested beams. On the other hand, concrete compressive stresses depend on the quantity of recycled concrete aggregate for all load phases. Increasing the quantity of coarse RCA up to 100% increased the concrete compressive stress up to 25% in these tests. Deflections of tested beams do not depend on the type and quantity of used aggregate in the elastic areasimilar deflections were registered regardless of the concrete type. However, in the post elastic area, with increasing quantity of coarse recycled aggregate the deflection value increased. The deflection increase compared to deflection of the R0 beam is 4% for the R50 beam and 10% for the R100 beam for the service load level. The main reason for such behavior of the tested beams is a lower modulus of elasticity of concrete types R100 and R50 in comparison to referent concrete R0. All the conclusions made in this work about the tested properties of fresh and hardened concrete and consequently, about the behavior of beams subjected to bending, are valid for recycled aggregate concrete produced with quality recycled aggregate, obtained from demolished concrete with good mechanical properties, as it was the case in this experimental research.

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Acknowledgements The work reported in this paper is a part of the investigation within the research project TR 16004Utilization of recycled aggregate concrete in reinforced concrete structures, supported by the Ministry for Science and Technology, Republic of Serbia. References
1 Fisher, C.; Werge, M. EU as a Recycling Society; ETC/SCP Working Paper 2/2009; Available online: http://scp.eionet.europa.eu.int (accessed on 14 August 2009). Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete AggregateFHWA State of the Practice National Review 2004; U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, USA, 2004; pp. 1-47. Recycling of Demolished Concrete and Masonry; Hansen, T.C., Ed.; Taylor and Francis: Oxfordshire, UK, 1992; p. 316. RILEM Recommendation: Specifications for concrete with recycled aggregates. Mater. Struct. 1994, 27, 557-559. Aggregates for Mortar and ConcretePart 100: Recycled Aggregates; Deutsches Institut Fur Standardization: Berlin, Germany, 2002; p. 18. ConcreteComplementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1Part 2: Specification for Constituent Materials and Concrete; British Standards Institute (BSI): London, UK, 2006; p. 38. Rahal, K. Mechanical properties of concrete with recycled coarse aggregate. Build. Environ. 2007, 1, 407-415. Yang, K.H.; Chung, H.S.; Ashour, A. Influence of type and replacement level of recycled aggregates on concrete properties. ACI Mater. J. 2008, 3, 289-296. Evangelista, L.; Brito, J. Mechanical behavior of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2007, 5, 397-401.

17 .Ajdukiewicz, A.; Kliszczewicz, A. Influence of recycled aggregates on mechanical properties of HS/HPC. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2002, 2, 269-279. 18 Salem, R.M.; Burdette, E.G.; Jackson, N.M. Resistance to freezing and thawing of recycled aggregate concrete. ACI Mater. J. 2003, 100, 216-221. 19 Zaharieva, R.; Buyle-Bodin, F.; Wirguin, E. Frost resistance of recycled aggregate concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 2004, 10, 1927-1932. 20 Maleev, M.; Radonjanin, V.; Dima, M. Research of possibility of application of recycled concrete as aggregate for new concretePart I. In Proceeding of 4th International Science Meeting, INDIS 2006 (Planning, Design, Construction and Renewal in the Construction Industry), Novi Sad, Serbia, 2224 November 2006; pp. 495-504. 21 Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete StructuresPart 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings (EN 1992-1-1); European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2004. 22 Aggregate for concrete. In Technical Requirements; Serbian Institution for Standardization (SIS): Belgrade, Serbia, 1986. 23 Composition, Specification and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements; European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2000. 24 Radonjanin, V.; Maleev, M.; Dima, M. Research of possibility of application of recycled concrete as aggregate for new concretePart II. In Proceeding of 4th International Science Meeting, INDIS 2006 (Planning, Design, Construction and Renewal in the Construction Industry), Novi Sad, Serbia, 2224 November 2006; pp. 505-516. 25 Flaar, A. Control of Quality in Construction; Faculty of Technical Sciences-Institute of Civil Engineering (FTN-NOIIG): Novi Sad, Serbia, 1984. 26 Katz, A. Properties of concrete made with recycled aggregate from partially hydrated old concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 2003, 33, 703-711. 27 Gonzales-Fonteboa, B.; Martinez-Abella, F. Concretes with aggregates from demolition waste and silica fume. Materials and mechanical properties. Build. Environ. 2008, 43, 429-437. 28 Poon, C.S.; Lam, C.S. The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on properties of precast concrete blocks. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2008, 30, 283-289. 29 Sagoe-Crentsil, K.K.; Brown, T.; Taylor, A.H. Performance of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate. Cem. Concr. Res. 2001, 31, 707-712. 30 Levy, S.M.; Helene, P . Durability of recycled aggregates concrete: A safe way to sustainable development. Cem. Concr. Res. 2004, 34, 1975-1980. 31 Xiao, J.; Li, J.; Zhang, C. Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete under uniaxial loading. Cem. Concr. Res. 2005, 35, 1187-1194. 32 Limbachiya, M.C.; Koulouris, A.; Roberts, J.J.; Fried, A.N. Performance of recycled aggregate concrete. In Proceeding of RILEM International Symposium on Environment-Conscious Materials and Systems for Sustainable Development, Koriyama, Japan, 67 September 2004; pp. 127-136 33 Poon, C.S.; Shui, Z.H.; Lam, C.S.; Fok, H.; Kou, S.C. Influence of moisture states of natural and recycled aggregates on the slump and compressive strength of concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 2004, 34, 31-36. 34 Fathifazl, G. Structural Performance of Steel Reinforced Recycled Concrete Members; Ph.D. Thesis; Carleton University: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2008; p. 465.

3 4 5 6

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10 Sanchez de Juan, M.; Gutierrez, P .A. Influence of recycled aggregate quality on concrete properties. In Proceeding of the International RILEM Conference: The Use of Recycled Materials in Building and Structures, Barcelona, Spain, 811 November 2004; pp. 545-553. 11 Poon, C.S.; Azhar, S.; Kou, S.C. Recycled aggregates for concrete applications. In Proceeding of the Materials Science and Technology in Engineering ConferenceNow, New and Next, Hong Kong, China, 1517 January 2003; p. 16. 12 Lpez-Gayarre, F.; Serna, P .; Domingo-Cabo, A.; Serrano-Lpez, M.A.; Lpez-Colina, C. Influence of recycled aggregate quality and proportioning criteria on recycled concrete properties. Waste Manag. 2009, 12, 3022-3028. 13 Domingo-Cabo, A.; Lzaro, C.; Lpez-Gayarre, F.; Serrano-Lpez, M.A.; Serna, P .; Castao-Tabares, J.O. Creep and shrinkage of recycled aggregate concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 2009, 7, 2545-2553. 14 Gmez-Sobern, J.M.V. Shrinkage of concrete with replacement of aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate. ACI Spec. Publ. 2002, 209, 475-496. 15 Gmez-Sobern, J.M.V. Creep of concrete with substitution of normal aggregate by recycled concrete aggregate. ACI Spec. Publ. 2002, 209, 461-474. 16 Li, X. Recycling and reuse of waste concrete in China: Part I. Material behavior of recycled aggregate concrete. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2008, 1-2, 36-44.

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STP Ltd

Steel Buildings An Analysis

Economics, Versatility and Sustainability: 'Pitch-forking' Steel Buildings into Limelight!


M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

he rapid growth of the construction industry in India over the last two decades has seen the advent of several new concepts and technologies, perhaps none other than the increase in the number of steel buildings. In fact, it wont be a misnomer to state that the

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next five years could well be termed the age of steel buildings. Gleaming steel structures are sprouting up quite literally everywhere, particularly in urban areas these days. The key reason behind their increasing popularity is that steel is no longer confined to being used only

for industrial buildings or warehouses. Today, from airport terminals to hangars, mega retail outlets, metro stations, even residential structures, you name it and designers can come up with steel buildings for the purpose. Steel buildings have evolved over the years into

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Steel Buildings An Analysis

assemblages of structural elements that work together as an efficient system. While there may be several variations of the theme, the basic elements of the steel building have remained more or less constant over the years with primary rigid frames, secondary members, apart from cladding and bracing. The use of latest 3D modeling software has meant that custom designing a steel building, with all its components and measurement of its ability to withstand the vagaries of weather or other elements in the case of an industrial establishment and its seismic performance are all now only a click away. The advent of new generation software tools has been instrumental in propelling the popularity of steel buildings since they have enabled cutting down on wastage and bring down overall project cost. Steel is in The number of steel buildings dotting the landscape of Indian cities is on the rise. The realization that while the initial upfront cost may be more in the case of steel buildings, but it evens out in the long run due to their superior performance and the increasing emphasis on sustainable construction practices has been behind this silent revolution. While no accurate data is available, the market for steel buildings in the country is estimated to be over ` 5,000 crore and growing at a CAGR of over 10 % in recent times. While it is a fact that the country has a lot of catching up to do when it comes to per capita steel consumption (49 kg versus a world average of 175 kg), there is also no denying the fact that demand is rising very fast. Recent data from the Joint Plant Committee, under the Ministry of Steel shows that during the last three years consumption of finished steel has been 10.6 % which has exceeded growth in production for sale, which is 8.7% during the same period. Imports of total finished steel have grown at a CAGR of 5.3%. Steel production capacity has increased from 66.34 MT in 2008-09 to 82.29 per annum in 201112 both public and private sector put

Flying High: Gleaming steel airport terminals are now becoming commonplace in India

together. It goes without saying that a vast majority of the steel that is produced in the country goes to the construction industry, particularly for industrial structures. It is estimated that the size of the industrial steel building segment is country is about 3 mtpa. A key reason for the rapid rise in demand for steel buildings has got to do with the continued impetus being provided to the manufacturing sector. The governments focus on making India a manufacturing hub, through the development of exclusive industrial corridors, the most prominent among them being the DelhiMumbai Industrial Corridor project,

When you specify steel for a building, you can rest assured that it is unlikely ever to become waste. Steel always has a value and it is only ever sent to a landfill as a last resort

apart from the continued focus on Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and the proposed National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs), has spelt good news for the steel buildings industry. The increased emphasis on sustainable construction practices is another factor that is propelling the market for steel buildings. As Mr. Anshul Singhal, Director, JSW Severfield Structures Ltd, considered an industry leader in structural steel building solutions globally says, When you specify steel for a building, you can rest assured that it is unlikely ever to become waste. Steel always has a value and it is only ever sent to a landfill as a last resort. Choosing steel buildings is perhaps the simplest and most effective way to reduce waste. PEBs Provide Impetus There has been a gradual shift in the market, as far as the perception towards steel buildings goes in the recent times. A lot of credit towards educating customers should go to the various players offering pre-engineered buildings (PEBs). Among the major reasons earlier for the slow pace of growth of the steel buildings industry was the lack of awareness, lack of availability of specialized manpower and the dearth of an organized supply chain. All this has changed thanks to

Anshul Singhal
Director, JSW Severfield Structures Ltd

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Steel Buildings An Analysis

Where there is steel , there is a way- an industrial steel building getting ready

the rise of the PEB industry. PEBs are after all at the end of the day buildings whose predominant constituent is steel. There is intense competition prevalent in the PEB industry. It is not surprising that India is today one of the top markets as far as PEBs go. Big players with a strong focus on R & D have meant that world-class PEB products and solutions are now available in India. It is not surprising then that names such as Loya, Pebs Pennar, Kirby India, Zamil Steel, Tata BlueScope , etc, to mention only a few are now being increasingly heard in discussions among construction fraternity. The increase in demand meant that steel building system designers had to adopt the pre engineering concept in order to further reduce costs and make metal building systems, an even more attractive proposition, where they could choose the design, detail and fabricate a defined group of standard buildings of set widths, heights and loadings. Pre-fabricated steel buildings are gaining popularity for industrial, commercial, as well as residential uses these days. Prefabricated steel buildings use precise estimations based on computer generated models and calculations leading to no or very little material wastage. The labor demand on prefabricated metal buildings is also less as most of the buildings come

partially constructed. In industrial and commercial scenarios, prefabrication of steel allows, minimization of on-site workload ,since a majority of work is carrying out off-site, eliminating most of the on-site welding and bolting of connections, pre-assembling of smaller components, while also reducing the number of on-site lifting requirements. All this leads to a significant cut in project costs for developers, a factor that has become so crucial in these days of economic uncertainties, where contractors are almost always under pressure to stick to budgets. Moreover, all this is possible without any kind of compromise either on the overall quality of the building or aesthetics. Prefabrication of steel makes a building extremely durable, strong enough to withstand heavy snowfall, high winds or even earthquakes, a factor that makes the favorite for industrial buildings. Steel Buildings & Affordable Housing An important area where steel buildings are all set to play a crucial role is in that of development of affordable housing projects. Since steel buildings take lesser time to construct and are as durable as conventional buildings, if not more, they offer an unbeatable solution for affordable housing projects. Since the delivery time required is also lesser in the case of steel buildings,

especially PEBs, it is not surprising that they could well be the answer to the affordable housing issue that the country is facing. Creation of modular designs and construction of steel buildings is already in vogue, in the industrial and commercial sectors and this trend could soon duplicate itself in the residential sector. Leading players in the field of PEB are looking at this fast emerging market with lots of interest these days. Almost every leading player, including, Loya Kirby, Pebs Pennar, Zamil Steel, Tata BlueScope, etc. are focusing on the emerging opportunities in the field. Those in the industry feel that steel buildings could become the norm in residential sector, after the initial phase involving teething troubles is over. Says Mr.Sanjay S.Loya, Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd, People in India have yet to adapt to steel buildings for residential and commercial purposes. When PEB was relatively

People in India have yet to adapt to steel buildings for residential and commercial purposes. When PEB was relatively new in the country, industrialists were rightfully apprehensive about it and slow to accept it as the preferred option. As with any new technology, it takes time for views to change but change will come around eventually in the residential and commercial segments as well especially given the scarcity of natural resources to meet the increasingly growing demands

Sanjay S. Loya
Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd

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Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt.Ltd

Steel Buildings An Analysis

The Green factor is behind rise in demand for steel buildings

new in the country, industrialists were rightfully apprehensive about it and slow to accept it as the preferred option. As with any new technology, it takes time for views to change but change will come around eventually in the residential and commercial segments as well especially given the scarcity of natural resources to meet the increasingly growing demands. We have recently started providing commercial buildings in steel and our own office in Aurangabad was done almost entirely in steel. The trend is here to stay with the size of the

residential steel building segment currently pegged around 1 mtpa and growing in the country. Fluctuating Steel Prices- The Bane Apart from the other issues cited above, perhaps the most important hindering factor for the growth of the steel buildings industry has been the fluctuating price of steel. While the price fluctuation is something that is to be expected in a de-regulated sector, it has left various stakeholders in the construction industry fuming, more often than not. The situation though has improved in recent times, in a country

that is the 4th largest crude steel producer in the world. The opening of several new steel plants is expected to further ease pressure on the market. The construction industry, which has been the primary driver of demand for a variety of steel products, in a country like India, could be in for happier times, thanks to all these factors. Steel over Brick and Mortar There is no doubting the potential of steel buildings in the near future. Leading the demand would be the impetus being provided to the manufacturing sector. The various industrial corridor projects auger well for the steel buildings industry. The National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) are expected to drive demand. The push would also come from the food processing industry, which is on the threshold of a revolution in India. Warehouses are pegged to grow in numbers at a mind-boggling pace in the next five years by industry experts. So too would be the demand from the retail sector. Gleaming steel structures would be driving the retail revolution in the country in the coming decade. Prefab construction and steel buildings are also gradually making an entry in the healthcare sector. The fact that steel buildings can help in spreading world-class healthcare facilities to even the remotest corners of the country is not lost on policy makers. Adding to all this demand would be the need for the country to create millions of affordable homes. Steel buildings could be playing a crucial role, so far as the affordable housing scenario goes. They could help expedite project completion deadlines, while the economies of scale could help in bringing down overall costs- one factor that was holding back developers from going the whole hog with steel till now. The steel buildings industry could be in for its best phase during the 12th Five Year Plan period. Photo Courtesy
www.martindelguayo.com, www.openbuildings.com www.architecture.about.com, www.rigidbuilding.com www.worldwidesteelbuildings.com www.gallery.hd.org

Needed steely resolve: it is high time policy makers in India looked at steel buildings for affordable housing projects

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Metal Tech Constructions Pvt. Ltd.

Steel Buildings Trendsetting

Steel Buildings:
Sadagopan Seshadri
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

Symbols of Modern Architecture

teel buildings by virtue of their simplicity coupled with extreme durability have endeared themselves to be an all out choice in building construction. Add to its longevity, unmatched quality and unique construction methods, the revolutionary new dimension of computer-engineered designs that make it possible to construct the exact form and dimension as conceptualized by the architect. These make Steel, a construction material that can be molded into any desired form thus giving the buildings the shapes that the architect designer desires! With this No holds barred advantage Steels versatility has made modern architecture transform into reality which till recent times remained to be just a figment of imagination. Modern designs with freedom of shape, color, style and a lot more that steel provides have revolutionized the landscape, imparting a whole new modern look to metal buildings. There is no doubt; this is one irrefutable reason for steel becoming a very popular choice for a wide variety of buildings whether agricultural, commercial or residential. Steel metal buildings are both functional and aesthetic coming in more intricate and sharp configurations. 100% premium grade steel usage ensures quality assurance. All these have made Steel the in-thing for construction industry. Steel Buildings Getting the facts right Steel buildings aesthetically designed are the present and the future of construction. Some facts about steel

that make it a reliable and profitable choice for construction are: Steel for buildings are preferred due to their inherent qualities of durability, safety, stability and strength. Steel combines in itself the right mix of properties desired in a superior construction material, like for instance high strength, low weight, more flexibility and formidable resistance against corrosion. Low-maintenance requirement over life is an asset. Steel frame constructions are strong enough to ward off environmental attacks including being much less vulnerable than contemporary constructions & materials to earthquakes, hurricanes and other similar perils. Steel constructions are fully termites and other pest infestation proof. This reason by itself is good enough to opt in steels favor for storage facilities buildings. Sustainable development card too works in steels favor as Modern steel construction is eco-friendly and so is the Steel itself as material since it is 100% recyclable. Fire hazards get a beating since steel is non-combustible and structural steel construction is fire-proof. One of most distinct plus point for steel is its allowing itself to be shaped as desired by the architect without losing any of its properties. This is possible because it is ductile, malleable and flexible enough for architectural and designs demands.

These are some salient features that make steel an excellent construction material and the preferred choice of architects, engineers, builders and ofcourse occupants for any built environment. Pre-fabricated & pre engineered buildings in residential as well as office space are rapidly catching up as they score in every way over their concrete counterparts; not to mention of ease of customization, modification

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Steel Buildings Trendsetting

and maintenance. The Future of building construction slot will be occupied by steel green buildings as the versatility of steel will remain unparalleled. Evolution of Steel Buildings Steel buildings have evolved as the top choice among all stake-holders for the immense benefits they offer in design innovations woven into aesthetic appeal. It is a win-win situation for

both engineers and architects. Steel buildings in this respect have gained popularity among investor fraternity as well. Tracing how this popularity built up over time is important in the context of what is in store for steel buildings in the future. The 20th century saw the advent of Steel buildings starting with garages as the first applications and then versatility the metal showcased translated in steel

buildings taking the took the construction world by storm. Industrialization and in it the American Gold Rush marked a steep rise in demand for steel buildings as residential buildings to accommodate the migrant populations; the race never stopped and steel became the chief construction input for residential to commercial buildings space. 1940s saw the advent of preengineered and prefab steel buildings

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Steel Buildings Trendsetting

Steel buildings both commercial and residential are the future. Inherent Benefits of Steel Buildings Industrial progress and development has led to methods of construction that are low cost as also aesthetically appealing; these structures combine architectural magnificence while guaranteeing total functionality. They not only have a longer lifespan but also more endurance than conventional concrete buildings. Steel Buildings have brought a revolutionary change in the construction sphere due to their stability and material strength. Steel Buildings biggest advantage is that they cause much less harm to the environment than concrete buildings. Steel Building - Inherent Benefits 1. Steel as Construction Material Pre engineered steel buildings are stable, resistant and possess high material strength. The primary structural component of a steel building is steel, which is an alloy of soft iron and carbon. It is the carbon content in steel that determines its degree of hardness. Steel over the past several decades has steadily emerged as one of the most extensively used alloys in the building and construction. Steels success as a premier quality component in building and construction can be attributed to its tenacity, structural strength and unparalleled resistance to corrosion, rusting and other general deterioration. It imparts to the building its strength, durability and adaptability. Steels malleability and ductility make it an ideal choice for construction purposes. 2. Cost Effectiveness in Usage Steels properties enable it in reducing material cost of construction, the cost spent on labor and. lower maintenance Cost-effectiveness over service life is a major plus for steel buildings. Steel Buildings are generally prefabricated or pre-engineered, being made at factories and transported to the construction site where the building is just assembled. This means least chance

Steel constructions are fully termites and other pest infestation proof

with rigid frame designs universal recognition. It was obvious that steel buildings could be erected quickly, were affordable and also gave a lot of choice in design & modification. By 1956 MBMA (Metal Building

Manufacturers Association) was founded and standardization of the entire steel building industry was initiated. Investing in steel buildings ensures profitable returns. Modular prefab homes now are a modern day reality.

The 20th century saw the advent of Steel buildings starting with garages as the first applications

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United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd

Steel Buildings Trendsetting

of rework minimum resource spend and quick erection to have the building functional. 3. Versatile Longevity Steel being a tenacious metal, its strength renders longevity to the structure as it has little or zero vulnerability to deterioration of any kind or phenomena such as corrosion, rusting and other general wear and tear. Steel metal alloy is both malleable and ductile and is thus an ideal structural material for construction. 4. Time Saved is Money made Prefabricated steel buildings and Pre-engineered buildings require appreciably lower construction time than concrete buildings. Steel Buildings being built in sections at factories are brought to the construction site directly for assembling and erection. This means faster construction which translates to lower cost. 5. Wide Variety and Aesthetic Appeal Right from a hangar, warehouse, Mall to a commercial office hub or residential complex building in Modular format can be constructed with steel today. The metals flexibility & adaptability facilitates it to be designed in different forms and shapes rendering it

Steel constructions have a unique aesthetic value coupled, with an unparalleled green quotient. Seen here is the Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, CA.

an architects favorite. 6. Low Maintenance Steel is non-reactive making it immune to drastic weather changes, rusting and corrosion thus permitting its use both as an exterior as well as interior structural component. 7. Environment Friendly: A Steel Building is a preferred choice than concrete buildings from environmental view point.; steel is a

recyclable metal alloy and can be reutilized. What makes steel buildings green? Steel metal buildings are least harmful to inhabitants and ecology at large. There are some quick facts about steel which helps it qualify as a true green building material. Steel buildings or eco buildings are 100% recyclable and this signals that non-renewable energy, expensive and exhaustible materials such as old-forest woods can be well preserved. Steel, the most critical element that is used in the construction of prefabricated buildings has about 70% recycled content and doesnt rot, sag, split or crack. Steel studs are utilized with thermal breaks and this gives inkling that heat loss is much less as compared to wood or any other traditional building material. Steel remains the most recycled material in the world. If you realize that your metal buildings endurance and serviceability has concluded, theres always an option of breaking down the building materials and reusing them for other significant purposes. Steel prefab buildings are energy

Steel is non-reactive making it immune to drastic weather changes, rusting and corrosion

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Steel Buildings Trendsetting

time is to put in place stricter mandatory norms in residential construction for use of material that meets the green code. Going green with steel buildings is just the right way! Strong Foundations deliver Strong Buildings Foundations are a critical area, more so because Tall Buildings are increasingly flooding the built environment and establishing themselves as norm. The foundations play a crucial role in maintaining the strength of the pre-engineered steel structure. A steel building foundation is the anchor that supports and sustains the entire building load. A strong foundation contributes to the durability of the steel structure. Several considerations form the basis for decide for a strong foundation: The topography of the land that requires a detailed survey of the land features and the terrain before constructing any buildings. The geographical location, if it is suitable for a steel building in respect of the local building codes. The loads in play need to be known a basic idea about what all loads are to be considered for laying the foundation. The architectural framework for which the foundation is to be laid.

The US Steel Tower at Downtown Pittsburgh

efficient and do not employ any diesel or gas-powered heavy equipment during construction. Since most steel green buildings today are preengineered, there is no need for welding or cutting. Steel buildings are non-polluting and produce negligible fuming. The trend is all steel building have high possibilities of owners qualifying for availing insurance discounts.

The right choice: Going green with Steel buildings The reason that steel metal buildings have seen substantial growth in the

current times is primarily due to the fact that they are built in compliance with the Green code and have an environmental friendly structure. Metal buildings meet the green guidelines also as they are constructed from high-quality building materials; like steel alloy, which is more reliable as compared to its counterparts and require minimum maintenance. Green building construction demands less maintenance resulting in declined energy costs and eventual expenses. Hence, steel buildings or green buildings are definitely way ahead of other traditional building in terms of going the ecological way. Need of the

The kind of foundation a particular steel building needs has to be taken by the Engineering Consultant. A strong reliable foundation prudently designed is a vital milestone for every building and that should never be overlooked. There are a few architectural marvels made of steel that have not only survived through history with the vagaries of time but also created a formidable history of their own! Five World famous steel buildings which braved ravages of time continue to stand out as models of inspiration in promoting use Steel as "the most favored construction material" are: Eiffel Tower A giant symbol of both architectural ingenuity and engineering marvel. This gigantic steel

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Steel Buildings Trendsetting

Er. Gustave Eiffel's, Eiffel Tower

building built around 1887-1889, even today continues to be the hallmark among Pariss tourist attractions. Once it was the tallest building in the world. Chrysler Building coming to one more National Historic Landmark, the Chrysler building also made of steel was the one that overtook the Eiffel Tower to occupy the top slot. This skyscraper that was built in the 1930s decade was a showcase of Modern architectural prowess. Chrysler Building surrendered soon to The Empire State Building the big brother! Sears Towers in Chicago, Illinois, the 5th tallest building in the world has the worlds highest habitable floors, highest elevator rides and the highest roof deck. High enough that you can see four states from the top of the Skyscrapers tower. Now known as the Willis Tower it continues to be one of the famous steel structures. Seagram Building This colossal steel structure completed in 1958, houses businesses and The Four Season Restaurant. It has stood

stable and strong with a sturdy steel skeleton. The building has 38 floors. US Steel Tower - though not that famous but durable steel structure was completed in 1970 and continues one of the tallest skyscrapers in Downtown Pittsburgh. The US Steel Tower with 64 floors was the first building to use liquid-fireproofed columns.

and designs of structural systems that still remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers. Khan's central innovation in skyscraper design and construction was the idea of the "tube" and "bundled tube" structural systems for tall buildings. Khan developed the concept of Xbracing that reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. The huge benefit from this is a reduced need for interior columns which in turn creates more floor space! the John Hancock Center is Khans demo of this concept. The genius in Khan epitomized both structural engineering achievement and creative collaborative effort between architect and engineer, conveying a priceless message to his Engineer and Architect fraternity to be diligently followed: "Only when architectural design is grounded in structural realities thus celebrating architecture's nature as a constructive art, rooted in the earth can the resulting aesthetics have a transcendental value and quality." Photo Courtesy
www.thomashillphoto.blogspot.in www.architecture.about.com www.scherminator.com

Author's Bio
The author leads our Delhi bureau. An Engineer and qualified ADR professional (NALSAR alumnus), Sadagopan Seshadri has been a senior Contract Management Professional in large national & International Companies. His domain experience is in Building Products, Cement plants and Mega Power project execution. He is expert visiting faculty for Contract Management at the SSAA, IP University, New Delhi. Being passionate about Environment he has now turned to Landscape Projects design teamed with likeminded architects & engineers for sustainable landscapes development He is vocal with his views on these areas through his writings. He can be reached design2xcel@gmail.com at

The Steel construction continues its march showing its unrivalled place in famous buildings such as the Empire State Building in US, Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia, and many more. Steel in the last four decades has seen an unprecedented growth in tall buildings across the world. And the trend continues. The Success Mantra- Coming straight from the horses mouth American Architect & structural Engineer Dr. Fazlur Khan regarded as the "Einstein of structural engineering" and "the greatest architectural engineer of the second half of the 20th century" for his constructions of the Sears Tower and John Hancock Center,

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Tekla India Pvt.Ltd

Steel Structures Retrofitting

Retrofitting Techniques for Steel Structures


Sonjoy Deb
B.Tech,Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

teel structures have been extensively used in seismic areas worldwide because of their favorable massto-stiffness ratio, ductility and hence, enhanced energy absorption capacity. Indeed, the typical steel frame configurations, i.e., moment resisting frame (MRF), concentrically braced frame (CBF) and eccentrically braced frame (EBF), exhibit different behavior with regard to stiffness, strength and ductility. Indeed, MRFs provide a satisfactory strength and possess an excellent ductility but they suffer large story drifts due to low lateral stiffness. By contrast, CBFs are capable of ensuring both required strength and stiffness, but buckling failures limit the global ductility. EBFs combine the strength and the stiffness of the CBF with the ductility of MRF; therefore their intermediate behavior results in agreement with the stiffness, strength and ductility required in seismic design, thus limiting the

structural damage during earthquake loading. On the other hand, MRFs exhibit damage generally limited to nonstructural components, while structural and nonstructural may be found in CBFs. Similarly, composite MRFs show damage concentrated in infills, claddings and other nonstructura components; while buckled and/or yielded braces characterize the seismic response of CBFs.Steel bridges constitute a large number of the existing bridges worldwide. Corrosion, lack of proper maintenance, and fatigue sensitive details are major problems in steel bridges. It has been reported that 88,000 bridges in the US and Canada are structurally deficient, while the number of functionally obsolete bridges is over 82,000. During the earthquakes in Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995), extensive and unexpected damage was observed

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Steel Structures Retrofitting

Figure 1. Damage to old steel buildings in the Kobe earthquake: collapse (left), construction with light gaugedsections (middle) and corroded sections (right)

to the structure. However,constructability and durability drawbacks are associated with this method. Steel plates require heavy lifting equipment and can add considerably more dead load to the structure, which reduces their strengthening effectiveness. The added steel plates are also susceptible to corrosion, which leads to an increase in future maintenance costs. In many cases, welding is not a desired solution due to fatigue problems associated with weld defects. On the other hand, mechanical details such as bolted connections, which have better fatigue life, are time consuming and costly.Figure 6 and Figure 7 demonstrates typical repair procedures in steel structures.

Figure 2. Damage to nonductile braces in Kobe earthquake: net fracture at bolt holes (left) and severe distortion ofunstiffened beam in chevron braces (right)

Figure 4. Yielding and buckling of diagonal braces in San Fernando earthquake

Figure 3. Brittle fracture of beam bottom flanges in welded MRF connection during Northridge earthquake: fracture propagating through column web and flange (left) and fracture causing a column divot fracture (right)

in many framed steel and composite buildings. Indeed, several brittle fractures were detected in welded MRFs particularly at beam to column connections. The damage was found in a great population of buildings, with different heights (one story to about 25 stories) and ages (up to 30 years old), thus showing that steel structures are vulnerable to seismic loads (Refer Figure 1,2,3). Some other ateel structure failure have been shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5. Many steel bridges are in need of upgrading to carry larger loads and increasing traffic volumes. The cost for retrofitting in most cases is far less than the cost of replacement. In addition, retrofitting usually takes less construction time, and therefore, reduces service interruption time. Current methods of retrofitting steel bridges and structures It typically utilize steel plates that are bolted or welded

Figure5 . Local buckling in box column of Pino Suarez high rise buildings in Mexico City

The need for adopting durable materials and cost-effective retrofit techniques is evident. One of the possible solutions is to use high performance, nonmetallic materials such as fiber reinforced polymers(FRP). The superior mechanical and physical properties of FRP materials make them quite promising for repair and strengthening of steel structures. The use of FRP systems for retrofit of concrete structures has been successful. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated for a variety of retrofitting mechanisms. Today, the use of glass and carbon FRP materials for retrofit of concrete bridges is becoming more widely accepted in practice. FRP is used in the form of sheets or plates attached to the concrete surface for flexural and shear retrofitting or as sheets for wrapping columns to increase their ductility and axial strength. The

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US Department of Transportation(USDOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have sponsored several projects that have led todesign guidelines for bridge repair and both have implemented these retrofitting schemes into severalprojects. Bonding of FRP materials to metallic structures was first used in mechanical engineering applications. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates have been successfully used to repair damaged aluminum and steel aircraft structures. Bonding of composite laminates was also shown tohave many advantages for marine structures. For civil engineering structures, previous work conducted on the strengthening of metallic structures using CFRP has been focused in three main areas:strengthening of iron or unweldable steel girders, rehabilitation of corroded steel girders, and repair offatigue damaged riveted connections. The low-tensile modulus of glass fiber composites (GFRP), ranging between 72 GPa, and 87GPa, makes them less desirable for retrofitting steel structures. On the other hand, CFRP display soutstanding mechanical properties, with a typical tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of more than1,200 MPa and 140 GPa, respectively. In addition, CFRP laminates weigh less than one fifth of the weight of a similar size steel plate and are also corrosion resistant. CFRP plates or sheets can be bonded to the tension face of the member to enhance its strength and stiffness. By adding CFRP layers, the stress level in the original member will decrease, resulting in a longer fatigue life.

A case study was performed to examine the economic advantages of rehabilitation of damaged steel girders with CFRP pultruded laminates as compared to replacement of the girders in Delaware,bridge girders, with a total length of 180 meters. The Girders were replaced due to severe and extensive damage. The replacement costs were compared with the cost of rehabilitation at an assumed 25 percent section loss. It was concluded that total replacement cost was 3.65 times higher than the cost of rehabilitation.

Figure 7. Retrofitting measures for beam-to-columns (post-Northridge): (a) cover plates, (b) triangular ribplates, (c) haunches and (d) RBS

Retrofit of Steel Girders Research efforts to examine the feasibility and efficiency of retrofit of steel girders have been mainly conducted using one or combination of the following approaches: - Repair of naturally deteriorated steel girders. - Repair of an artificially notched girder to simulate fatigue cracks or section loss due to corrosion. - Strengthening of an intact section to increase the flexural strength and stiffness. - Retrofit of steel girders in composite action with a concrete deck. Fatigue Behavior of Steel Sections Retrofitted with FRP The use of steel plates to repair and strengthen existing steel structures has been traditionally used forrehabilitation of steel girders. However, the welded detail of steel plates is sensitive to the fatigue loads.Various researchers have examined the effectiveness of using bonded CFRP sheets or plates to improvethe fatigue strength. Gillespie et al conducted fatigue testing on two strengthened girders, which were removed from an old bridge as indicated

Figure 6. Typical repairs for buckled (left) and fractured (right) flanges of steel beams

When considering the retrofit of steel structures using FRP materials versus retrofit using steelplates, there are two considerations that favor FRP materials. First, the costs associated with retrofitting are often more associated with time limitations for completing the project, as well as labor costs and the costs to divert traffic, and to a lesser extent, with material costs. Due to the light weight of FRP composite materials, it is expected that they could be installed in less time than by strengthening with the equivalent number of steel plates. The second factor that favors composites, especially CFRP , is its higher tensile strength in comparison to the yield strength of steel, provided that adequate means of bonding are introduced.

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Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd

Steel Structures Retrofitting

earlier. The two specimens were tested in fatigue under 10 millioncycles, within the stress range expected in the field. Throughout the 10 million cycles, the CFRP plateswere periodically monitored and inspected for debonding. No evidence of CFRP plate debonding wasfound. Bassetti et al tested the effect of bonding prestressed CFRP plates on reducing the rate ofcrack propagation and increasing the fatigue life of riveted steel structures. Two research programs wereconducted on both small- and fullscale specimens. CFRP plates of 1.2 mm thickness were attached tocentral-notched specimens. The specimens were loaded with a stress range of 80 MPa and a stress ratio of 0.4. The results showed that the crack growth rate was drastically decreased and the fatigue life wasincreased by a factor up to twenty, depending on the prestressing level. The authors, however, did not report the details of the prestressing technique or procedure. Surface Preparation and Bonding of FRP Surface preparation is the key to a strong and durable adhesive bond. Since rehabilitation takes place onsite, surface treatment must also be environmentally friendly, and easily accomplished in field conditions.Brockmann has shown that application of the CFRP material can occur up to 150 hours after completion of the surface preparation. If strengthening occurs after this time, a lower bond strength coul dresult.Surface grinding or sand blasting is recommended to remove all rust, paint, and primer from the steel surface. Additionally, the bare steel may be pretreated using either an adhesion promoter or aprimer/ conditioner, which leaves a thin layer attached to the metal oxide surface. This type of bond significantly improves the long-term durability because water displacement through this coating isunlikely since the hydrolysis of the primary bonds is a slow process. The bonded side of the FRP plates may be sanded to increase the surface roughness using medium grit sandpaper or a sandblaster, and wiped clean with acetone. However, excessive surface preparation of FRP plates may expose the surface of the carbon fibers leading to possible galvanic corrosion if placed in direct contact with the steel surface. Theadhesive is then applied to the pretreated steel surface, bonding either FRP laminates or sheets to the steel. The adhesive typically used is a two-component viscous epoxy. A less viscous epoxy is used for bonding the laminates to each other. It is recommended to leave the bonded plates to cure for a sufficient time, not less than 48 hours. Milleretal. suggested application of an accelerated curing method, suchas heating blankets or induction heater to increase the curing rate of the adhesive.An adhesive for a particular rehabilitation scheme must perform three functions. First, the adhesive must have adequate bond strength so that

the composite material can be optimally utilized. Force Transfer Force transfer between FRP and steel takes place through bond at the interface between the two materials,which is influenced by several factors including bonded length, types of fiber and resin, surface preparation, thickness of adhesive and thickness of FRP laminate. Experimental and analytical studies were performed by Miller to quantify the force transfer of a 457 mm CFRP plate bonded to the tension flange of a steel girder. It was found that approximately 98 percent of the total force transfers within the first 100 mm of the end of the bonded plate. Therefore, it was determined that the development length was on the order of 100 mm for this type of plate and adhesive. Analysis has also shown that the epoxy failure at the ends of the FRP laminates or plates is due to high peeling stresses normal to the surface. Abushaggur and El Damatty developed a finite elementmodel to predict the distribution of peeling stresses for a beam subjected to four-point bending. The distribution shows a symmetric behavior about the center of the beam. It was found that the critical locations for peel off failure are towards the edges of the FRP sheets. Durability of Steel Members Retrofitted with FRP One of the most important factors affecting durability is the environmental surroundings. The FRP retrofitting system itself is non-corrosive, however, when carbon fibers become in contact with steel, agalvanic corrosion process may be generated. Three requirements are necessary for galvanic corrosion to occur between carbon and steel: an electrolyte (such as salt water) must bridge the two materials, there must be electrical connection between the materials, and there must be a sustained cathodic reaction onthe carbon. By eliminating any one of these requirements, the galvanic cell is disrupted. A good selection of adhesives with inherent durability and high degree of resistance to chlorides, moisture, and freeze-thaw cycles is also very important.In order to test the durability of the bond between the composite and steel, tests were conducted using the wedge test. This test has great sensitivity to environmental attack on the bond between materials. The test was proved to have a very high degree of correlation with service performance and isconsidered more reliable than conventional lap shear or peel tests. Field Applications Field installations demonstrate that the rehabilitation technique can be applied under actual fieldconditions. The rehabilitation and associated pre- and post-field diagnostic testing allow for furtherevaluation of the effectiveness of the

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Steel Structures Retrofitting

retrofit system in providing stiffness and strength increases forstructures. The 1-704 bridge, which carries southbound I-95 traffic over Christina Creek, just outside of Newark, was chosen by Delaware Department of Transportation to assess the CFR Prehabilitation process conducted by the University of Delaware. One layer of CFRP plates was bonded to the outer face of the tension flange of the steel girder, which has a span of 7500 mm and a W24x84 cross section. Six CFRP plates were placed side-by-side to cover the entire flange width. The CFRP plates were installed over thefull length by using four over lapped sections. Each section was 1500 mm long and had staggered joints.At the joints between the plate sections, a 300 mm stagger of every other CFRP plate was used.Consecutive CFRP plates were beveled at a 45o angle to form a scarf joint instead of a typical butt joint.Load tests were performed on the chosen girder, prior to and after the rehabilitation. A comparison between the load test data indicated that adding a single layer of CFRP plates resulted in 11.6 percent increase in girder stiffness, and 10 percent decrease in strain.Two historic metallic bridges in the UK were also strengthened with CFRP plates . The firstbridge was the Hythe Bridge, which had eight inverted T sections (cast iron beams) of 7800 mm span.Four prestressed CFRP plates were bonded to each beam by epoxy adhesive in addition to the end anchorages. The prestressing level was designed to remove all tensile stresses. The second bridge was Slattocks. The bridge beams were 510 mm deep and 191 mm wide, and supported a reinforced concrete deck. CFRP plates of 8 mm thickness were bonded to the bottom flanges of 12 innermost beams. A feasibility study was done and indicated that it would have cost much more to install a set of special traffic lights to control vehicle flow for traditional bridge repairs as it has for the total strengthening workusing CFRP plates, where the traffic was allowed to keep moving over the bridges during the strengthening process. Conclusions Research interests in the field of retrofit of steel structures using FRP materials are gradually increasing.Although using FRP for retrofit of steel structures has not yet gained the same popularity and wide spreaduse as in concrete structures, the literature to date shows positive and promising evidence of success. Thefollowing conclusions could be drawn: 1. The use of FRP sheets and strips is not only effective for restoring the lost capacity of a steel section,as a repair technique, but is also quite effective in strengthening of steel structures to resist higher loads. 2. Epoxy bonded FRP sheets and laminates are quite

promising in extending the fatigue life of steel structures. The FRP has a significant effect on reducing the crack propagation. 3. Strengthening using FRP results in increasing the yielding load of the steel section. Consequently, the service load can be increased. 4. The galvanic corrosion may be initiated when there is a direct contact between steel and CFRP , the steel and the CFRP are bridged by an electrolyte and there is a sustained cathodic reaction on theCFRP . Precautions can be taken to eliminate this problem by using a non conductive layer betweenthe carbon and steel or by protecting the area from moisture ingress. 5. Delamination of FRP in the compression side of the girder could occur before delamination in the tension side due to buckling of the laminate. Therefore, bonding the FRP reinforcement to the compression side may not be as effective as bonding it to the tension side. 6. The lower value of modulus of elasticity of all currently available FRPs, including CFRP , incomparison to steel, may result in increasing the number of layers required to increase the stiffness ofthe section and consequently could affect the cost effectiveness of such technique. 7. As the number of FRP layers increases, the efficiency for utilizing the full strength of the FRP material decreases, since the stress in the FRP laminate for one layer was much higher than that formultiple layer system. It has been shown that the thicker the reinforcing material, the higher the chance of bond failure. Consequently, balanced design should be considered to effectively utilize thestrength of CFRP laminates. 8. Strengthening the tension flange of I-sections with FRP will result in increasing their moment capacity. Consequently, lateral torsional buckling of the compression flange may control the failure.Therefore, such strengthening technique is more effective when sufficient lateral supports of compression flange are provided as in composite sections. 9. Applying prestressing force to CFRP plates is very efficient in retrofitting of steel structures subjected to fatigue loads. It prevents further cracking by promoting crack closure effect, which increases the stiffness of the cracked sections. 10. Four-point bending tests show small influence of the FRP bond length on the delamination failure mode, especially when the entire bonded length of FRP is located within the constant moment zone.Three-point bending tests have shown the importance of the bond length on this particular mode offailure, due to the

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presence of shear stresses along the entire span of the beam. Reference
- Armstrong, K. B. Carbon Fibre Fabric Repairs to Metal Aircraft Structures. The Third TechnologyConference on Engineering with Composites, London, England, SAMPE European Chapter, 8.1-8.12 Karbhari, V. M., and Shulley, S. B. Use of Composites for Rehabilitation of Steel Structures Determination of Bond Durability.Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. ASCE, Vol. 7, No. 4,November 1995, pp. 239-245. Allan, R. C., J. Bird, and J. D. Clarke.Use of Adhesives in Repair of Cracks in ShipStructures.Materials Science and Technology. Vol. 4, No. 10, October, 1988, pp. 853-859. Hashim, S. A. Adhesive Bonding of Thick Steel Adherents for Marine Structures MarineStructures. Vol. 12, 1999, pp. 405-423. Gillespie, J. W., Mertz, D. R., Kasai, K., Edberg, W. M., Demitz, J. R., and Hodgson, I.Rehabilitation of Steel Bridge Girders: Large Scale Testing. Proceeding of the American Society forComposites 11th Technical Conference on Composite Materials, 1996, pp. 231-240. Miller, T. C., Chajes, M. J., Mertz, D. R., and Hastings, J. N. Strengthening of a steel bridge girder using CFRP plates. Journal of Bridge Engineering,ASCE, Vol.6, No. 6, November/ December 2001,514-522. Bassetti, A., Liechti, P ., and Nussbaumer, A. Fatigue Resistance -

and Repairs of Riveted Bridge Members. Fatigue Design 98, Espoo, Finland, pp. 535-546. Brockmann, W. Steel Adherents. In Kinloch, A. J., Ed. Durability of Structural Adhesives. AppliedScience Publishers, London, 1993, pp. 281-316. Mays, G. C. and A. R. Hutchinson.Adhesives in Civil Engineering. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1992. Miller, T. C. The Rehabilitation of Steel Bridge Girders Using Advanced Composite Materials. Masters thesis.University of Delware, Newark, Del., 2000. Abushaggur, M., and El Damatty, A. A. Testing of Steel Sections Retrofitted Using FRP Sheets. Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering.Moncton, NouveauBrunswick,Canada.June, 4-7, 2003 (CD-ROM). Francis, R. Bimetallic Corrosion. Guides to Good Practice in Corrosion Control, National PhysicalLaboratory, 2000. Scardino, W. M., and Marceaue, J. A. Comparative Stressed Durability of Adhesively Bonded Aluminum Alloy Joints.Proc., Symp. On Durability of Adhesive Bonded Struct., U.S. Army Armament Res.And Devel.Command, Dover, N. J., 1976. Luke, S., and Mouchel Consulting. The Use of Carbon Fibre Plates for the Strengthening of Two Metallic Bridges of a Historic Nature in the UK.FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Vol. II J.-G.Teng (Ed.), pp. 975-983. Retrofit of Steel Structures Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP): State-of-the-Art, AmrShaat, David Schnerch, Amir Fam and Sami Rizkalla

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Asons Enterprise

PEB Steel Bending

The Fine Art of Steel Bending


Sonjoy Deb
B.Tech,Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

teel curving/bending is a manufacturing process by which metal can be deformed by plastically deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond its yield strength but below its ultimate tensile strength. There is little change to the materials surface area. Bending generally refers to deformation about one axis only. Bending is a flexible process by which a variety of different shapes can be produced though the use of standard die sets or bend brakes. The material is placed on the die, and positioned in place with stops and/ or gages. It is held in place with hold- downs. The upper part of the press, the ram with the appropriately shaped punch descends and forms the v-shaped bend. Bending is done using Press Brakes. Press Brakes can normally have a capacity of 20 to 200 tons to accommodate stock from 1m to 4.5m (3 feet to 15 feet). Larger and smaller presses are used for diverse specialized applications. Programmable back gages, and multiple die sets currently available can make bending a very economical process. Steel Curving/ Bending allows to create various architectural shapes, which is not feasible with traditional way of construction. It also allows considerable savings in the construction cost and the durability aspect of the structure is an added bonus. This story aims to provide the readers with the existing methods of bending, types of bending processes. At the end a few case studies are taken to give readers an over view of what wonders can be created with steel curving/ bending. Methods of Bending There are five typical methods of bending in the industry: rolling, incremental bending, hot bending, rotary-draw bending, and induction bending. Each method has its advantages. Some methods are more commonly used in the steel construction industry, while others are more common in the automobile or manufacturing industries: - Rolling (cold bending) is the typical method of curving steel for construction and is usually the most economical for rolling members with tighter radii. A steel member is placed in a machine and curved between three rolls. Cold bending may also be called pyramid rolling because of the three rolls pyramid arrangement. Bending occurs when the distance between these rolls is manipulated before each successive pass. - Incremental bending or gag pressing is usually used for cambering and curving to very large radii. Bending is achieved by applying point loads with a hydraulic ram or press at the members third point. - Hot bending is where a structural member is heated directly and then bent. The heat source could be a direct flame or furnace. This application is used extensively in repair.

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PEB Steel Bending

- Rotary-draw bending is where the structural member is bent by rotating it around a die. The member is clamped into a form and then is drawn through the machine until the bend is formed. This method produces tight radii and is mainly used for complicated bends in the machine and parts industry. - Induction bending uses an electric coil to heat a short section of a structural member, and then that member is drawn through a process similar to rotary-draw and cooled with water directly after. In some cases, this process can produce a smaller, tighter radius.

Types of Bending (A) Air Bending It is a bending process in which the punch touches the work piece and the work piece does not bottom in the lower cavity. As the punch is released, the work piece springs back a little and ends up with less bend than that on the punch (greater included angle). This is called spring-back. The amount of spring back depends on the material, thickness, grain and temper. The spring back will usually range from 5 to 10 degrees. The same angle

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Multicolor Steels (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Multicolor Steels (India) Pvt. Ltd.

PEB Steel Bending

is usually used in both the punch and the die to minimize set-up time. The inner radius of the bend is the same as the radius on the punch. In air bending, there is no need to change any equipment or dies to obtain different bending angles because the bend angles are determined by the punch stroke. The forces required to form the parts are relatively small, but accurate control of the punch stroke is necessary to obtain the desired bend angle. (B) Bottoming Bottoming is a bending process where the punch and the work piece bottom on the die. This makes for a controlled angle with very little spring back. The tonnage required on this type of press is more than in air bending. The inner radius of the work piece should be a minimum of 1 material thickness. In bottom bending, spring-back is reduced by setting the final position of the punch such that the clearance between the punch and die surface is less than the blank thickness. As a result, the material yields slightly and reduces the spring-back. Bottom bending requires considerably more force (about 50%~60% more) than air bending. (C) Coining Coining is a bending process in which the punch and the work piece bottom on the die and compressive stress is applied to the bending region to increase the amount of plastic deformation. This reduces the amount of springback. The inner radius of the work piece should be up to 0.75 of the material thickness. (D) V Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is constant (equal to the thickness of sheet blank). It is used widely. The thickness of the sheet ranges from approximately 0.5 mm to 25 mm.

(E) U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes are produced in the same operation. A backing pad is used to force the sheet contacting with the punch bottom. It requires about 30% of the bending force for the pad to press the sheet contacting the punch.

Figure 2. Supersized tube bending for supersized golden arches.

Figure 3. The tube bending created multiple radii to minimize costly and timeconsuming weld splices.

(F) Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One edge of the sheet is bent to 90 while the other end is restrained by the material itself and by the force of blank-holder and pad. The flange length can be easily changed and the bend angle can be controlled by the stroke position of the punch. (G) Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping operations acting on the work piece one after another. Double bending can enhance strain hardening to reduce spring- back. (H) Rotary Bending

Figure 1. Tube bending to form 60ft-high parabolic arches for McDonalds

Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead of the punch. The advantages of rotary bending are:

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PEB Steel Bending

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Needs no blank-holder Compensates for spring-back by over-bending Requires less force More than 90 degree bending angle is available

- Dimensioning of the part should take into account the stack up of dimensions that can happen and mounting holes that can be made oblong should be. - Parts should be inspected in a restrained position, so that the natural flexure of the parts does not affect measurements. Similarly inside dimensions in an inside bend should be measured close to the bend. Some Structures with Steel Curving (Bending)/ Examples of Steel Curving (Bending)

General bending guidelines are as follows: - The bend radius should, if possible, be kept the same for all radiuses in the part to minimize set up changes. - For most materials, the ideal minimum inner radius should be at least 1 material thickness. - The minimum flange width should be at least 4 times the stock thickness plus the bending radius. Violating this rule could cause distortions in the part or damage to tooling or operator due to slippage. - Slots or holes too close to the bend can cause distortion of these holes. Holes or slots should be located a minimum of 3 stock thickness plus the bend radius. If it is necessary to have holes closer, then the hole or slot should de extended beyond the bend line

Figure 6. Beam bending for a series of half ellipses.

Figure 4. Tube bending of 402 tons of 12x12 for the roof trusses of the University of Phoenix Stadium.

Figure 7. Reserve Curving of Steel member

McDonalds Arches Chicago Metal Rolled Products have curved large rectangular tubing to form the parabolic arches for the new flagship McDonalds which opened in downtown Chicago. The tube bending company matched the customersupplied templates putting multiple radiuses into 50-footlong tube to minimize costly weld splices and to reduce the time required for fabrication and erection on the fast-paced project. To meet the projects tight schedule, Chicago

Figure 5. Contractors curving technology for tube bending saved more than 80,000 lbs. of steel.

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Technology in Chicago, designed by Dutch architect Rem Koolhaus, was to be linked to Chicagos elevated El train system. Koolhaas solution to train noise was to create a steel-and-concrete tube to encase trains as they pass over the single-story, building. Beam bending provided by Chicago Metal Rolled Products produced 104,000 pounds of W12 x 58# beams the hard way to form a series of half ellipses with radiuses of approximately 12, 24 and 34. (See Figure 6). Ratner Athletic Center at the University of Chicago Beam bending to form a reverse curve saved over $24,000 worth of weld splices (See Figure 7). Fabricators in U.S. claim to put curves into wide-flange beams up to 44 inches tall that weigh 285 pounds per foot and do it the hard wayalong the longest axis of the cross section. Its latest equipment acquisition is the largest beam roller ever built for anyone (See Figure 8). Conclusion It has often been observed that steel bending is more often an art than a mere skill. And this is true. But it is also true that in order to produce quality bends on time and at a competitive price for an ever more demanding OEM (original equipment manufacturer) market, a machine operator must be trained not only in machine operation but also in the principals of lean manufacturing. Whether the operator is doing steel bending in the factory of an OEM or in the factory of a contract manufacturer that supplies the OEM, he or she should understand the principals of lean manufacturing which is also called Just-in-time manufacturing, world-class manufacturing, Japanese manufacturing techniques, or the Toyota way. There are differences in what principals are promulgated in each of these approaches, but they all share some fundamental values. And it is important for the machine operator to understand and apply them. Reference
- - - - - - - http://www.cmrp.com/documents/Fabricator%20Article%20M ay%202001.pdf www.maxweiss.com www.kubesteel.com www.bendtec.com http://www.modernsteel.com/Uploads/Issues/May_ 2007/30765_bender-rollers.pdf http://www.225steel.com/steel-bending.htm http://www.cmrp.com

Figure 8. A 20 Tonne beam bent to the shape of a semi circle.

Metal completed all the tube bending within three days after the customer supplied the material. The new design has two 60-foot-tall arches that span much of the entire site and help support the roof of the two-story restaurant. Each large arc is comprised of two 20 x 12 tubes covered by plate on all four sides. The arches are 20 inches wide and vary in thickness from 36 inches at the base to 24 inches at the top (Refer to Figure 1, 2 and 3). University of Phoenix Stadium For the roof trusses of the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, Chicago Metal Rolled Products tube bending machines curved 402 tons of 12 x 12 x 5/8 and 12 x 12 x square tubing to a variety of radiuses from 1000 to 1200 feet. Across the width of the field span 256-footlong lenticular trusses so-called because both the top and bottom chords are curved, creating a profile that resembles a convex lens. Tube bending from Chicago Metal Rolled Products of sixteen such trusses are incorporated in the two retractable roof panels. (See Figure 4 and 5). Illinois Institute of Technology Train Tube A new McCormick Student Center at the Illinois Institute of

Photo courtesy
www.steelmasterusa.com

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SAVCOR India Private Limited

Steel Structures Thermal Bridging

Thermal Bridging:
Chaitanya Raj Goyal

Reducing Structural Steels Impact on Building Envelope Energy Transfer

nergy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important parameter in the design of buildings. Among the many changing trends, as a result of the green revolution, is the growing popularity and demand of energy efficient and sustainable buildings which have now become the hottest trend of the decade. The energy consumed by structures accounts for a large proportion of the total global energy consumption, and of the carbon dioxide emissions which contribute to

climate change. Much of this energy is accounted for in the space heating and cooling, and forms the crux of the problem! Steel is a fully recyclable material and probably the most recycled in the world. Owing to such properties of it, each ton of recycled steel saves 2,500 pounds of iron ore and approximately 1,000 pounds of coal. Most steel utilized in the construction of steel buildings consists of 70% recycled content - in fact, the Green Building Resource Guide

gives steel framing its highest 5 icon rating making it a true green product. Appropriately provided insulation in steel construction can substantially save natural resources, energy and money. Unfortunately, steel being 300 times more thermally conductive than wood results in short circuit thermal bridging through steel framing members. But with the continuous breakthroughs in the insulation technology it has now become possible to overcome such short comings. Today, because of public

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Steel Structures Thermal Bridging

disproportionately significant heat loss." For example, it may occur when a conductive building component, such as a steel lintel, spans the gap between the inside and outside of a building, bypassing the insulation. Thermal Bridging leads to thermal losses from the building increasing CO2 emissions from the building. Condensation may also occur on the internal wall where there is a thermal bridge leading to damage to the internal decoration. Insulation standards for roofs, walls, windows and floors in the Building Regulations have increased over the years to improve efficiency by reducing heat loss. Indian Standard code 37921978 serves as the guide of heat insulation for non industrial buildings in India. Since energy costs can be high, having thermal bridging occur in a metal building can be expensive and cost prohibitive. While efforts in this area are typically focused on the mechanical, electrical and glazing systems and not the structural system, one area where structural designers can reduce energy consumption is the loss of building energy via thermal conductivity of elements that bridge across the insulation of a wall or roof enclosure of a conditioned (i.e., heated or cooled) space when the outside temperature is warmer or colder than the interior space. Reducing these bridges has become of paramount importance to us today! Fortunately, reversing thermal bridging is possible. Thermal Bridging through structural steel: How it works? concerns regarding environmental issues as well as ever increasing energy costs, studies show that consumers have become willing and prepared to ensure that their steel buildings are energyefficient. Defining a Thermal Bridge and the associated problems Thermal bridging occurs, when heat flow that occurs across more conductive components in an otherwise well-insulated assembly, results in In the early 1990s, when the steel industry made a strong play to bring light-gauge steel framing to residential construction, it was met, understandably, by strong resistance from the lumber manufacturers, framing trades and tradition- oriented home builders who were concerned about performance and warranty. At the time, one of the most commonly expressed concerns by structural engineers debating the issue was the problem of thermal bridging. Structural steel elements are integral

An infrared thermal image of a steel-framed brick building reveals heat loss at the bright yellow lines corresponding to the locations of the relieving angles.

to the building envelope or building enclosure. Accordingly, designers need to have a basic knowledge of how envelopes work, especially the thermal impact of steel elements penetrating the envelope. As everyone knows, steel is a pretty good conductor of heat. Its R-value is incredibly low, and while it has traditionally been believed that the area of a wall or ceiling bridged by steel is so small that the overall loss of heat is relatively minor, recent research has shown that's not true for either of lightgauge steel framing or structural steel framing. According to one source, if the bridging of steel in a wall is equal to less than one-tenth or 1 percent of the total wall area, it will allow more heat to flow through that small surface area than the entire rest of the wall. Research

Window steel frame acts as a thermal bridge

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Thermal-bridge

institutions looked at thermal bridging in light-gauge steel framing and discovered the thermal bridging through steel framing can reduce a walls thermal performance by 55 percent. Conduction, Convection and Radiation are the three ways in which a heat transfer can occur through a building envelope. Convection is the transport of heat energy in air that flows through the envelope. This can be a significant source of building energy loss if the envelope does not have an effective air barrier system in the envelope. Radiation is responsible for very little heat transfer across the envelope, but radiation on the exterior surface of a building in the form of solar gain, or heat loss on a cold, clear night can be very significant. But Conduction, the flow of heat through materials is responsible for the majority of the heat flow through almost all functional building envelopes, and is the primary concern in terms of thermal bridging. Resisting conductive heat flow is usually accomplished by the use of insulation materials. Repeating, Non repeating and Geometrical thermal bridges are types of classification of these bridges. Repeating thermal bridges usually follow a regular pattern and are evenly distributed over an area of the thermal envelope. Typical examples include: Ceiling joists in cold pitched roofs that

are insulated at ceiling level; ground floor joists in an insulated suspended timber ground floor; Timber studwork and I-beams in timber frame construction; Mortar joints in an insulating block inner leaf and steel wall ties in masonry cavity external wall construction. Non-repeating thermal bridges are intermittent and occur at a specific point in the construction. They are often caused by discontinuities in the thermal envelope. These discontinuities may be a result of the construction method used or may be due to changes in materials over the thermal envelope. They commonly occur around openings and other instances where materials of different thermal conductivities form part of the external envelope. Typical examples include: Around windows, doors and roof lights; around loft hatches; where internal walls or floors penetrate the thermal envelope and where steel I-beams have been used to support timber roofs. Geometrical thermal bridges, as the name suggests, are a result of the geometry (or shape) of the thermal envelope. They can be 2-dimensional (where 2 planes intersect) or 3-

dimensional (where 3 or more planes intersect). The occurrence of geometric thermal bridging is likely to increase the more complex the building geometry. Typical examples include: At the corner of an external wall; at wall/floor junctions; Junctions between windows, doors and walls, and Junctions between adjacent walls. Serial vs. Parallel Conductive Heat Paths - Conductive heat flow through a building envelope assembly, such as a wall, can occur either in series or parallel, similar to the flow of electricity. In a series heat path, heat moves progressively through one material, then the next, and so on. Series heat flows occur when the building materials are layers in adjacent planes like a sandwich: for example, a Wythe of brick, then a layer of rigid insulation, then another Wythe of block in a wall assembly. For such systems, the total R-value of the assembly can be determined by simply adding the Rvalues of the individual layers, times their thickness. A parallel heat path occurs when a plane of material is interrupted, or bridged, by another material that has different thermal properties. For example, a steel plate passing through a layer of rigid insulation forms a parallel heat path. Parallel heat paths are more complicated to evaluate than a series path. Breaking the Bridge Sometimes structural steel elements are required to penetrate the insulated envelope (e.g. canopies and roof members) or be fixed to other steel components, such as balcony brackets and brick support units. These areas require careful consideration. There are three fundamental ways of reducing thermal bridging in steel construction: Eliminate the thermal bridge by keeping the steelwork within the insulated envelope; locally insulate any steelwork that penetrates the envelope; reduce the thermal transmittance of the thermal bridge by using thermal breaks, changing the detailing or by including alternative materials. Some examples include

Applying a thermal break

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Macmillan Insulations India Pvt. Ltd.

Steel Structures Thermal Bridging

paper facing is commonly used for batt insulation and works well for increasing the permeability rating on vapor infiltration. The importance of facing extends beyond just moisture control and heat conductivity. Perhaps one of the facings that is getting the most attention in continuous insulation is foil facing, which is used as a radiant barrier, predominantly in cool roof applications. Radiant barriers are necessary primarily in hot climates where direct sunlight strikes a surface and heats it. A radiant barrier reduces the heat transfer and is affected by three factors: emissivity, reflectivity and the angle of the surface. Studies have shown that radiant barriers can reduce cooling costs between 5 -10 percent in warm climates. In cool climates, it makes more sense to increase the level of insulation rather than installing a radiant barrier. Lessons Learned
Controlling obvious thermal bridges is must

insulated sheathing; design and install distance spacers that place an air barrier between the framing and the exterior sheathing; add a reflective surface to the space so the air barrier has an increased R-value; alternate framing members to provide a break and spray foam on the framing members. Perhaps the quickest, simplest and easiest way to improve thermal performance of walls and ceilings at the most cost-effective price can be achieved with continuous insulation products, typically with rigid foam or a combination product, such as insulated metal panels. Addition of space framing is another effective solution. Most metal buildings are constructed with batt insulation draped over the framing members, and then metal panels attached. The panels compress the insulation, reducing its effectiveness and the fasteners provide a short cut to the thermal bridge. Consequently, a wall designed to achieve an R-19 value can have an effective value of R-14. Placing a thermal block on the framing member prior to installing

panels allows the wall to retain its full rating and prevent the short cut caused by fasteners. Moisture along with the energy should also be taken good care of. One of the biggest dangers to any building is the potential for moisture build-up within the walls. The defining factor is dew point, which is the temperature at which water vapor condenses. There are two ways to prevent this. One is to install enough insulation so that the dew point occurs outside the wall and the other is to use vapor barriers that prevent the moisture in the warm air from passing into the wall. Both are necessary. Continuous insulation with facing material is a convenient and easy way to construct a vapor barrier, prevent a thermal bridge (another way to get a dew point inside a wall) and add enough R-value so the building envelope works efficiently. Insulation facing and radiant barriers also demand special attention. Facings come in different varieties with different advantages. Foil facing, for example, will help reduce heat conductivity. Kraft

In addition to the sustainability impact of the use of structural steel material itself, the steel design and construction community must acknowledge the need to minimize the potential building energy that can be lost through thermal steel bridging. This change is coming quickly. We need to develop and refine a set of solutions now, before our options are limited by others. We shouldnt wait until building codes are introduced in this country incorporating specific limitations for the amount of thermal steel bridging that will be allowed in buildings depending on their use. The International Green Construction Code (IGCC), a product of the International Code Council, was published recently in March 2012. The IGCC states that the building thermal envelope shall exceed requirements in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) by 10%. In todays market, reducing both construction and operational building cost are more important than ever before. Its time for structural engineers to understand this problem and develop solutions. After all, thats what engineering is all about!

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Atul Fasterners Ltd

Insulation

Radiant Heat Barriers for Thermal Comfort Excellence

VS Sharma
GM (Tech), Macmillan Insulations India Pvt. Ltd.

nergy efficiency in construction is important to everyone i.e. builders, owners and prospective users of public, commercial and residential accommodation. This combined with the fact that the number one challenge in the tropical climates in countries like India is to control heat gain. That makes radiant heat barriers an integral part of building design, improve the overall comfort level in a building and reduce energy bills. ASHRAE Standard 55 defines Thermal Comfort as: 'Thermal comfort is that condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.'

From the definition of thermal comfort it is clear that it refers to state of mind that finds the surrounding environment satisfactory. The environmental factors that impact the feeling of human satisfaction are air temperature, humidity, air flow or wind and radiations from Sun or surrounding hot surfaces. Personal factors like clothing, adaptation to environment and activity level also have a bearing on the perception of comfort. People accustomed to hot climates are comfortable at higher temperatures as compared to people from cooler climates. Similarly in Air-conditioned Buildings, people feel perfectly comfortable in heavy clothing during winter and light

clothing during summer although there is no seasonal change in the indoor environmental conditions. In hotter climates like Indian summers, body shedding heat through sweat evaporation is natural way to maintain the thermal equilibrium. The cooling efficiency is dependent on humidity that reduces the effectiveness of evaporative cooling. Humidity is the reason that renders July/August more uncomfortable as compared to May/Jun in spite of temperatures being higher prior to the onset of rainy season. During winters, body must prevent / reduce heat loss by having additional protective warm clothing, moving into a shelter to avoid wind chill or increase body heat production with increased physical activity. During winters, evaporation and humidity are minor factors while exposed body parts and wind chill are major factors for maintaining thermal balance as far as human comfort is concerned. Radiation plays the most important role in creating conditions conducive to thermal comfort / thermal stress. Radiation during winters may be soothing as everyone who has enjoyed the winter Sun knows, but the same solar radiation can lead to excessive heat load on the person during summers with attendant uncomforting experience and heat stress. In order to understand the perception of thermal comfort by human body, we need to know the process of heat exchange between body and surrounding environment. A seated human body produces and dissipates about 100 W of heat energy into the surrounding environment and the energy produced

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Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd

Insulation

would increase beyond 500 W for a person engaged in cardio-vascular exercises in a Gymnasium. If this transfer of heat for a seated person doesn't lead to extra physical effort like sweating or shivering to maintain the body temperature, environment is considered to be comfortable. As per ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook: o 'Skin temperature greater than 45 C o or less than 18 C causes pain. Skin temperatures associated with comfort at o sedentary activities are 33 to 34 C and decrease with increasing activity. In contrast, internal temperatures rise with activity. The temperature regulatory o centre in the brain is about 36.8 C at rest in comfort and increases to about o o 37.4 C when walking and 37.9 C when jogging. Metabolic activity inside the body produces energy that is used for muscular work or transferred to surrounding environment through respiration and skin. The heat energy exchanged by skin to environment comprises convective heat transfer to/from the surrounding air, evaporative heat transfer through sweat evaporation and radiation to/ from skin to surrounding environment. If the surrounding surfaces like walls/floor/ ceiling have temperatures higher than the body temperature, the radiation exchange would result in net heat gain. If the heat produced by metabolic activity exceeds the heat consumed in muscular work and lost/gained during exchange with surrounding environment, the same would lead to increase of body temperature. This change of body temperature is sensed by the hypothalamus in human brain, the god given thermostat to control body temperature. The body temperature is regulated by increasing blood supply to skin to increase heat loss or reduce blood supply and conserve heat loss through skin. If skin temperature gets lower than desired due to excessive heat loss, the hypothalamus triggers shivering & localised heat generation. If the internal temperature increases beyond a certain point, the hypothalamus triggers sweat generation to cool the body through evaporative cooling. We are quite good at sensing the skin

moisture / perspiration with the associated feelings of unpleasantness and discomfort especially if involved in sedentary work. Asymmetric or non-uniform thermal radiations in a building from cold windows in winter or hot ceiling during summers can lead to occupants feeling uncomfortable. As per ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook: 'People are more sensitive to asymmetry caused by an overhead warm surface than by a vertical cold surface. The influence of an overhead cold surface and a vertical warm surface is much less.' Based on various field studies, Nicol has come up with an empirical equation to compute Comfortable Temperature, when 90 percent of the population would find the environmental conditions satisfactory. The Comfort Temperature (Tcomfort) is calculated from the monthly mean outside temperature (To mean) which is derived from the monthly mean of daily maximum (To max) and minimum (To min) from meteorological records. The comfort temperature is calculated usin g the equation Tcomfort = 0.54xTo mean + 12.9 From the weather data from the meteorological records for Delhi as shown in the table, To comfortable for Delhi has been computed. The same information is depicted graphically for ease of comprehension. Its clear from the graph the To comfort varies from low comfortable temperature 210oC in DEC JAN to a high comfortable o temperature of 300 C during Jun Jul. In almost all types of construction, roof has the maximum exposure to solar

radiation and contributes the most towards heat gain due to large surface area getting exposed to the sun leading to extreme temperatures of roof surfaces. Roof temperatures reach upwards of o 650 C leading to uncomfortable inside environment in unconditioned buildings. At peak times, more than 40% of the energy that enters the conditioned airspace through the ceiling is the direct result of radiant energy being transferred from the deck to the top of the false ceiling. Radiant Heat Barriers like Double sided Aluminium Foil like Flamestop 138, are the most economical, efficient and long lasting solution for minimizing heat gain from the roofs. It is important to understand the simplicity of principle on which the radiant barriers work and their application in construction. Heat always travels from hot surface to cold surface by the three methods of heat transfer i.e. radiation, convection and conduction. The principle on which the radiant barrier functions is the same as that of Thermos Flask i.e. preventing heat transfer through radiation. Thermos Flask takes care of the other two means of heat transfer i.e. convection and conduction by having vacuum in between the two reflective surfaces. However, one doesn't have to conduct an experiment with two thermos flasks, one without reflective insulation and another with reflective insulation to find out that convection and conduction play a minor role in heat transfer. During hot summer days, the roof of a building absorbs solar radiation and then the heat is dissipated outside into the atmosphere through all the three

MONTHLY AVERAGE WEATHER DATA FOR DELHI


MONTH AVG HIGH TEMP AVG HIGH TEMP AVG MEAN TEMP NICOL COMFT TEMP JAN 21.1 FEB 24.2 MAR 30 APR 36.2 MAY 39.5 JUN 39.3 JUL 35.1 AUG 33.33 SEP 33.9 OCT 32.9 NOV 28.3 DEC 23

7.3

10.1

15.4

21.5

25.9

28.3

26.6

25.9

24.4

19.5

12.8

8.2

14.2

17.2

22.7

28.9

32.7

33.8

30.9

29.6

29.2

26.2

20.6

15.6

20.6

22.2

25.2

28.5

30.6

31.2

29.6

28.9

28.6

27.0

24.0

21.3

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Techny chemy

Insulation

means of heat transfer i.e. through conduction, convection and radiation and a significant portion to the inner roof surface through conduction resulting in increased inner roof surface temperature. The roof temperature keeps on increasing after Sunrise as the amount of heat energy gained is more than heat energy lost through radiation, convection and conduction. The Solar heat gained keeps on increasing with the increase in sun angle till a balance/equilibrium is reached with roof temperature reaching maxima for the day sometime in the afternoon with heat energy gained being equal to the heat energy lost. Subsequently, with the Sun going down sun angle reducing, the heat loss becomes more than the heat gain leading to reduction of roof temperature and the process continues till the next day morning till a minima is reached sometime after Sunrise. As much as 93% of the total heat gain from the roof is through radiation with conduction contributing the remaining heat transfer through roof and convection playing no role as a convective loop is not possible for heat gain through the roof. A properly installed radiant barrier under roof will stop as much as 97% of radiant heat by reflecting 95% of the incident radiations while transmitting just 5% of the 5% absorbed heat energy. On the other hand, mass/bulk insulation acts as a barrier for heat transfer by convection & can only slow down the

process of heat transfer through conduction. Roofing materials (RCC Slabs or ACC/Metal Roofs) are often poor reflectors & good emitters of heat. The traditional roofing materials absorb as much as 90% of the incoming solar energy resulting in roof temperatures o o rising to levels as high as 650 C to 700 C during summers. The hot roofs start transferring the absorbed heat to the cooler surfaces inside the building through conduction & radiation with radiation being responsible for more than 90% of the heat gain. The inner surface of the heated up ceiling transfers the absorbed solar heat to all objects inside. The radiant surface temperatures of the walls and ceilings have a direct influence on the comfort level of the occupants and increased energy costs in conditioned buildings. Most energy conservation consultants recognize effectiveness of radiant barriers, in controlling heat flow from roof to the building's interior. A polished film of aluminium is the primary component of a radiant heat barrier system. Compared to ACC/Metal /RCC roofs with high emittance value 0.7 to 0.9, aluminium radiant heat barrier emits only 3% to 5% energy as heat radiant energy from its surface when compared to non reflective ceiling surfaces. Thus, radiant barriers can effectively block 95% to 97% of radiant heat transfer from roof to inside. There are several ways to install

radiant barrier under the roof. It can be laid over the purlin in case of new buildings or under the purlin in existing buildings with ACC/Metal sheet roofs. In case of RCC slab roofs, the process is similar to installation gypsum boards and it is attached with the help channels with an air cavity in between RCC slab and radiant barrier. A properly installed radiant barrier under the roof is the best performing application and gives the best results with radiant barrier surface temperature getting reduced to just about 20C above the ambient outside air temperature and relief from thermal stress associated with high ceiling temperatures. During a typical summer afternoon in the Sunbelt, a properly installed under roof radiant barrier system will: Reduce room temperatures by o o as much as 060 C to 080 C in unconditioned buildings. Increase the human thermal comfort level for the occupants of the building. Extend the life of the air-conditioning unit.

In today's market, with rising energy costs and increased consumer awareness in all areas of industry, it is important to market a product that is not only smart economics for the builder but also for the consumer. The builders that have adapted radiant barriers in their programs are clearly setting the benchmark in the industry for energy efficient and environment friendly green buildings with competitive advantage. Bibiliography: - ASHRAE Standard 55 - Chapter 08, ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook 2001 - Climate of Delhi from Wikipedia - www.new-learn.info/packages/ clear/index.html

For further details:


SCO 196, 2nd Floor, Sector 16, Panchkula - 134 109, Haryana, India. Ph: 0172 - 506 6148, Fax: 0172 - 506 4148 E-mail: macmillaninsulations@gmail.com Web: www.macmillanindia.co.in

Macmillan Insulations India Pvt. Ltd.

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Unisteel Engineering Works

Steel Buildings Bracing

Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Structured Steel Buildings


Sonjoy Deb
B.Tech,Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

n high-rise construction and bridge construction the need for predetermined erection procedures and temporary support systems has long been established in the industry. Low-rise construction does not command a comparable respect or attention because of the low heights and relatively simple framing involved. Also the structures are relatively lightly loaded and the framing members are relatively light. This has lead to a number of common fallacies which are supported by anecdotal evidence. This article will guide you how to carry out the erection of steel structures for low-rise buildings step by step. Three of the most important things that are to be noted before starting the job is as follows (a) After receiving the building package and before storing, all the items are required to be checked for any defects

and quantities as per the list, if a single part is missing, the entire work will suffer. Hence the owner should make a check list of all the items and verify it while receiving. (b) Materials needs to be properly stored and handled at site during construction to avoid any undue damage. (c) The owner should ask the contractor an errection plan as well as safety action plan for executing the job. Following are the broad steps for erection of bracing and other parts of low-rise structured steel buildings A. Site and Foundation Preparation B. Building Delivery and Storage C. Erection of Primary, Secondary Structural and Doors and Windows D. Sheeting (Wall and Roof)

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A. Site and Foundation Preparation

If observed closely, massive threaded steel rods sticking up from the cement in groups of four can be seen. This is where the steel structure will be bolted down to the cement.

Before doing the concrete foundation it is extremely important that foundation should be properly checked for its width and length and most importantly for equality of both the diagonals. After this all the column locations to be marked on the foundations very accurately and anchor bolts to be fixed then. This is a very important step, as any mistake in this step will effect the entire erection programme, since all the structures are fabricated for predetermined sizes and mistake in any span would give birth to complexity in the erection process. Hence great care to be taken while carrying out the anchor bolt setting plan. All anchor bolts should be held in place with a template or similar means, so they will remain plumb and in the correct location during placing of the concrete. Check the concrete forms and anchor bolt locations prior to the pouring of the concrete. A final check should be made after the completion of the concrete work and prior to the steel erection. This will allow any necessary corrections to be made before the costly erection labor and equipment arrives. B. Building Delivery and Storage

While receiving the materials at site, place the parts around the foundation so they will be in the most convenient locations for installation. For example: place the end columns and rafters at the ends of the building and the mainframe columns and rafters at the sides. Place the bolts and nuts in a place where they will be accessible to the parts. You may want to screw the bolts and nuts together and place them with the corresponding parts. This will save time as you begin assembling the parts and also will reduce your time and cost for re shifting the materials again to the location of erection. Purlins and girts, depending on the number of bundles, are usually stored near the sidewalls clear of other packages or parts. Sheet packages are usually located along one or both sidewalls off the ground and sloping to one end to encourage drainage in case of rain. Accessories are usually unloaded on a corner of the slab or off the slab near one end of the building to keep them as much out of the way as possible from the active area during steel erection. For storage of sheets it is recommended to be stored under roof if at all possible. If sheets are to be stored outside, the following precautions should be observed: 1. The storage area should be reasonably level, and located so as to minimize handling. 2. When stored on bare ground, place a plastic ground cover under the bundles to minimize condensation on the sheets from ground moisture. 3. Store bundles at least 12 inches above ground level to allow air circulation beneath the bundle, and to prevent damage from rising water. 4. Elevate one end of each bundle slightly to permit runoff of moisture from the top of the bundle or from between sheets. A waterproof cover should be placed over the bundles to allow for air circulation under the cover. 5. Inspect stored bundles daily and repair any tears or punctures in the waterproof cover. 6. Re-cover opened bundles at the end of each workday to prevent subsequent moisture damage. C. Erection of Primary, Secondary Structural and Doors and Windows General Many methods and procedures are in use for erecting the structural portion of metal buildings. The techniques of raising frames vary from erecting small clear spans and endwall frames in units to erecting the larger clear spans and modular frames in sections. The erection methods used depend strictly on the type of building, the available equipment, the experience level of the crews, and the individual job conditions. The variations in these factors preclude the establishment of a firm or specific set of

It is essential to keep the materials required at the site before hand to facilitate and fast and speedy process

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Steel Buildings Bracing

erection rules and procedures. Consequently, the erection operation must be tailored by the erector to fit individual conditions and requirements. However, there are certain erection practices, pertaining to structural members, which are in general use and have proven sound over the years and which can be followed for erection in all the places. In every condition Erectors are cautioned not to cut primary members (rigid frame columns, rafters, end bearing frame rafters, interior columns). These are the primary support members for the frame and are designed as such. Any cutting of these members may affect the structural stability. The intermediate or interior frames nearest the bearing endwall are usually erected first. This bay usually contains the diagonal bracing. The proper completion and plumbing of this first bay is extremely important to the successful completion of the building. Although several methods are used to erect rigid frames, it has been found most satisfactory to erect the columns first, tie them together with the girts and tighten the anchor bolts. On small spans and short eave heights, columns can often be set in place by hand without the use of hoisting equipment. Temporary bracing should always be installed as soon as sections are lifted in place (See Figure 1).Once this is over the structure is ready for girt erection. At first it is needed to put one screw in the end of each girt. At the corners put 2 screws in the end of the girts. The girt erection is shown in Figure 2a and 2b. Once the sidewalls have been stood and all girts are on them, wind rod braces needs to be installed (See Figure 3a

and 3b). These go in the same bay on both sides, preferably near the center of the length of the building. Care should be taken that these are not installed where there is a door or window opening. Once installed, these can be used to adjust the columns to be plumb. Once the columns are plumb make sure everything is snug.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2. (a) Installation of Wall wind brace rods, (b) Detail of wind brace rod mounting bracket

After this attach the girts to the clips on the column and end wall legs using a single tek screw in each end. After ensuring that columns are straight then only attach the knee braces to the girts. The knee braces will bolt to the column or truss and attach to the girt with a tek screw. If columns are twisted it is needed to straighten them before attaching the knee brace (See Figure 4).

Figure 4. Attaching knee braces to truss leg

Figure 1. Truss column anchored to foundation concrete.

After erection of columns and installation of girts on the sidewalls the structure is ready for the roof trusses erection (See Figure 5,6). Roof trusses should be bolted together on the ground and lifted into place. Two important point to be noted before truss erection is as below (a) Knee brace angles should be installed on the truss before lifting into place. (b) If building is wider than forty feet it is recommended that a spreader bar should be used to pick up the trusses. If it is not used, the truss may fold in the middle and cause damage.

Figure 2. Girt erection and bolting procedure.

Knee brace fixing to the roof truss and attaching roof truss to the legs is shown in Figure 7 and 8 below.

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Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd

Steel Buildings Bracing

Figure 5. Lifting roof truss arms into place

Figure 9. Attaching purlins to completed trusses

Figure 6. Using lift to raise roof trusses into place

Figure 10. Detail of attached purlins showing tek screw spacing

Attaching purlins to the truss top with joint details is shown in Figure 9 and 10 Installation of wind braces in the roof truss in the same panel where it is attached in the wall is shown in Figure 11. Figure 12a and 12b shows installation of eave clip to the end of pulin.

Figure 7. Knee braces attached to truss

Figure 8. Attaching roof trusses to legs

Figure 11. Installation of wind brace rods in roof in the same panel where it is installed in wall

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Steel Buildings Bracing

3. Purlins and Girts - All purlins and girts are in place and well attached - Fascia purlins are installed - 6 gable track is installed
Figure 12. (a) 6 Track installed to eave clip before nested (b) 6 Track on ends of purlins. purlin is put in.

4. Bracing - All knee braces are bolted and tightened on columns and roof trusses - All knee braces are screwed to girts and purlins - All wind brace rods are in place - All wind brace rod nuts should be snugged down against the clip after building is plumb D. Sheeting (Wall and Roof) After completing the check the structure is ready for sheeting erection. Gang drill is recommended for drilling the sheets. The process is shown in Figures 14, 15 and 16. Not more than 20 sheet panels to be stacked together.

How to Make a Framed Opening (See Figure 13a and 13b) 1. Measure the size of the door or window to determine the size opening required. 2. Mark the girts where you want to position the opening. 3. Cut the girts with your abrasive saw. 4. Slide the track over the end of the cut girts to form the opening. 5. Insert the door or window into the opening and square it so that it functions properly. 6. Fasten the track to the girts with tek screws and fasten the door or window to framed opening. 7. Attach J trim with colored screws if it isnt part of the door or window frame.

Figure 14. Gang drilling is recommended for even screw lines.

(a) Figure 13. (a) Fixing of Window (b) Fixing of Doors

(b)

Once this step is complete the sheeting job can be started. However before proceeding for sheeting job, it is necessary to recheck and make sure everything is properly installed at this point. If anything is missing it is the time to go back and fix it before sheeting job is started. Checklist for the erection job (To be carried out prior to start if sheeting job) 1. Columns and Endwallcolumns - All columns are properly located - All columns are plumb - All bolts are in place and tightened 2. Roof Trusses - All roof trusses are properly in place - All bolts are in place and tightened - Building is plumb

Figure 15. Not more than 20 sheets to be stacked

Figure 16. Drilling of sheets in progress

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Steel Buildings Bracing

Figure 17. Wall panel erection and check for verticality Figure 19. (b) Installation of end plate at top corner

roofing sheets (See Figure 18). After the roofing installation it is required to check whether all the bolts caps and washers are in place or not otherwise there is possibility of leakage during rains. Final step is to put the corner corner trim and gable trim (See Figure 19a) and end cap ( See Figure 19b). Conclusion It is recommended to go through across the building after completion of the work to ensure that there are no missing screws or loose parts. Everything should be checked twice to make sure it is tight and secure. During the entire construction period the owner should look after the safety aspect of the work very carefully viz. personal protective equipments are allotted to every worker or not, safety nets are there or not, lifting capacity of the crane/chain pulley etc. It is also recommended to make a proper work schedule day wise before starting the work in along with the contractor which will help the owner to keep a track on the erection process and avoid getting undue delay in the work. Reference
- Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Structural Steel Buildings, James M. Fisher, PhD, P . E. and Michael A. West, P . E.Computerized Structural Design Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Prefabricated Steel Building Installation Manual, MUELLER INC, METAL BUILDING, ROOFING AND COMPONENTS. Building Erection Manual, Worldwide Steel Buildings.

Figure 18. Roof Sheet installation

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Figure 19. (a) Installation of corner trim

Wall panels are installed before roof. Base trim must be attached first with 4 screws per piece. At every location the verticality of the wall panel is to be checked. Once the wall panel is installed, next step is installation of

Photo Courtesy
www.people.fsv.cvut.cz www.trinityrising.blogspot.in www.newburymarket.com

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Universal Construction Machinery Equipment Ltd

Floor Systems Flat Plate Construction

Flat Plate Flooring Systems:

The Win-Win Solution


Sonjoy Deb
B.Tech,Civil. N.I.T.Silchar, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology

flat plate floor system is a two-way concrete slab supported directly on columns with reinforcement in two orthogonal directions (Figure 1). Primarily used in hotels, multi-family residential buildings, and hospitals, this system has the advantages of simple construction and formwork and a flat ceiling, the latter of which reduces ceiling finishing costs, since the architectural finish can be applied directly to the underside of the slab. Even more significant are the cost savings associated with the low-story heights made possible by the shallow floor system. Smaller vertical runs of cladding, partition walls, mechanical systems, plumbing, and a large number of other items of construction translate to large cost savings, especially for medium and high-rise buildings. Moreover, where the

total height of a building is restricted, using a flat plate will result in more stories accommodated within the set height. The thickness of a flat plate is controlled by the deflection requirements given in Sect. 9.5.3 of ACI 31805. Minimum slab thicknesses for flat plates with Grade 60 reinforcing bars, are laid out in ACI 9.5.3 and it is a function of the longest clear span between supports. Flat plate systems are economically viable for short to medium spans and for moderate live loads. Up to live loads of about 50 psf, the deflection criteria usually govern, and the economical span length range is 15 ft to 25 ft. For live loads of 100 psf or more, punching shear stresses at the columns and bending moments in the slab control the design. For these cases, the flat plate is economical for spans between 15 ft and 20 ft.

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Floor Systems Flat Plate Construction

A flat plate floor with a live load of 100 psf is only about 8% more expensive than one with a live load of 50 psf, primarily due to the minimum thickness requirements for deflection. Floor panels with an aspect ratio of 2 would be about 30% more expensive than panels with an aspect ratio of 1; the thickness of the rectangular panel is governed by the greater span length, resulting in a loss of economy. On average, the formwork costs for flat plates represent approximately 46% of the total floor cost. Concrete material, placing, and finishing account for about 36% of the cost. The remaining 18% is the material and placing cost of the mild reinforcement. Application of flat plate floor system in realtime structure is shown in Figure 2a, 2b and 2c. The advantages of the flat plate system are thin structure, simple formwork, and flat soffits. The integral interaction of 2-way slab allows for wider distribution of moment capacity and therefore a large effective width for carrying moment. This results in the ability to use a thin structure to support the required loads. The simplicity of a flat concrete slab with repetitive bays lends itself well to construction efficiency. Flat soffits are of particular advantage to construction of an apartment building or hotel where ceiling finishes will

Figure 2. (b) & 2c Flat Plate Floor System (Practical Applications)

be applied directly to the underside of the slab. This allows for a reduction in story height and ease of construction. Due to the nature of the building being a research facility there is an extensive amount of MEP systems. Thus, a large amount of plenum space is necessary making ceiling finishing not of particular advantage. However, the flat soffit also means there is are no complexities when hanging or installing MEP fixtures due to uniformity of the supporting structure. The flat slab has overcome all the drawback of the traditional system of beams framing into columns and supporting slabs spanning between the beams. Though the relatively deep beams of traditional floor system provide a stiff floor which is capable of long spans, and which is able to resist lateral loads, yet the complications of beam formwork, coordination of services, and overall depth of floor have led to a decrease in the popularity of this type of floor. Benefits of using Flat Plate Floor System (A) Larger Span Length Achieved The span L of a reinforced concrete flat-plate is approximately D x 28 for simply supported, D x 30 for an end span of a continuous system, to D x 32 for internal continuous spans. The economical span of a flat plate can be extended by prestressing to approximately D x 30, D x 37 and D x 40 respectively, where D is the depth of slab. Whereas for the traditional reinforced concrete beam-andslab floor has an economical span L of D x 15 for a single span and D x 20 for a multi-span, where D is the depth of the slab plus beam. The depth of slab between the beams can be initially sized using the span-to-depth ratios for a flat plate. (B) Flat Soffit i.e. Flat Ceiling The main and unique feature of this system is that it provides a way for the architect to achieve the concept of high and completely flat ceiling with no beam protrusion. The services can be installed within or below the slab and there are flexibilities in relocating vertical small penetrations. The soffit is often flat and high ceiling height can be achieved. Whereas traditional beam column slab system, the ceiling

Figure 1. Plate Plate System

Figure 2. (a) Flat Plate Floor System (Practical Applications)

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Floor Systems Flat Plate Construction

is not flat and hence many locations it is required to use false ceiling to get a flat ceiling, which is again going to increase the cost of construction. Moreover the lifespan of false ceiling few years and hence it needs to be changed several times in the lifespan of the structure. This problem can be avoided with flat plate system. As already the soffit of the slab is flat, there is no need of providing false ceiling. Because of this flat plate slab system has found immense use in hotels, malls, public buildings. The difference can be very easily made out from Figure 3 and Figure 4. (C) Savings in Shuttering Cost Shuttering/ Formwork constitutes a major cost of construction of reinforced concrete structure. In a traditional beam column slab system, the need of shuttering area is more and so the cost of formwork is also more. Whereas flat plate system requires only soffit shuttering of slabs, which makes flat plate slab system very popular amongst the builders as it has many fold benefits.

(D) Savings in Construction Time As formwork and stagging time is reduced, the overall construction time also gets reduced considerably in flat plate slab system. Keeping in mind of the tight schedule of the projects these days, if construction time can be saved in some means, it will give the builder/ owner early commissioning time of the project, which in turn will reward them with early revenue generation. (E) Prestressing Prestressing is not possible in traditional beam column system, whereas post-tensioned flat plat/slabs are a common variation of the conventional plate structure where most of the reinforcement is replaced by post-tensioned strands of very high strength steel. The structural advantage of post tensioning over conventional RCC is that the slab is nearly crack free at full service load. This leads to a smaller deflection compared to conventional RCC because of the higher rigidity of the un-cracked section. Hence reduction in thickness of the slab compared to conventional RCC is the rationale for using post-tensioning system for spans over 10m and above. Further the lack of cracking leads to a watertight structure. Flat plat/slab design and build contractors in India claim a 20% cost reduction compared to conventional RCC. (F) Building Height Traditional beam column slab system produces building/ structure heigher than flat plat slab system. The reason behind is absence of beams in the flat plate slab system. Which is very much beneficial for malls, theatres, hotels etc. . In malls, theatres, hotels, because of higher span requirement, the depth of beam is very high, which adds to the floor height making the overall height of each floor more. This again has cost impact as well as aesthetic impact on the structure. This problem can be avoided by adopting flat

Figure 3. Beam and slab system

Figure 4. Ceiling of Flat plate slab system against ceiling of beam column slab system

Figure 5. Prestressing Flow diagram of Flat Plate Slab System

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MM Castings (P) Ltd

Floor Systems Flat Plate Construction

plate floor system. Also by adopting to suitable prestressing system, it is possible to do construction of higher span slabs, without any increase in floor height which is a major concern with beam column slab system. (G) Service In traditional beam column slab system the penetrations through beams for large ducts difficult to handle. This is a common need in hotels, malls, public buildings, as the service lines are more in these time of buildings. Since making holes in large size beams is not feasible the service lines needs to be taken through longer routes, which again increases the cost of installation and effects the aesthetics by a great deal. With the adoption of flat plate slab system, the large and bulky sized beams are avoided and service lines can be very easily taken through the slab by keeping suitable and required sized openings in the slab. Figure 6 shows one such work, where service lines were routed through the openings in the slab. Drawbacks of Flat Plate Floor System Though Flat plate slab system promises a world of benefits over the traditional beam column slab system, still all is not well with this kind of system too. The main disadvantages of the flat plate system are deflection control, punching shear at columns, and future core drilling. The relatively thin slab of the structure makes it susceptible to excessive deflections and floor vibrations, in a laboratory facility such as the MSC this could be an issue. The uniformity of the flat plate system may lend itself to an ease of construction, however, it is not very efficient at resisting shear forces at critical locations, namely columns. If the slab is found to be inadequate to resist punching shear, certain measures can be introduced to strengthen these locations. These include increasing the depth of the slab over the entire panel, increasing the column size, adding a shear capital, or adding shear reinforcement. Furthermore, in a research facility experiments and equipment is often changing to meet the needs of the current industry. This often results in retrofits to the structure involving core drilling of the slab. In a 2-way system this can be problematic because it significantly lowers strength capacity of the floor system. The most dominant failure type in flat plate slab system is brittle failure caused by shear failure. But it does not mean that these drawbacks will limit the use of flat plate floor system. These limitations and drawbacks can be overcome by adopting suitable design practice. General Consideration for use of Flat Plate Floor System The following are the key factors to be considered before adopting the use of the concrete flat plate with steel/ concrete column system:

- Architectural layout should be well planned to fully enhance the main area where high flat ceiling with neatly arranged steel/concrete columns are required in the design - Spacing of columns - Punching shear checks at column areas - Long term deflection of the flat plate - Early planning of routing for M&E services, opening for voids and location of staircase The design of flat slab structures involves three steps - Framing system - Engineering analysis - Reinforcement design and detailing Framing System Initial framing system formulation provides a detailed geometric description of the column spacing and overhang. Even though the architect provides this part of the design, the engineer should emphasize on the following - Three continuous spans in each direction or have an overhang at least one-forth times adjacent span length in case of only two continuous spans. - Typical panel must be rectangular - The spans must be similar in length i.e. adjacent span in each direction must not differ in length by one-third

Figure 6. Services through slab with provision for opening

Engineering Analysis Flat plate/slab may be analyzed and designed by any

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Venus Equipment and Tools Pvt. Ltd.

Floor Systems Flat Plate Construction

method as long as they satisfy the strength, stiffness and stability requirements of the IS 456:2000 or ACI-318 codes. A typical flat plate/slab can be analyzed by direct design method or equivalent frame method as prescribed by the code. However, if the flat plate/slab is atypical with unusual geometry, with irregular column spacing, or with big opening then the designer may have to use finite element method model analysis using computers. The design of flat plate/slabs irrespective of the methodology used must first assume a minimum slab and drop thickness and a minimum column dimension to ensure adequate stiffness of the system to control deflection. The IS 456:2000 code is not clear on these minimums. However ACI specifies empirical formulas to arrive at these minimums. Refer to Table 1 for minimum slab thickness. Once the slab thickness and column dimensions with boundary conditions are selected, the structure is loaded for different load cases and combinations prescribed by the code. The computed forces and moments in the members should be used for reinforcement design. Critical reactions for the load combinations are used for the design of the supporting columns and foundations. Seismic Design of Flat Plate/Slab Seismic design lateral force is based on the provisions of Indian Standard IS 1893 (Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structure), however due to non-clarity of IS1893 designer, in addition may have to use, other codes like UBC-2000 (Uniform Building Code) to design an effective lateral system. Based on these codes a common practice is to determine lateral force by either using static or a dynamic procedure. Reinforcement Design and Detailing Reinforcement design is one of the critical parts of flat plate/slab design; maximum forces from the analysis shall be used in the design of the reinforcement. Reinforcement required for flexure by using minimum slab thickness per table 1 typically will not require compression reinforcement. The tension steel area required and detailing for appropriate strips can be per IS 456:2000 or ACI-318, both being similar. However design for punching shear force (including additional shear due to unbalanced moment) per IS 456:2000 is 32% conservative compared to ACI-318, because Indian code underestimates the concrete two-way shear strength by 32% compared to ACI. Conclusion Flat Plate slab system often provide the most economical solution for high-rise residential/ commecial construction. The systems low floor height, compared to traditional beam

column slab system results in overall reduction of buiding height which further results lesser dead load, leading to lower foundation costs. Flat plate/slab construction is a developing technology in India. Flat plate/slab can be designed and built either by conventional RCC or Posttensioning. Design of conventional RCC flat plate/slab in India, utilizing Indian codes, has many shortcomings, which have to be addressed and revised soon. Until then Indian engineers will continue to use Indian codes in combination with other standards like the ACI, BS or Euro Code to design and analyze Flat slabs/plates. Reference
- - Holbert, David H, P .E. Concrete: Floor Framing Systems, lecture 10/4/2010. Fanella, David A. Concrete Floor Systems: Guide to Estimating and Economizing. 2nd Ed. Portland Cement Association, 2000. Guide to Long-Span Concrete Floors, Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. Review and Design of Flat Plate/Slabs Construction in India, Gowda N Bharath; Gowda S. B. Ravishankar; A.V Chandrashekar Indian Standard IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice. Purushothaman P ., Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Company Ltd. New Delhi. 1984 Verghese P .C., Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, Prentice-Hall of (India Private Ltd. New Delhi. 2003 Notes on ACI 318-2000, Building Code Requirement For Reinforced Concrete, Portland cement association. USA 2000 Structural Design Guide to the ACI Building code, Third edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York. 1985 Kenneth Leet and Dionisio Bernal, Reinforced Concrete Design, Third edition, McGraw-Hill, USA. 1997 Structural Engineering Handbook, Forth Edition, McGraw-Hill, USA1997 Alaa G. S. and Walter H.D., Analysis and Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 25. 1998 Branson, D.E, Deformation of Concrete Structures, McGrawHill Company, New York.1977 Nilson A.H. and Walter D.B., Deflection of Two-way Floor Systems by the Equivalent Frame Method, ACI Journal, Vol. 72, No.5 1975 Indian Standard IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Buildings Officials, California. 2002 John W. W., Thomas H.K. and Changsoon R.H.A, Dynamic Response of Flat Plate System With Shear Reinforcement, ACI Journal, Vol. 102, No.5

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Photo Courtesy
www.diomisengineering.com

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Venus Equipment and Tools Pvt. Ltd.

Roofing & Cladding Analysis

Roofing & Cladding Industry:


M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

In Dire Need for Fresh Air


he roofing and cladding industry in India is considered among the fastest growing segments in the construction industry today. The evolution of the roofing and cladding industry in the country makes for interesting reading. It is rapidly evolving from an industry that was dominated by the unorganized sector a few years

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ago, to one that is witnessing dramatic changes, with respect to entry of new technology and innovative products, thanks to the entry of big brand names these days. The sustained growth in urban infrastructure in the form of airport terminals, IT parks, retail outlets, etc along with the continued thrust to manufacturing has meant that roofing

and cladding is big business in India these days. While RCC has ruled the roost all these days, metal roofs and cladding products are now gradually holding their own in the market. The roof has evolved from being a component that merely provides shelter to something that can help in rainwater harvesting, has provision for

The Masterbuilder - May 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in

Roofing & Cladding Analysis

Slowdown- Blessing in Disguise? One of the key factors that have been driving up demand for roofing and cladding products is the growth of the pre-engineered building (PEB) industry. While the value of the PEB industry is pegged at approximately ` 4000 crore in the country today, the metal roofing and cladding market is pegged at about ` 800 crore in India. With contractors almost always under pressure to stick to strict project deadlines without compromising on the quality front, these numbers are sure to increase. In a strange way, the recent economic slowdown is also likely to have a positive impact on the market for metal roofing and cladding products. The less labour intensive erection and installation process of metal roofing and cladding components has come as a boon to project developers who are hard pressed to cut down on project costs in these days of economic tight rope walking. Going into the reasons behind the relatively slow pace of growth of the PEB industry till recently, Mr.Sanjay S. Loya, Director, LPCL, considered a market leader in the field said, The

We continuously strive to provide cutting-edge roofing and cladding options to our customers. Customers can choose from multiple profiles as well as different shapes for the roofs. We have recently introduced a standing seam roof profile that enables the building to be completely leakproof as it eliminated the need for holes to be drilled in the roof sheet
generating solar power, helps in allowing daylight and allows for proper ventilation, playing a multi-utility role nowadays. The increased emphasis on sustainability has added an altogether different angle to the choice of roofs, especially in the case of industries and commercial establishments. Metal roofing and cladding products with their numerous advantages have made a strong case for themselves in the Indian market. All this has meant good news for the suppliers of roofing and cladding products. The fact that the industry is still at a nascent stage has meant that the growth curve has just about started.

Sanjay S. Loya
Director, Loya Constructions Pvt. Ltd.

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Roofing & Cladding Analysis

cladding suppliers. Several initiatives towards achieving these objectives such as the announcement of various industrial corridors (the most prominent among them being the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor project), IT parks, textile parks, spice parks, food processing parks, etc, has kept the roofing and cladding product manufacturers on their toes. With competition intensifying, manufacturers are now banking on technology and value added services to garner their share of the market. Intensifying Competition The gradual evolution of the Indian market for roofing and cladding products mirrors that of the trends that were earlier witnessed in the developed world. The market is overall moving from one that was dominated by the unorganized sector to one that has now at least a sprinkling of world renowned names. The marketing war that was earlier being fought on the plank of price is now being fought on the plank of technology and value additions. Manufacturers are banking on introducing product innovations and offering of value added services to garner their share of an increasingly competitive market. Suppliers are focusing on versatility when it comes to roof and walling systems. Kirby India, a

Spreading far and wide- the market for metal roofs is growing thanks to rapid industrialization

slow pace of growth can be attributed mainly to lack of knowledge about the advantages offered by PEB among customers. There is still some apprehension among people regarding use of steel. However, we are seeing a change in attitude of people and increasing acceptance mainly through word of mouth. Customer satisfaction is high when it comes to PEB and this helps spread awareness among customers. With the PEB industry growing at a rate of about 15%- 20% in the recent past, there has been a spurt in demand for metal roofing and cladding products in the past few years. The growth of the PEB industry has also meant that another important factor, that of lack of skilled manpower and an established supply chain is now being addressed. The entry of big names in the field offering innovative roof and cladding products has led to consolidation of the industry, which was till a few years ago being dominated by the unorganized sector. The entry of big names with the R &D wherewithal and financial muscle to offer technical support services, so very crucial in this field, has meant that the customer is the proverbial king today. Continued Manufacturing Thrust The continued thrust given to the manufacturing sector spells good

news for suppliers of roofing and cladding materials. The Union cabinet had earlier approved the draft National Manufacturing Policy, which seeks to increase the share of manufacturing sector in the GDP to 25% by 2025, which translates into huge opportunities for suppliers. The government on its part is also grappling with a struggling economy, which it aims to set right through continued emphasis on rapid industrialization and development of infrastructure, both of which again mean great times for roofing and

The fast growing PEB market has been pushing demand for roofing and cladding products

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JBA Associates (JBA Concrete Solutions Pvt.Ltd)

Roofing & Cladding Analysis

leading name in the field for example offers a wide range of roofing and cladding products such as, Kirby Rib roof or wall panel, KRP wall panel, KTM standing seam metal roof panel, KTS standing seam metal roof panel, RoofLok plus vertical standing seam metal roof panel and Roof-Lok vertical standing seam roof panel. Zamil Steel is another name that offers a variety of profiles, base metals, metal substrates and coatings for its roof and wall panels. Loya PEB is another industry leader which offers a wide range of roofing and cladding products. Pointing out what makes their roofing and cladding systems different from others, Mr. Sanjay S. Loya observed,

As a result of continuous execution of projects in a timely and cost efficient manner, we have built a strong relationship with big infrastructure players

Metro stations are among the emerging opportunities for roofing and cladding suppliers

P.V. Rao
Executive Director, Pebs Pennar

has been making rapid strides in the field in recent times, through its focus on building long term relationships with leading players in the infrastructure domain. Spelling out the reasons behind the rapid growth of Pebs Pennar, Mr.P .V.Rao, Executive Director of the company was heard saying, As a result of continuous execution of projects in a timely and cost efficient manner, we have built a strong relationship with big infrastructure players.Its LEED compliant solutions are focused towards a market where sustainability

is the buzzword these days. Similarly, Tata Bluescope is one more leading brand that offers the LYSAGHT range of products that includes products that includes premium roof & wall cladding, structural support and accessories like purlins, louvers, flashings, etc. The products are broadly used for applications in the industrial, infrastructure, residential, commercial segments. Going into details on the process behind the companys range of roofing and cladding products, Mr.Ajay Rattan, General Manager Sales and Market Develop-

We continuously strive to provide cutting-edge roofing and cladding options to our customers. Customers can choose from multiple profiles as well as different shapes for the roofs. We have recently introduced a standing seam roof profile that enables the building to be completely leak-proof as it eliminated the need for holes to be drilled in the roof sheet. Pebs Pennar is a frontrunner that offers an innovative range of roof and wall components including, rigid steel main frames, eave struts, grits purlins, panels and insulation panels. The company with its LEED Gold Rated manufacturing unit near Hyderabad

Eye candy- Roof and cladding systems are available in a wide range of colours these days

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Esquire - CMAC Pvt.Ltd

Roofing & Cladding Analysis

ment remarked, Our strategically located world-class manufacturing facilities with advanced, high-end rollforming equipments are backed-up by strong engineering support with advanced design software and R&D support from BlueScope Steel, Australia. Our profiles cater to varied segments that provide cost efficiency due to optimized steel solutions, shorter lead time, high strength with design flexibility and superior quality paint & coating system with long lasting aesthetics. The economic uncertainties elsewhere in the world have meant that several global players are eyeing an entry into the Indian market in the near future. With the government planning to increase outlay on manufacturing sector during the 12th Five Year Plan it wont come as a surprise if several overseas players set up shop in the country in the next few years. Stretching the Green Roof Idea The increased emphasis on sustainable construction practices has been another driving force behind the rise in demand for metal roofing and cladding products. The changes in the market are being driven by a consumer who wants something apart from conventional products for various different applications. With steel being the major

Our profiles cater to varied segments that provide cost efficiency due to optimized steel solutions, shorter lead time, high strength with design flexibility and superior quality paint & coating system with long lasting aesthetics

Ajay Rattan, General Manager


Sales and Market Development, Tata BlueScope

component in roofing and cladding products these days, it automatically lends a sustainable edge to them. The idea of what constitutes a green roof has undergone a paradigm shift in todays market scenario, where the customer has a wider range to choose from. Gone are the days when only vegetation on top of a building was considered the broad parameter for declaring it a green roof. These days there are several other factors taken

into consideration for defining what actually constitutes a green roof. Some of these key factors include, superior thermal insulation, ability to allow daylight, provision for allowing fitment of rainwater harvesting components, reusability, etc., all areas in which metal roofs score high. Adding to the already high sustainability quotient of metal roofs are recent product innovations. One such innovation offered by manufacturers include roofing systems where solar panels can be easily fitted in, adding to their green factor. Needless to say, with India being a country with a predominantly sunny climate, such roofing systems have got a huge market potential here. Market Enters Key Phase India has well and truly emerged as the key market for roofing and cladding products over the last decade. One of the crucial factors that make India such an important market is the continued thrust on the manufacturing and retailing sector. Several industrial corridor projects are either already under construction or on the anvil, presenting a huge opportunity to roofing and cladding suppliers. Another sector that should give impetus to the suppliers is that of food and beverages. The sector is growing by leaps and bounds pushing demand for modern warehouses. With the economy predicted to gradually turnaround by the end of this year, the surge in demand for roofing and cladding products is expected to run throughout the 12th Five Year Plan period. Adding to the good tidings is the fact that the market is gradually evolving from one that was dominated by the unorganized sector to one that is now being dominated by players who are focused towards introducing newer technologies and latest products keeping in sync with global trends. The next five years could turn out to be the most decisive for the roofing and cladding manufacturers in the country. Photo Courtesy
www.lonelyplanet.com, www.devitt.forand.com www.generalroofingssystemscanadainc.blogspot.com www.consructionengineers.wordpress.com www.steelscape.com

Solar panel integrated metal roofing systems have huge potential in India

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STA Flooring (Sanjay Tekale Associates)

Green Roofing

Green Roofing Systems:


The Need of the Hour!
Bhavani Balakrishna

ver 50% of the world's population currently lives in urban areas. This is expected to increase to 70% by 2040.In order to keep pace with urbanization, most towns and cities have turned into a jungle of concrete structures. Vacant lands are utilized to the hilt for constructing buildings without paying much heed to the need for greenery, parks or open space apart from what is

mentioned in the building codes. Urban green spaces are integral components of urban ecosystems, contributing to enhanced environmental quality, quality of life and sustainable urban development. Scientific evidence has emphasized the critical nature of green areas within urban socialecological systems to ameliorate the negative effect of urbanization on climate change and environment.

Tangible and intangible benefits provided by these green assets are often taken for granted by the public and some city authorities. From the global perspective, although there are wide variations both in coverage as well as per capita availability of green spaces, cities renowned for their urban green spaces often have 20 to 40 % average of total geographical area and 25 to 100 meter square urban green

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Green Roofing

In such a situation, green roofs can to some extent offset this impact. Apart from providing a refreshing contrast to the harsh shape, color, and texture of buildings, studies have also found that green roofs can be effectively used for energy savings, improving surrounding air quality, reducing carbon emissions and controlling storm water run-off. Green roofs are listed in LEED as ways to help mitigate the heat island effect. Green Roof systems installed on 50% or more of the roof surface virtually guarantees 2 LEED points and can contribute an additional 7+ points toward LEED-certification, almost 20% of the total needed for a project to be LEED-certified. Vegetative roofs or rooftops with green cover typically comprise of a lightweight growing medium, plants, and a root repellent layer in addition to the regular components of a roof. The additional components and thickness of the growing medium provides thermal insulation, while the green cover lowers ambient temperatures through evapotranspiration. A green roof can be as extensive or intensive. Extensive green roofs can be as simple as a 2-inch (5 cm) covering of hardy, alpine-like groundcover which needs little maintenance once it is established. Plants adapted to extreme

climates often make good choices and may not require permanent irrigation systems. Overall, because of their light weight, extensive systems will require the least amount of added structural support, which improves their costeffectiveness when retrofitting an existing structure. An intensive green roof is like a conventional garden, or park, with almost no limit on the type of available plants, including large trees and shrubs. Compared to extensive green roofs, intensive green roofs are heavier and require a higher initial investment and more maintenance over the long term than extensive roofs. They generally require more structural support to accommodate the weight of the additional growing medium and public use. Benefits of Green Roof Energy Efficiency The roof is responsible for about 15 to 20 percent of the building's energy load. Studies have found that green roofs significantly reduce roof surface temperatures and heat flux rates (energy passing through a unit area per unit time). A study in Toronto found that two green roofs with minimal vegetation reduced peak summertime heat flow through the roof by 70% to 90% compared with a conventional roof on the same building. Simulations also

space per capita.The World Health Organization recommends that 9 metre square green open space per dweller should be the minimal norm for a city. Gandhinagar has 162 metre square per dweller green space, Chandigarh has 54 metre square, Delhi has 21 metre square and Bangalore has 17 metre square and Chennai has about 0.46 square metres per city dweller.

An image capturing the Extensive and Intensive type green roofing systems

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Green Roofing

indicate cooling load reductions from green roofs ranging from 1% to 25% depending on building speci cs and characteristics of the green roof. Green roofs work by shading roof surfaces and through evapotranspiration. The plants of a green roof and the associated growing medium, a specially engineered soil, block sunlight from reaching the underlying roof membrane. Shading reduces surface temperatures below the plants. These cooler surfaces, in turn, reduce the heat transmitted into buildings or re-emitted into the atmosphere. Plants absorb water through their roots and emit it through their leaves this movement of water is called transpiration. Evaporation, the conversion of water from a liquid to a gas, also occurs from the surfaces of vegetation and the surrounding growing medium. Together, the processes of evaporation and transpiration are referred to as evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration cools the air by using heat from the air to evaporate water. Green roof temperatures depend on the roof's composition, moisture content of the growing medium, geographic location, solar exposure, and other site-specific factors. Stormwater Run-off Heavy rainfall can overwhelm any city's sewerage and drainage systems

causing raw sewage to be discharged into area waterways. Depending on the planting type, soil depth and how saturated the system already is, a vegetative roof can absorb anywhere from 60 to 100 percent of the rainfall on its area. The vegetative roof works by detaining and retaining the water. Some of the water is taken up by the plants. The rest is temporarily stored in the planting medium and absorptive mats of the system and then slowly drains out. This allows the combined sewer/stormwater systems the time to properly process stormwater without overwhelming local system capacity. The amount of rainfall retained by a green roof will depend primarily on the depth of the growing medium and may also be affected by the roof slope. Studies have shown that extensive roofs will typically capture between 50 and nearly 100 percent of incoming rain, depending on the amount of growing medium used, the density of vegetation, the intensity of an individual rainstorm, and the frequency of local rain events.An intensive green roof, with thicker layers of growing medium, will capture more rainfall under comparable conditions than an extensive roof. Even when a green roof does not retain all the water from a storm, it can detain runoff for later release and reduce the runoff rate.

Reduce CO2 emissions As per a study conducted by Kristen Getter and her colleagues in the Michigan State University's Department of Horticulture, green roofs also effectively absorb carbon dioxidethrough photosynthesis. In their study, Getter and her colleagues measured carbon levels in plant and soil samples collected from 13 green roofs in Michigan and Maryland over a two-year period. They found that green roofing an urban area of about one million people would capture more than 55,000 tons of carbon in other words, this is equal to eliminating a year's worth of carbon dioxide emitted by 10,000 midsized SUVs and trucks! Urban Heat Island Effect The concentration of buildings and urban areas during urbanization leads to the formation of a specific climate characterized by higher nighttime temperatures, restriction of wind which disperses pollutants and increased run-off, i.e. 'urban heat islands'. Cities can be 2 degrees to 8 degrees warmer than surrounding environments due to the large areas of dark surfaces, consisting mainly of roads, parking lots and dark-colored roofs. The extra heat absorbed through dark surfaces duringthe day is convected away by ambient breezes, raising air temperature averages; this phenomenon is referred to as theurban heat island effect. Green roofs improve air quality and help reduce the urban heat island effect.According to a study conducted by EleftheriaAlexandri and Phil Jones at the Welsh School of Architecture, at the University of Cardiff in the UK, green roofs and walls can lower temperatures by 3.6 to 11.3 degrees celsius depending on the city.The researchers compared the effects of green surfaces in nine cities around the world, including subarctic Montreal in Canada, temperate London in the UK, humid Mumbai (India), and tropical Braslia (Brazil). In all cases, they studied the month during which that city sees its hottest temperatures by

Urban Heat Island Effect


Urban areas influence the atmosphere through a number of processes:
1. Paved surfaces and concrete canyons absorb the Sun's rays and produce heat. 2. Chemicals emitted by cars, industrial facilities, and even trees affect sunshine in different ways, often trapping it and creating more heat. 3. The warm air rising from a city may collide with moist air from a nearby body of water, releasing precipitation downwind of the city. 4. The warm air and precipitation can affect winds for hundreds of miles.

Warm Air

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,m oi st

air

Prevailing Wind

Roljack Industries

Green Roofing

representing the microclimate around and inside buildings using computer modelling. They compared local temperatures when buildings were made of bare concrete with when the concrete was covered in vegetation. Vegetative roofs help to cool the surrounding air through evapotranspiration, as the plants use the heat in their surroundings to evaporate the water in their leaves. Filtrate Air Plant surfaces can remove certain pollutants from the air through dry deposition. A green roof can remove particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ground-level ozone (O3) from the air.Researchers estimate that a 1,000-square foot (93 m square) green roof can remove about 40 pounds of PM from the air in a year,

while also producing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.22 Forty pounds of PM is roughly how much 15 passenger cars will emit in a year of typical driving. Green Roofing Assembly A green roof system consists of vegetation, growth medium containing primarily of lightweight inorganic mineral materials (at least 80 percent) and up to 20 percent organic materials like topsoil, moisture retention mat , drainage panel to help the excess water from the growing medium to flow to the roof drain, a filter membrane that allows excess water from the growing medium to flow out, while preventing the fine particles from washing away and clogging the roof drain, root barrier to protect the roof membrane from aggressive plant roots, which may penetrate the waterproofing layer and cause leaks, waterproofing membrane

to protect the building from water penetration, a cover/protection board that provides protection, separation, and support for a roofing membrane and an insulation board Building and Roof Structural Support for Green Roofs Not only are the roofing membranes and other materials heavier on a green roof, but the roof design also must account for the weight of watersaturated plants and growing medium. An extensive roof typically weighs from 15-30 pounds per square foot, although the range will depend on the depth of the growing medium and other site-specific factors. An intensive roof can weigh much more. Building owners must ensure that the structure can support the green roof even when fully saturated, in addition to meeting building code requirements for snow and wind loads. Structural concrete deck is preferred over steel roof deck to support green roof systems as the former has more strength and stiffness, and better resistance to water ingress and corrosion, than steel roof deck. Reinforcing roof supports on existing buildings adds to the project cost but can usually be worked into building retrofit or renovation plans. It is often easier to put green roofs on new buildings, as the requirements for the added roof load can be included as part of the initial design parameters and the cost for the upgrade is usually minimal. Installing a green roof on a flat or low-sloped roof generally will be easier than installing one on a steepsloped roof. Cost of Green Roofs The costs of green roofs vary depending on the components, such as the growing medium, type of roofing membrane, drainage system, use of fencing or railings, and type and quantity of plants.Initial green roof costs are more than those of most conventional and cool roof technologies. Green roofs have a longer expected life, though, than most roofing products, so

Extensive Green Roof Assembly


Vegetation Growth Media

Moisture Retention Mat Filter Fabric Drainage / Retention Board Protection Fabric Root Barrier Roof Membrane Membrane Adhesive (or fasteners) Protection Board Insulation Adhesive Insulation Fasteners (or insulation adhesive) Rigid Insulation

Structural Deck

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Marsman India Ltd

Green Roofing

Urban green ventures play vital roles in reducing the effects of urbaniztion on climate and environment

the total annualized costs of a green roof may be closer to those of conventional and cool roofs.In addition to construction costs, a building owner incurs maintenance costs to care for the plants on a green roof. Although the level of care depends on plant selection, most of the expenses arise in the first years after installation, as the plants establish themselves and mature.The costs of maintaining an extensive roof decrease after the plants cover the entire roof, whereas maintenance costs will remain more constant for an intensive roof. A University of Michigan study compared the expected costs of conventional roofs with the cost of a 21,000-square-foot (1,950 m2) green roof and all its benefits, such as stormwater management and improved public health from the NOX absorption. The green roof would cost $464,000 to install versus $335,000 for a conventional roof in 2006 dollars. However, over its lifetime, the green roof would save about $200,000. Nearly two-thirds of these savings would come from reduced energy needs for the building with the green roof.

Green Roofs in India While the green roofing industry holds immense potential due to the Indian climate, it is yet to catch the imagination of the architects and builders. One example of the green roof in India is the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre in Hyderabad. Of the 20,000 ft2 footprint, 55% of the CII-building is covered by extensive green roof. The green roofs on the curvey building are divided into parcels that are separated by parapets. On top of a concrete roof, the green roof system begins its build-up with three layers of waterproofing. The green roof system comprises 2 of sandy soil topped with the same pervious paver blocks used at grade, and overlain with a uniform grass sod. As part of the zero discharge design, recycled water from the building is used for irrigation and any runoff is directed to percolate at grade. During the dry season, the green roofs are irrigated daily. Lack of adequate information and familiarity with green roof technology, design, and function may be one of the inhibitors. It also calls for a very strong

green building initiative from local building authorities. For instance, Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) has announced a 10% tax rebate in property tax for green roof in its budget for fiscal year 2012-13 in order to promote greenery. Professor Suresh Billore, Executive Director of Green Takniki, believes the incentive is the exclusive impact of the first International Green Technology Symposium organized in collaboration with Indore Municipal Corporation held in Oct 2011. Sponsored by the World Green Infrastructure Network in collaboration with Green Takniki, the symposium extensively discussed the need for green roofs and green homes to combat urbanization for sustainable future. Speaking about green roofing in India, he said, India, with its favorable climatic tropical condition diversity of plants and rich Indian plant diversity is ideal for this green technology. However, little has been done to initiate and include this concept in new building design. Photo Courtesy
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities (www.greenroofs.org)

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Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt.Ltd

Roofing Technology

Aerial Roof Measurement Technology:

The Eye in the Sky


Chaitanya Raj Goyal

he upshots ensuing from advent of the Machine eon are not unknown to us! Today we are witnessing the dawn of a new era which is swiftly leading towards a complete makeover of our industry, our society and our lives as a whole. We are also witnessing a shift from conventional methodology and processes to the new, evolved and easier problem solving approaches which have considerably reduced the labor, finance, time and other risk factors involved in the traditional approaches. Technology seems to be taking over and we are becoming dependent on technology to do many things that we used to do on our own. Aerial roof measurement technology is no exception to this trend! People, concepts, actions, or ideas that have the ability to alter an overall outcome and change the way things

are done, are called game changers! So how does a roofing contractor embrace a game-changing concept and apply it to his or her business? Invented in 2008, the concept of 3D Aerial roof estimation system and method was result of the innovation of a software engineer and his brother-inlaw, a roofing contractor, who together developed and patented the technology that has become the next game changer in the roofing industry. Becoming more popular day by day owing to its extensive capabilities, the Aerial roof measurement technology allows contractors, insurance industries and property managers to manage their business development process more efficiently. But does this technology precede its reputation? Does it actually work that well? Does it prove its upper hand over the manual measurements

with complete conviction? Aerial measurement technology is definitely the next big thing in the industry to measure any exterior property however the question remains How accurate the measurements are? Let us first understand the technology before we proceed to understand the answers to these questions. What is Aerial roof measurement? The term Aerial Measurement usually refers to a technology that can measure any given exterior object (photography) by using various mathematical techniques and computer aided design methods providing the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design processes. This technology has been used widely for surveying purposes in the construction industry since last many years. It

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Roofing Technology

doesn't take time for a technology to find applications it can sync itself with. Enter the roofing contractors and home insurance companies! Now, thanks to the internet and the advent of high-tech imaging tools, accurate roof measurements can be taken remotely, resulting in a safer, more cost-effective way to gather important roof data. This system allows the remote measurement of the size, geometry, pitch and orientation of the roof sections of a building and then uses the information to provide an estimate to repair or replace the roof, or to install equipment thereon. The system includes an aerial image file database that shows aerial images of buildings in a designated area according to address. The slope and orientation images are typically oblique perspective views and top plan views of the buildings in the area. The system also includes an image analysis and calibration feature that enables the viewer to closely estimate the size, geometry and orientation of the building's roof sections. Today many companies use aerial photographs and proprietary software to create an accurate, professional, timely, 3rd party roof report for any structure you'd like. These reports include impressive aerial photos from several oblique angles, a list of the total measurements for; hip/ridge, valley, gable, area, drip edge, perimeter, pitch, orientation and access plus a wire diagram take-off of the roof that shows the dimensions for each portion of the roof. Why measure roofs from the sky? The construction industry has always lagged in the use of technology to simplify day to day business. There is an ongoing need for homeowners and businesses to replace old, worn-out roofs. Prior to the utilization of satellite and aerial imagery to calculate roof measurements, contractors had little recourse other than to have a worker climb atop a potentially unstable roof to take measurements. Roofs damaged by storms or other natural disasters present the same challenges. Certainly,

Different types of measurement diagrams generated

no contractor wants someone traversing across a badly damaged roof. By using satellite and aerial imagery to calculate accurate roof measurements, contractors can obtain the important roof data they need and keep their employees' feet on the ground. If you are a roofing contractor, you know that taking an accurate roof measurement is a burdensome undertaking. Clambering across rooftops to take measurements is an inherently dangerous, time consuming and complicated process. Steep or complex roofs, inclement weather and the crippling cost of workman's compensation make on-sight roof measurements an even more risky and unprofitable

practice. To understand it better let us consider a certain roof that needs measuring. Now to measure this roof manually, a contractor will drive to the property, use a ladder, pitch calculator, count number of facets, make some notes and provide the measurement to the user. Now take a different approach in which he simply submits this address online, verifies the property online and simply within 2 hours receives everything he needs to know about this roof including area, pitch and length diagram. Now that is pretty convenient! The people who measure roofs the old-fashioned way with a tape measure are quite literally wasting their time with

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Hand drawn roofing measurements vs aerial measurements

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55.43 ft. from house

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taking roof measurements, which in turn increases human error. Using satellite imagery to calculate accurate roof measurements makes the process of measuring unorthodox roofs much less daunting and error-filled task. Additional Solar roofing with aerial roof measurement Solar roof contractors aren't afraid of heights; they're just trying to spend less time on roofs. In addition to the aerial roof measuring, a new solar roofing report has been introduced, that is an innovative breakthrough for solar integrators, solar installers, and the overall roofing industry. The solar industry will experience the benefits of a solar 3D-roof measurement report that additionally offers solar exposure, rafter lengths, grid layout, and an overall roof orientation in degrees. For those in the roofing and solar industry, this is great news and a major challenge. Many believe that more than ever they need to use every tool and technology available to meet the upcoming alternative energy demand. Because of the strong tie between a roof and a solar installation, more traditional roofing contractors are expanding their services and knowledge of the solar industry. The solar report is everything that a contractor needs to calculate solar exposure, roof square footage and panel placement. These reports, with just a 10-minute investment of time, allow contractors to determine if solar is even an option for a home or

30 ft. above 408.06 ft. sea level from hydrant

Roof replaced in 2006

Pictometry Online interface

Pictometry roof measurement reports are now available

such a service ready at one click of their mouse. The typical roof measurement process is rather daunting when you consider the time it takes to drive to a potential client's house, the money spent on fuel, the time spent on the roof; the time spent dropping the measurements in a spreadsheet, and the time it takes to prepare the finished report. Moreover, the insurance adjusters and contractors do not get paid for measuring a roof. Aerial roof measurement technology has thus proven to be far more accurate than a human being on a roof. Improve your measurement accuracy If a picture is worth a thousand words, the quality of an image is worth millions when applying remote measurement technology. An overriding misconception is that remote roof measuring only uses satellite images. In actuality, the most accurate method used by leading roof measurement companies is the use of aerial photography. Aerial measurement of structures and land features became possible in 1994 when a unique technology for image capture was patented. This technology, called 'Pictometry' created a novel process for collecting highresolution aerial oblique imagery.

Whenever a new ground breaking technology emerges, some pundits challenge the accuracy of the high-tech alternative, advocating that a human being would perform the same job with greater precision. When considering the accuracy of remote roof measurements, however, the argument rings hollow. On the contrary, satellite and aerial imagery has been proven to be far more accurate than a contractor physically standing on a roof and taking field measurements. Calculating the area of a roof is far more complicated than taking a simple fourcorner measurement. Steep, multistory, and chopped-up roofs increase the mathematical complexity involved in

Traditional roof-inspection

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Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

Roofing Technology

Satellite Roof Area plan and material takeoff

building owner. They can qualify them ahead of time and have a ready-topresent professional report, which in the end saves them time and money. Conclusion India though is still not a very hot market for this technology as it does not suffer the wrath of nature as frequently as many other regions of the world.

Moreover, concrete roofs (more popular in India) do not require frequent repairs as they are stronger and more durable as compared to wooden and other composite roofs popular in the west. But this technology will gradually find its way in with the changing trends. Like an old story goes, when a certain contractor bought his first nail gun, he was accused of sacrificing

US Parcels: Owner: CARL PETERS Address: 123 PINE RD. City: ANYTOWN State: IL Zip: 12345

quality roofing in favor of raw speed. Other contractors competing for roofing jobs bragged that they hit every nail with an actual hammer. Two years later, they were all using pneumatic tools. Why? Faster is sometimes better. The construction industry has seen staggering changes in the last few years. The decline in available jobs has led to increased competition as more contractors compete for the same projects. Taking advantage of technology and the new tools that are being created through technological advances has become a necessity for contractors to set themselves apart from the competition, and to stand out as a leader willing to incorporate those tools for sustained growth and success. Roofers are going to adopt the technology sooner or later. The only question is that are they going to be at the front of the curve or behind the curve. Offering scalable and the most accurate aerial and satellite measurement technologies for the construction and insurance industries, many companies continue to develop such automated solutions that replace legacy, manual processes. Also they are providing means to substantially reduce insurance claim cycle time and enable processing of more claims in less time. This technology is changing and improving business practices by providing accuracy, safety and efficiency that can be counted on. Automating your business will result in simplification of your day to day tasks. Staying ahead of the pack and increasing profitability as a roofing contractor means identifying game changers and learning how to incorporate them into the business. The competitive nature of the roofing business and the increased operating costs in today's economy make it imperative that contractors maximize productivity and take advantage of new business technologies that will launch them to the front of the pack. Give it a try today risk free! Photo Courtesy
www.bluesky-world.com

Solar Contractors Embrace Pictometry Online

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Conmat System Pvt.Ltd

Communication Feature

BIM Software for Building and Construction Industry


uilding & construction sector plays a key role in the local economy, with a large number of public and private sector construction projects being scheduled for this year. In order to pursue productivity in their workplaces, construction companies turn to Technology which can be used for fast, economical and reliable construction. In order to further increase productivity, Construction companies need an accurate and comprehensive 3D tool to streamline their workflow. Tekla Corporation provides an answer to this demand with its innovative software, which is a Building Information Modelling (BIM) tool for the whole construction workflow. Tekla Structures is much more than design and detailing software for the Construction industry. The software is the most accurate and comprehensive parametric 3D BIM tool in the market. Tekla Structures streamlines the entire workflow from sales, bidding, cost estimation and conceptual design

to detailing, fabrication, erection and follow-up. Tekla for Construction Industry : Tekla provides the Construction industry with material independent software that easily integrates concrete with steel frames or any other structures

or building material to promote efficient collaboration and workflow throughout a construction project. Tekla Structures for precast concrete was introduced in 2004 and is currently used by almost 500 client companies around the world. In February 2011, Tekla launched a new free application for construction project cooperation, Tekla BIMsight software allows Construction Industry to share their building information with all the other disciplines involved in a project. Tekla software allows steel as well as concrete designers and fabricators to collaborate with contractors and subcontractors to win more tenders and deliver higher quality products through more efficient sharing of building information. With Tekla, Building Information Modelling means wider usage of the structural model, ensuring error free coordination and management of any material in any stage of design, detailing, fabrication and construction. Apart from getting more tenders, the key benefits of using Tekla for the construction industry also includes minimising design, detailing and

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Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited (BRDC)

Communication Feature

fabrication errors and enabling easy change management during the project lifecycle; as well as efficient modelbased integration with fabrication, erection and site management. Tekla building information models are extremely rich in building geometry, properties, and level of detail. They allow extensive amounts of data to be stored in a visual 3-dimensional environment with very compact model size. Tekla BIM sight Tool : Construction processes, are fragmented, with different groups of people overseeing different stages such as the sales and tendering, design, detailing, production, delivery and installation. In a construction value chain, Tekla models can work as the central database of structural and process information for all project participants. Free tools like Tekla BIMsight can play a big role by consolidating project information from all stages, allowing contractors to combine their models and check for clashes. By minimising error, contractor firms save on unnecessary material and labour costs and achieve significant improvements in productivity and quality. BIM in the recent years has become an

important trend in the construction industry today. Tekla BIM Giving a 3D Effect Tekla's software streamlines the entire workflow from sales, bidding, cost estimation, erection and follow-up. Detailed and data-rich 3D BIM software environment that can be shared by contractors, structural engineers, steel detailers and fabricators, as well as concrete detailers and manufacturers. Tekla BIM (Building Information Modelling) software solutions work like model-based encyclopaedias of your project, allowing to include every important detail while managing the construction process as a whole. The highly detailed as-built structural models created, combined and distributed with Tekla Structures enable the highest level of constructability and production control. Centralizing building information into the model allows for more collaborative and integrated project management and delivery. This translates into increased productivity and elimination of waste, thus making construction and buildings more sustainable. Tekla Structures is an innovative

software environment that facilitates open integration with, for example, architectural models while supporting the end-to-end construction process. Every year Tekla invests approximately 20% of net sales into product research and development to continuously provide the most advanced solutions. Thousands of Tekla Structures software users around the world in nearly 100 countries successfully collaborate in BIM-based projects to produce higher-quality deliverables faster to their clients. Tekla Corporation With its software, Tekla Corporation drives the evolution of digital information models and provides more and more competitive advantage to the construction, infrastructure and energy industries. The company was established in 1966, and today it has customers in over 100 countries, offices in 15 countries and a global partner network.

For further details:


Unit no: 112-115, Bldg no-2, Sector-1, MBP , Mahape, Navi Mumbai - 400710 Ph: 022-67120892, Mob: 09361387777 E-mail: info.india@tekla.com Web: www.tekla.com

Tekla India Pvt. Ltd.

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Reliance Industries Ltd

Building Insulation

Next Gen Insulation for Buildings:


Vacuum Insulated Panels
Bhavani Balakrishna

iven the rapid urbanization of Indian cities and towns and an increased number of buildings, energy consumption and the resultant carbon emissions is on the rise in the country. As per the 17th Electrical Power Survey (EPS) of the Central Electricity Authority, the electricity demand is likely to increase by 39.7% in 2011-12 as compared to 2006-07, by another 43.7% in 2016-17 as compared to 2011-12 and by yet another 37.5% in 2021-22 as compared to 2016-17. It is estimated that on an average in a typical commercial building in India, around 60% of the total electricity is

consumed for lighting, 32% for air conditioning, and less than 8% for refrigeration and for a typical residential building, around 28% of the total electricity is consumed for lighting, 45% for air conditioning, 13% for refrigeration, 4% for televisions and 10% for other appliances in the urban sector. Consequently, builders and architects are now focusing on improving insulation of the buildings to improveenergy efficiency. Highly insulated building envelopes are being considered as energyefficient alternatives that can lessen the pressure on energy demand for space heating and cooling requirement of

built environment. This has led to a quest for high performance thermal insulation materials across the world. One such promising thermal insulation material is a vacuum insulation panel (VIP). The thermal conductivity of VIP is less than one tenth of the same for traditional thermal insulations used in building envelope construction industry. In terms of thermal performance, as indicated by R-value per inch, VIP is undoubtedly the best available thermal insulation. The R-value per inch is a critical aspect as conventional insulation materials such as mineral fibres and

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Building Insulation

material, the three major components of heat flow are air conduction, radiation and solid conduction. The solid conduction and radiation components are functionally related to the density of the insulation materials. However, the air conduction is an independent component and offers a significant opportunity to develop high-performance insulation materials by effectively reducing this component. The reduction of thermal conduction through air (i.e., air conduction) can be done by replacing the air with a gas that has thermal conductivity that is less than that of air or reducing the air pressure below the atmospheric level inside the insulation material. In conventional insulation materials like mineral wool, glass wool or organic foams, the total heat transfer is dominated by the contribution of the (nonconvective) gas within the hollow spaces or pores. Thus a large potential for improvement of the insulation properties can be realized by reducing or even completely eliminating the gas conductivity. The gas conductivity in a porous medium is determined by the number of gas molecules as transfer medium as well as by the number of "walls" on the way from the hot to the cold side. At a high pressure, when the mean free path of the gas molecules is much smaller than the size of the pores, collision between the gas particles is the limiting mechanism for an efficient heat transfer. Here an increase in the polymeric foam require a large thickness of insulation that may not be feasible in existing andnew buildings due to space and technical constraints. VIPswith thermal resistance potentially 58 times higher than conventional insulation offer a solution to the problem. VIPscan be applied to buildings at various locations, for either externalor internal surfaces, such as walls, roof, ground floor, windowframes, and on hot water cylinders. How do Vacuum Insulated Panels Work? In any conventional insulation
70 60 R-Value Per Inch. 50 40 30 20 10 0
Air Space Vemiculite Perlite

gas pressure with an increase in the number of gas particles is correlated with a decrease in the mean free path. As the two effects, number of gas particles and frequency of collisions, compensate each other the thermal conductivity of a gas is nearly independent on the gas pressure, at higher pressures. At atmospheric gas pressure the above behaviour holds for most conventional insulation materials. Also, gaseous conductivity is determined by the thermal conductivity of the nonconvective gas. Reducing the gas pressure by "evacuation", the gaseous conductivity remains almost unaffected until the mean free path attains values that are in the order of thesize of the (largest) pores or higher. The construction of vacuum insulation panels is strictly based on the physics that the absence or reduction of gaseous pressure inside a porous material increases its thermal insulating potential. Structure of Vacuum Insulated Panels AVacuum Insulated Panel (VIP) is made with open porous core materials enclosed in an impermeable gas barrier and has three major components a core, an envelope and getter/ desiccant / opacifier. A core material imparts mechanical strength and thermal insulating capacity by preventing the free flow of the gas/air molecules thereby reducing the ability of heat transfer through air conduction. Ideal core materials should have an

Cellulose

Mineral Fibre

Polymeric Foam

Aerogel

VIP

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Building Insulation

Heat conductivity of conventional insulation materials


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open cell structure, very small pore diameter, resistance to compression due to atmospheric pressure and very high resistance to infrared radiation. Open cell foams such as polyurethane (PUR) and expandedpolystyrene (EPS) with pore sizes in the range of 30-250 m can be used as a core in VIPs. Currently fumed or pyrogenic silica, silica aerogels and expanded perlite individually or in a mixture form are employed in VIP cores. Glass fibre can also be used as the core of a VIP for high temperature applications due to its low density and high thermal stability. The envelope provides the air and vapour-tight enclosure for the core material. The long-term performance of the VIPs is very much dependent on the performance of the envelope. The envelope could either consist of thick metal sheets or multilayer barrier of metalized polymeric layers to provide protection against environmental and handling stresses.Envelope materials are expected to have a water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of approximately 0.0001 g m-2d-1 and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 0.001 cm3 -2 -1 m d to yield a useful life time of approximately 30-50 years for building applications. A combination of polymers and thin metalized films or metal foils is currently employed to produce VIP

envelope. Generally, permeance of multilayer film envelope of a VIPdepends on temperature, relative humidity and size of panel. Barrier properties of envelope films can be improved by reducing the number and size of defects in the barrier layer.

Getter/desiccant is added inside the core material to adsorb residual or permeating atmospheric gases or water vapourin the VIP enclosure. The addition of getter/desiccant increases the performance and longevity of VIPs. In the evacuated state, the thermal conductivity of the core material ideally is a factor 5 to 10 lower than for insulators under atmospheric conditions. As a consequence, vacuum insulation panels combine high thermal performance with limited material thickness. Panels with a thickness of two centimeters insulate just as effectively as 20 centimeters of mineral fibers. This space-saving potential is among the most interesting features for large-scale application of vacuum insulation panels in architectural applications. Not only this space-saving potential, but also high thermal performance, low effective weight and possibly in some situations image proclamation, design potential and cost-effectiveness may be considered as advantages or added values of vacuum insulation panels over conventional thermal insulators.

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Action Construction Equipment Ltd

Building Insulation

Thermal Bridging A thermal bridge occurs when there is a gap between materials and structural surfaces. The main thermal bridges in a building are found at the junctions of facings and floors, facings and cross walls; facings and roofs, facings and low floors. These thermal bridges appear at three levels for VIP application; (i)VIP level (ii) building components level (iii) facade level. The effective thermal conductivity of a VIP takes all non-homogeneities, originating from the product itself as well as from the joint between adjacent VIP into account. With other words, the effective thermal conductivity of a VIP represents the conductivity of a homogeneous material with equivalent thermal behavior. One way of reducing thermal bridging in VIP construction is to use spacers made from low thermal conductivity materials and of limited thickness. As well as the properties of the core material and the envelope, the YVIP value is influenced by the material layers immediately surrounding the VIP . Possible Concerns Despite the above features, VIPs have not been used in a widespread

manner due to cost and concerns related to the long-term performance of VIPs. Cost VIPs are more expensive than traditional thermal insulations used for building envelope construction. With time, it is expected the cost of VIPs will decrease and become more economically attractive as a result of improved research efforts, automation of manufacturing processes and increased volume of production. Aging The biggest problem they presently face concerns the panel's service life. Over time, air permeates the barrier film and degrades the effectiveness of the insulation. Aging is a continuous process of performance degradation due to (normally) slow permeation of atmospheric gas molecules through the imperfect barrier, resulting in a nonreversible pressure increase and moisture accumulation in the hygroscopic VIP core. The thermal conductivity of a well evacuated dry VIP with a fumed silica core is typically about 0.004 W/ (mK) after production. As the low internal pressure is not in equilibrium

with the environment, pressure gradients are present that act as driving forces for the intrusion of atmospheric gas (essentially N2, O2 and H2O) and by this the thermal performance of VIP is impaired in two ways - increasing internal gas pressure and increase in the internal water content. Hence, it is very important for designers and engineers to know the long-term thermal performance of VIPs. Researchers across the world are trying to address this issue through laboratory investigation,numerical modeling and field investigation. Durability Durability is the ability of a VIP to withstand chemical or mechanical impacts that would cause failure of the barrier envelope. Regarding durability the risks for VIP in suitable building applications occur mainly before or during installation. A certain failure rate is present at the production plant, caused by material imperfections or processing errors. This type of failure can be largely avoided by quality control as well as by storing the panels during a specified time under defined conditions and checking them before they are shipped. More frequent failures occur during transportation and handling of the panels until they are safely installed. Without protection the envelope is highly sensitive to mechanical impact, especially to point loads e.g. by sand grains, bricks or stone fragments, or other sharp objects including tools and corners of other panels. Once installed workmanlike, failure risks are observed to be low. At present, only a few prefabricated products and systems are available for the building sector. However, more and more component and system manufacturers are becoming involved in the development of such products. VIP is more than a new material it must rather be regarded as a system, one of considerable complexity and sensitivity. Photo Courtesy
www.kornicki.com www.passivhaus.de

Infrared imaging showing the heat loss through the gap in surfaces

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DCS Trading & Services Pvt.Ltd

Communication Feature

Modern Waterproofing Solutions


ith a wide range of waterproofing material available in market, the selection should be made taking into consideration the design of building and roof. Waterproofing materials are applied on the roof to protect the building from seepage. Waterproofing is the process of applying a suitable membrane to the roof surface in order to stop water from penetrating the structural elements of building. Traditional waterproofing systems like brickbat coba, mud faska etc require a lot of time for execution and also add dead load to the roof, leading to the short life expectancy of the overall structure. Nowadays, in construction industry, time is a major factor and hence, new waterproofing materials have been introduced which are more effective, faster to apply and less labour intensive. New waterproofing membranes increase the life expectancy of the structure as they are more durable to varying weather conditions. Modern waterproofing systems include polymer modified bitumen membranes with different kind of reinforcements, single ply membranes and liquid applied coatings. Waterproofing membranes are available both for exposed and unexposed roofing. The technical properties of waterproofing membranes are mainly measured in terms of

PVC Synthetic Membrane

softening point, penetration, cold flexibility, tensile strength, elongation etc. These membranes can be applied by different methods such as fully bonded, partially bonded, mechanically fixed, loose laid and ballasted or any of the combination as per the requirement at site. Waterproofing membrane should be selected based on the type of roof, application criteria, slope of roof, insulation, vapour barrier and the usage of roof. Texsa has a proven track record of manufacturing and supplying quality products. TEXSA INDIA LTD has established itself as a leading name for supply of various waterproofing membranes in Indian construction industry. Texsa offers various types of waterproofing membranes as explained below: A. Polymer Modified Bitumen Membranes: 1. APP (Atactic Polypropylene) modified bitumen membranes, reinforced with Polyester Felt or Fibre Glass Mat under the brand name MOPLY (Torch on Membranes): These membranes are torchable and can be applied fully bonded or partially bonded, with a separate wearing

course on top, and also, as exposed roofing with mineral finished membrane. 2. SBS (Styrene Butadiene Styrene) modified bitumen membranes reinforced with Polyethylene or Polyester Felt or Fibre Glass Mat under the brand name TEXSELF (Self Adhesive Membranes) and M O R T E R P L A S ( To r c h o n Membranes): These membranes are applied fully bonded and covered with a protection layer. For exposed roofing, these membranes are available with Aluminium Foil or Mineral Finish on top. Self adhesive membranes can be applied both on concrete surface and metal roofs. B. Single Ply Membranes (PVC & TPO) : 1. PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) single ply membranes are flexible and elastomeric in nature. These membranes are available as non reinforced and reinforced with Polyester or Fibre Glass, UV and non UV, under the brand name VINITEX. Non UV PVC membranes can be applied with protection layer on top and UV resistant membranes can be applied for exposed roofing. 2. TPO (Thermoplastic Polyolefin) single ply membranes are thermoplastic in nature. These membranes are available as non reinforced as well as reinforced with

APP Bituminous Membrane

Liquid Waterproofing PU Based

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Igloo Tiles

Communication Feature

Polyester Fabric or Fibre Glass Mat and UV resistant under the brand name TEXSALON. TPO membranes can be applied as covered system or exposed roofing. C. Liquid Applied Membranes :1. Acrylic liquid applied waterproof coating is weather resistant, having high elasticity at all temperatures, permeable to water vapour allowing substrate to breathe and excellent adherence to the majority of building materials. This coating is marketed under the brand name IMPERTEXSA. This coating can be tinted in any colour as per requirement and can be applied on any shape and contour under exposed conditions. 2. Bitumen liquid applied waterproof coating is a rubber modified emulsion, elastic in nature, durable

and solvent free. This coating is marketed under the brand name EMUFAL . This coating can be applied even on slightly humid surfaces and it maintains flexibility at - 100C. This coating should always be protected with screed etc. 3. PU (Polyurethane coating) is having high elasticity at all temperatures, weather resistant and excellent adherence to the majority of building materials. This coating is marketed under the brand name MOPREN. This coating is available as non UV for buried system/protected system and as UV resistant for exposed roofing and can be applied on any shape and contour. To sum up, Texsa offers a wide range of products for providing waterproofing solution for different areas and applications. TEXSA INDIA LTD is a wholly owned

subsidiary of the TEXSA Group founded in 1954 in Barcelona (Spain). Texsa manufactures and markets products for roofing / waterproofing, thermal and acoustic insulation and geotextiles, as well as the corresponding auxiliary materials for each of these fields, for building and civil works. The waterproofing systems mentioned are tested and proven across the globe. Texsa has trained applicators across India for execution of job.

For further details:


Texsa India Ltd.
345, Ground Floor, Udyog Vihar Phase II, Gurgaon 122016 Haryana Ph: +91-124-4052078/79,
Fax: +91-124-4052080,

E-mail: texsaindia@texsa.in Web: www.texsa.com

A Velodrome that Trebles up as Caf and Bike Pavilion


ycle velodromes need not always be dull and drab affairs. NL Architects have come up with a plan in southern China which will apart from housing a velodrome will also have a caf and a bike pavilion to boot. The architects have been careful to ensure that the design is such that no cyclist comes down crashing down hard on merry makers sitting in the caf below. The velodrome on its part will also act as an extended roof to the caf and bike pavilion in the ground floor, yet another brilliant desing idea. The idea is sure to catch up, especially among the younger lot, apart from helping to draw them towards cycling in a big way. It wont be suprising to find many similar projects springing up elsewhere in the world in the near future.

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Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd

Communication Feature

Innovative Roofing, Cladding and Natural Ventilation Systems from a Trend Setter
ulticolor Steels is considered an industry leader in the field of metal roofing, wall cladding systems, pre-engineered building solutions and a variety of insulated sandwich panels, catering to the needs of varied industries. The company with its modern manufacturing facility located in Manesar, Gurgaon offers complete solutions from design, manufacture, installation to completion. The company's strong R & D focus has meant that it has been a frontrunner in

the industry when it comes to introducing innovative products. Let us take a look at some of the latest from the company's vast product portfolio. Multi-Lite: Natural Light Solution Multi-Lite, natural light solution for roofs and walls is yet another trendsetting product from Multicolor Steel. The system provides natural light roofs, glazing, or cladding using polycarbonate sheets or FRP (fiber glass reinforced plastic) sheets.

Rajesh Gupta
Managing Director, Multicolor Steels India (P) Ltd.

Bangalore Metro Station

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Speedcrafts Ltd

Communication Feature

The rigid polycarbonate transparent roof glazing sheets are available in 2mm thickness and required lengths upto 12 mtrs of Multi-RibTM, MultiCladTM, Multi-LokTM profiles. They are made out of finest polycarbonate sheets from SABIC (earlier GE Plastics) and offer excellent light transmission between 50%-92%. The polycarbonate sheets with one side embossed provides for diffused light and prevents sharp glare. These sheets remain transparent for more then 10-15 yrs without getting dark, hence acting as a source of clear light forever. The sheets are UV coated on both sides, therefore lasting several years and are known for their longevity. The company offers FRP (Fibre Glass Reinforced Plastic) sheets in required lengths upto 12 mts and thickness: 2mm, 2.5mm and 3 mm. The sheets are also highly durable, and are made as per IS specifications. They come with UV stabilized resins which help prevent deterioration and need minimal maintenance. The FRP sheets are also available in a wide variety of colours and textures. Natural Ventilation System Multi-Vent: Wind Driven Roof Ventilators Multicolor also offers the 'Multi-Vent', high performance wind driven roof ventilators. The wind driven roof ventilation systems come with a host of advantages. Dampness and humidity are known to cause corrosion of building structures, painted surface, metal fittings and electrical wiring, all

problems which can be eliminated through proper ventilation. The wind driven roof ventilators help in keeping an industrial premises fresh roundthe-clock. Additionally since they are wind driven, there is no need for power and helps in enormous electricity savings. The wind driven roof ventilators are made of aluminium and colorcoated steel for longer life. Multi-Louvers: Factory Made Industrial Louvers for Side Walls Another good example for the company's innovative product range is the 'Multi-Louvers', natural wall ventilation system. The ventilation system comprising of the louvers are designed and applied in custom lengths ready for quick installation. The standard

CONTINOUS LOUVERS

Multi Louvers Ventilouvers

and longevity, they are also maintenance free. The louvers are available in a wide variety of colours which add to the aesthetics of buildings where they are used. Special louvers made of polycarbonate sheets are also available, which additionally provide natural light.

Pot Line C Row Ventilator, Orissa Project

Multi-Vent, Galaxy (Taloja)

sizes are also available for immediate delivery. The special design of the system allows for free flow of air and restricts entry of water and dust. This way they help in circulation of fresh air 24 hours in a day. The colorcoated steel louvers are light in weight and easy to install. Known for their durability

For further details:


" White House" 1-18/20, Rani Jhansi Road, New Delhi- 110055. Ph: 011-3051 1200, Fax: 011-2351 3660 E-mail: enquiry@multicolorsteel.com Web: www.multicolorsteel.com

Multicolor Steels India (P) Ltd.

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Cosmos Sales Corporation

Communication Feature

A Total Solution Provider for Pre-Engineered Buildings


it successfully execute numerous projects including, industrial, institutional, residential, site offices, commercial establishments, parking/bus shelters, security cabins, and storage sheds/ warehouses, to mention only a few. An ISO 9001:2008 certified company; Metal Tech under its project management consultancy services takes up the design and engineering of metal buildings based on the requirements of the clients. The company manages the complete development of a facility, right from its concept stage till the commissioning and subsequently, handing over. While performing this role, the company acts as the client's representative to all other agencies working on the project, playing a key role in assembling the project team consisting of consultants, suppliers, etc. Another one of the company's strength has been its team of highly skilled and qualified personnel. Ably led by Mr. R. Elangovan, an industrialist and technocrat, an engineer by profession who has had productive stints with reputable companies, both in India and abroad, the company's growth story has been nothing short of remarkable. The team works in close tandem with its clients. The initial process involves thoroughly understanding the unique requirement of the client, after which a thorough analysis is done and then eventually project execution happens. This systematic approach has been the cornerstone of the company's success story in this highly competitive field. The company is known for its R & D achievements. Metal Tech has been a pioneer when it comes to using latest design software for computerized detailing and drafting before the execution of any project. The use of

Pre Engineered Building

R. Elangovan
MD, Metaltech Construction Pvt. Ltd.

etal Tech has emerged as a leading name in the highly specialized area of preengineered buildings in recent times. The company has on the back of its stringent commitment to highest quality standards carved a niche for itself as a total solution provider in the field of project management and preengineered buildings. The company offers the entire spectrum of roofing products and solutions including sheetings, accessories, louvres, UPVC doors and windows, steel doors, windows, roofing ventilators, and ironmongery. Metal Tech's proven expertise has seen

specialized software packages enables the company to come out with flawlessly designed metal buildings that offer superior performance throughout their lifespan. Detailed computerized modeling and simulation techniques are used in order to gauge the performance of a metal structure under different conditions. The technique also ensures that there is minimum wastage of material during the actual erection and installation process. The successful execution of several turnkey projects stand testimony to the company's prowess in the field. Never ones to rest on past laurels, the top management of the company have been focusing on further improving its product and service offering. With its unflinching commitment to quality standards and penchant for product innovation, Metal Tech continues to grow at a rapid pace.

For further details:


Metaltech Construction Pvt. Ltd.
No.171-172, Mahavishnu Nagar, Pattanur Village, Auroville Post, Pondy - Thindivanam Road, Villupuram Dt., Tamil Nadu - 605101. Ph:+91-413-2276360, M:+91-9524244455 E-mail: info@mntecc.com Web: www.mntecc.com

Skyaxis Roof Ventilator

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Communication Feature

To Make Good Things Even Better


n today's Modern World the Construction Industries are in need for good supply for quality products to the market in order to stand strong. Basic blend products like OPC / blended special cement etc in the case of specialty construction aim for quality assurance. The advanced technology is compelled to include the micro ingredients in building products formulation to enhance Fast processing at site Building performance The surface finish & Durability of the structure

Right Mixing Technique Toshniwal offers the new generation powder mixing equipment which works on fluidized zone principle mixing technique. Their main characteristics are : Batch mixing of high capacity for solid components Use of more no. of mixing tools Assurance for the homogeneity of supplementary substances in PPM range by mass Gentle action hence assurance for no temperature increase and suitable for sensitive ingredients inclusion.

The Mixer has proven record for the building materials and construction care products like Building Material Dry Mortar Renders Wall Plasters Wall Putty (Dry) Floor Screeds Skim Coats Blended Cement Construction Care Integral Water Proofing Compound Grouts Flour Hardener Repairing Mortar Tile Joining Compound Thermal insulation products Fire Proof Cement Wall Paper Compounds

The company also supports new entrepreneurs those who are willing to launch their product by offering them Medium sized batch mixing plant on job work basis to blend as per their requirement. Further details from: M/s. Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt. Ltd., 267, Kilpauk Garden Road, Chennai - 600 010, India Phone No: 91-44-26445626 / 26448983 Email: mixer@toshniwal.net / Web : www.toshniwal.net

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Recycling Aggregates

Recycled Concrete Aggregate:


An Idea Whose Time Has Come
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor

he second most consumed material after water, concrete today is omnipresent. It has built the environment we live in, whether it is our homes, hospitals, work places, or roads, a world without concrete is unimaginable. Although there is no denying the fact that concrete is perhaps the best option available to mankind to make long-lasting, durable structures, there is a major concrete that on the construction process result is generating

high quantity waste. An estimated 1000 million tonnes of construction and demolition waste (C &DW) is generated annually globally. The corresponding figures for India hovers around the 1720 million tonnes mark, a figure which is expected to double in the next five years, with the continued impetus being provided to rapid infrastructure development and the growth of the real estate sector in the country. Despite the recent economic

slowdown, industry analysts point out that the construction industry in India is bound to grow at a rate of 10 %-12% given the inherent demand for infrastructure development the need for housing. The construction industry of India which is pegged at around US$ 300 billion is considered among the fastest growing in the world. While the Indian construction industry is growing at a faster pace than that of other major economies such as UK, Spain, and France, it is still only

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Recycling Aggregates

aggregates required to build new structures, they are also needed for repairing existing infrastructure. All these issues have meant that project developers have been forced to think seriously about recycling of construction and demolition waste. Piling up construction waste material has been a bane of the Indian cities. Insufficient regulatory frameworks, along with lack of adequate knowledge and resources, has meant that civic authorities have been found wanting, when it comes to disposal of construction and demolition waste. Construction waste is heavy, of high density, often bulky and more often than not finds its way into surface drains in Indian cities, choking them leading to other environmental issues. While easily retrievable items such as metal, bricks and tiles are already being recycled in significant numbers, concrete and masonry waste, which constitutes over 50% of the construction and demolition waste often goes unutilized. The colossal loss to the economy can be gauged from the fact that an estimated 60,000 million cu.m of aggregates would be required for the housing sector alone in the next five years. Similarly the road sector would require about 800 million cu.m of aggregates. When the requirement of the infrastructure sector is added

to these figures, the magnitude of waste can be gauged clearly. India clearly needs to have a rethink on the way it utilizes its construction and demolition waste. While some positive work has already begun in this direction (work on recycling aggregates is being done at the Central Building Research Institute, Roorke and the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi) regulatory and policy frameworks are the need of the hour, since aggregate recycling is site-specific and it is only through stricter rules and regulations that the trend can be propagated in a vast country like India. According to a study commissioned by the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), an autonomous organization set up in 1988 under the Department of Science and Technology, about 70 % of the construction industry is not aware of recycling techniques. The enormity of the task at hand is therefore such that it needs urgent framing of policies mandating the use of recycled aggregates, while putting in place a mechanism to check quality standards. The myth that concrete cannot be recycled is fast disappearing from several parts of the world. Although it is a fact that concrete cannot be broken down into its constituent parts, it can be crushed and reused as aggregate. It can

about 20 % of neighbouring China's market, a fact that point out to the huge growth that can be expected in the near future. With the Indian construction industry growing at such a rapid pace, it is also consuming raw materials in huge quantities, of which aggregates are the ones that are consumed the most. Given the growth rate of the construction industry, it is already feeling the pinch, as far as the availability of natural aggregates is concerned. Not only are natural

Increase in the number of redevelopment projects has forced developers to seriously consider recycled concrete aggregates as an alternative to virgin aggregates

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Recycling Aggregates

C& DW is a major headache for civic authorities in India

also be recycled as part of the cement manufacturing process in controlled amounts. It could be used as an additional component or as an alternative raw material to produce clinker. Aggregates make up around 80 % of the volume of concrete and it is important that quality assurance procedures are in place for checking the quality of aggregates that are recycled. The recycled

aggregate should be tested for properties such as moisture content, strength, specific gravity, re-sistance to freeze-thaw, texture, etc. Some Key Factors In order to ensure the highest standards of quality it is necessary that a thorough analysis of some key factors is made before using recycled aggregate.

Waldspirale, Darmstadt, Germany the first project in Germany where recycled concrete was used

This is especially so in the case of use of high strength concrete where necessary compressive strength is of paramount importance. Some of the factors that need to be analyzed include, size of aggregates, adhered mortar, interfacial transition zone, Los Angeles abrasion , water absorption and strength of parent concrete. A lot of research is going on around the world for determining the effects of recycled aggregates for producing high strength concrete. Generally speaking, it is seen that parent high strength concrete produces high quality second generation concrete. Research in the field states that the minimum strength of parent concrete should be above 25 MPa. The size of aggregates and their combination also plays a crucial role in determining the compressive strength. The inclusion of smaller size aggregates such as fines of 10mm size are reported to have decreased compressive strength during research studies. Research has also found that recycled aggregate is more often than not likely to have adhered mortar content, which in turns affects quality due to characteristics of higher porosity and absorption. This factor again is dependent on the size of aggregates. The quality of aggregates is usually determined by both physical and mechanical test methods. Abrasion resistance for example is generally tested using the Los Angeles testing machine. The Los Angeles abrasion test was originally developed for evaluating the quality of aggregates for highway construction. The wear due to impact of crushing and the attrition between rock particles is measured using this method. Similarly, chemical reaction in the recycled aggregate concrete and the moisture content involved also play a key role in determining the strength. The bond between the matrix and coarse aggregate at the interfacial zone assumes importance for achieving strength. In urban environs, the presence of contaminants is another factor that needs to be considered during the recycling process. Some of the contaminants that could have an impact on the overall

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Gourav Industries

Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd

Recycling Aggregates

quality of concrete include gypsum, plastic vinyl, rubber, soil, asphalt, etc. The use of recycled aggregate has been found to be better than that of virgin aggregates for certain applications. For example, the physical properties of recycled aggregates make them ideally suited for road base and sub-base. This is because of their physical properties which means less cement is required making them suited for sub-base use. This is in addition to the cost benefits accrued by developers in the process. Making Concrete more Green In a world that is increasingly emphasizing on sustainable construction practices; recycled aggregates have a major role to play. Recycled concrete is in fact recognized by the LEED Green Building Rating System in its point system. Credit 4 (Materials and Resources) points out that specify a minimum of 25% of building materials that contain in aggregate a minimum weighted average of 20% post-consumer recycled content material, OR, a minimum weighted average of 40% post-industrial recycled content material. Apart from the obvious benefits, there is one more aspect that of carbonation that occurs during the process of concrete crushing

for producing concrete aggregates. Certain areas that were earlier not carbonated absorb carbon dioxide from the immediate environs adding to the already high sustainability quotient of concrete. In fact, it is the green building revolution that is propelling forward the increased use of recycled aggregates. The developed countries have taken a lead and developing ones like India need to take a leaf out of their books. In the US for example, an estimated 8%-10% of aggregate is recycled. Other countries which are leading the initiative are Germany, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In fact, the trend of marketing concrete containing recycled aggregates has already started in Europe, a precedent that could well spawn emulations in Asia, which is now the hub of construction activities globally. The ball has already been set rolling by examples in these countries. A good one is the Waldspirale Complex, in Darmstadt, Germany which opened in 2000. Containing more than 100 dwellings, the project was a brainchild of Freiden screich Hundertwasser. The designer used prefab elements and recycled concrete for creating this landmark in Germany.

Challenges in the Indian Context For recycled concrete to be used in greater quantities in a country like India, there are certain aspects that need to be taken care of initially. The setting up of a proper institutional mechanism for taking care of all the steps, such as collection of the construction and demolition waste, transportation, and disposal is of key importance. Outsourcing of such functions to private enterprise is an idea that the concerned authorities could give a though to in this day and age of open economies. Another key area that needs attention is the set up of the necessary processing infrastructure. Similarly, necessary infra structure should also be available for testing the quality of recycled aggregates. Project developers need to be educated on on-site waste management plans. Moreover, concerned authorities need to plan an awareness campaign, using the electronic and online media to promote the virtues of recycled aggregates. This would go a long way in removing misconceptions about recycled aggregates as being of inferior quality among the public. Photo Courtesy
www.cowonitsback.blogspot.com www.willametteriverbridge.blogspot.com www.ncsalfun.blogspot.com www.designedtobreathe.blogspot.in

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PKM Metal Building Company

Thermoshield India P.Ltd

Communication Feature

BASF Organizes Panel Discussion on

Building a Sustainable Tomorrow


he year 2011-12 has been declared the Year of Germany in India in celebration of the 60 years of successful Indo-German ties. BASF, a global leader in construction chemicals, is the official partner of the event, whose highlight is the unique concept of a mobile pavilion known as the Indo-German Urban Mela. The Mela that started in Mumbai in April 2012 is scheduled to travel across Bangalore, Chennai, New Delhi, and Pune, until 2013. On the sidelines of the Melas Mumbai leg, BASF organized a lively panel discussion on the topicBuilding a Sustainable Tomorrow, reinforcing the companys commitment towards sustainable construction was organized on April 17,2012. The platform brought together veterans from the industry with the distinguished panelists including, Dr. P .C.Jain, Chairman, Indian Green Building Council, Mr. Prasad Chandran, Chairman, BASF Companies in India & Head South Asia and Dr. Rajiv Mishra, Principal, Sir JJ College of Architecture, University of Mumbai. With an estimated 60% of the global population predicted to live in cities in the near future, the pressure on space, ecology, and energy is rising and this was among the most important topics during the panel discussion. Sustainable urban construction could help address urban development issues related to housing, while also contributing to a green environment. With buildings and living accounting for about 40 percent of the global energy use, one of the discussions focused on measures that could reduce this figure, primarily with more energy efficient buildings. Sharing his thoughts on the subject, Dr.P .C.Jain, observed that India is the worlds youngest nation with the oldest civilization. He said that the new generation is expected to drive the growth of the construction industry at the rate of ten percent per annum for decades, which will in turn pose enormous challenges on availability of resources, energy, and water. Green buildings through recycling of resources, minimum waste, energy con-

Panelists (L-R): Dr. P .C.Jain, Chairman, Indian Green Building Council, Mr. Prasad Chandran, Chairman, BASF Companies in India & Head South Asia, Dr. Rajiv Mishra, Principal, Sir JJ College of Architecture, University of Mumbai and Mr. Ramesh Iyengar, media moderator for the event

servation, zero discharge of water from the project, both during construction and operation, offer a low-hanging fruit to preserve all life forms on our beautiful planet, added Dr.Jain during the discussion. Dwelling on the key role played by chemistry in promoting sustainable construction practices, Mr.Prasad Chandran in his introductory remarks emphasized on the need for local innovations to make the concept more acceptable. Pointing out to the role, he said, As a leading provider of raw materials, formulations and systems to the construction industry, BASF provides economically and ecologically sound solutions that contribute to modern, comfortable and sustainable housing and construction by lowering energy consumption, increasing building life expectancy and offering a faster construction process. Going into details of one of the companys innovative solutions, he said, Our Total Insulation Concept is one such example of a local innovation which offers both wall and roof insulation, thus reducing total energy consumption by up to 20-25 percent. The panel discussion saw Dr.Rajiv Mishra focus on the role that the academia can play in passing this message of sustainable construction to the younger

generation, who are on the threshold of beginning their professional life. He also spoke about a few initiatives that architects and builders associations are undertaking in order to promote the use of green building solutions in the construction industry. There was unanimous agreement among the panelists that a combination of economic, social, and ecological benefits would drive solutions for greener buildings. The event witnessed good representation from professionals belonging to various disciplines such as architecture, engineering, and construction management. The panel and the audience were in agreement that the campaign for sustainable construction would catch steam only if young architects were involved, since they would be the ones who will be quite literally building the future. Companies such as BASF are playing a crucial role in bringing about the green building revolution. From new building construction and renovation to interior fittings, solutions from BASF can be found in nearly every building project these days. A good example is its Total Insulation concept that offers thermal and water insulation, due to which total energy consumption can be reduced by up to 2025 percent.

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ROTHO - Robert Thomas Metall- and Elektrowerke GmbH & Co. KG

Sunbeam

Event

'FICCI Specialty Chemicals Conclave-2012'


Focus on Immense Potential of Specialty Chemicals Industry in India
Here are excerpts from the interview. Can you elaborate to our readers the key objectives of FICCI Specialty Chemicals Conclave 2012 scheduled to be held in June? The Indian chemical industry is playing an important role in nation building by providing products enabling technical solutions virtually in all sectors of the economy. The industry is on a growth path and India has the potential of becoming a manufacturing hub in the sector. Within this important sector, we would like to encourage those segments of the chemical industry which are knowledge driven and value added. Specialty Chemicals is such an important segment. Indias competitiveness in specialty chemicals is now being recognised globally. In this context we need to promote their judicious usage as also to enhance our penetration of global markets. Specialty chemicals is the fastest growing segment in the chemical industry and there is immense potential of increasing consumption and thus the growth rate. These are high value, low volume chemicals known for their end-use applications and/or have performance enhancing properties. Compared to United States, Europe and even China, there is comparatively very low usage of such chemicals in India. Judicious use of such chemicals will not only help in the growth of this important segment of the chemical industry but also facilitate the overall economic growth of the country. The size and scale of the event looks very impressive. Please take us through some of pavilions and participants involved. The Conclave with the theme The Rise of India in the Global Specialty Chemicals Industry is being organized by (FICCI) jointly with the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals (C&PC), Government of India and with the support of ICC (Indian Chemical Council) ISCMA (Indian Specialty Chemical Manufacturing Association), and CHEMEXCIL (Chemicals Export Promotion Council). It is also being supported by the Government of Gujarat, which is the hub of Indian chemical industry. Mr. K Jose Cyriac, Secretary (Chemicals & Petrochemicals) is expected to inaugurate the Conclave and also deliver the inaugural address. A Knowledge Paper on specialty chemicals which is being prepared with the help of Tata Strategic Management will also be released at the time. The Conclave will cover important segments and issues such as Chemicals in food industry, Role of Paints, Coatings and Construction Chemicals, Dyes and Colorants, Personal Care Chemicals, export potential of the sector as also the Innovations and Sustainability aspect which is so important. Given the economic slowdown, are you satisfied with the overall growth of the Indian specialty chemicals industry? This sector has good prospects and will have sustained growth driven by high growth end-use industries. Technology and innovation will play a good role where India has advantage of a large pool of technical and scientific manpower. Given the various advantages of specialty chemicals, what have been the factors behind their low per capita consumption in India? Lack of awareness as also proper usage norms have been the main reason so far. However with an increased focus on improving products, usage intensity of specialty chemicals will rise and there will be a multiplier effect. What according to you are the major challenges confronting the Indian specialty chemicals industry? The sector employs highly complex manufacturing processes that often

Prabh Sharan Singh


Head-Chemicals, FICCI

ndia is considered one of the fastest growing markets for specialty chemicals, of which construction chemicals form an important segment. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), jointly with the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals (C &PC), Government of India, with the support of Indian Chemicals Council (ICC), ISCMA ( Indian Specialty Chemical Manufacturing Association), CHEMEXCIL (Chemicals Export Promotion Council) and SSPC (Society for Surface Protective Coatings India is organizing an international conference Specialty Chemicals Conclave 2012 at Hotel Intercontinental, The Lalit , Mumbai on June 7-8, 2012. The key aim of the conference is to highlight the countrys capabilities in the domain and to discuss and devise strategies for the further growth of specialty chemicals industry in India. In an exclusive chat with The Masterbuilder, Mr.P .S.Singh, Head-Chemicals, FICCI, who with his vast repertoire of knowledge in the field, gave detailed insights about the conference and the specialty chemicals industry in India. Mr.P .S.Singh, prior to his current position at FICCI was the Director (Chemicals) with the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Government of India.

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3rd Annual SICI 2012 Bangalore Edition

Event

involve usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals. The importance of safety, security, and environmental protection cannot be underestimated. The sector also has implications from the REACH factor. There is also need for putting in more emphasis on R&D. What according to you are the measures that need to be adopted by the industry and government to address environmental compliance by specialty chemical units? Proper adoption of the Responsible Care initiative, which is a global, voluntary initiative developed autonomously by the chemical industry for the chemical industry, by the chemical industry is a good way forward. Indian chemical industry needs to be nudged to adopt the same on voluntary basis. The initiative calls on companies to demonstrate their commitment to improve all aspects of performance, which relate to protection of health, safety and environment. Given that PCPIRs have been slow starters is it time to contemplate setting up of exclusive chemicals/specialty chemicals parks? Chemical industry clusters, preferably sectoral clusters, with common effluent treatment, incineration, testing facilities and with assured quality power supply will go a very long way to enable this emerging segment realize its true potential. Several industry experts feel that not enough has been done by the government or industry for popularizing the study of pure sciences like chemistry, as in the case of other streams and this could be one of the reasons for the slow pace of growth of the specialty chemicals industry. Your views. No. I dont think so. That way, you will notice that a major chunk from IITs is going to the financial sector, rather than adapting the engineering profession. We need to develop a proper industryacademia linkage for bringing the best results and FICCI certainly would like to facilitate the process. Tell us about some steps FICCI has taken towards achieving Standardiza-

tion- a major challenge facing the Indian construction chemicals industry? Judicious usage of construction chemicals means increased life of the end products with improved performance and longer life. It also makes the application easier, thus reducing labour cost and minimizing wastage. FICCI supports standardized usage of construction as also other chemicals and will endeavour not only inclusion of same in the National Chemical Policy which is presently under formulation but also facilitate actual laying down of such standards. Differential tax rates in various states have been an area of concern for the construction chemicals industry. Tell us about FICCIs initiatives towards achieving rationalization of taxes. GST (Goods & Services Tax) would be a good answer for helping the growth of the chemical industry across the country. On the issue of differentials in tax incidence for construction chemicals, we are in touch with the Construction Chemicals Manufacturers Association (CCMA) and will facilitate the resolution of the same. Lack of awareness with respect to proper application is an issue plaguing the specialty chemicals industry in general and the construction chemicals industry in particular. Do you see FICCI playing a role in developing a new generation of skilled tradesmen? There is a need to identify the skill gaps. Such gaps exist at very basic and crucial stages. For example as I understand, the construction chemicals industry has a large need of trained applicators. There are similar gaps in various other segments of the specialty chemicals industry. There is an urgent need to identify such gaps. FICCI with due linkages with institutions such as National Skills Development Council can facilitate filling up of such gaps. In China on site mixing of concrete is banned in several places. Do you feel such strict regulations are needed for encouraging the use of construction chemicals? Market forces themselves play a key role. You will notice that mixing itself is becoming an industry and its gradual

usage is spreading. However, the same needs to be further encouraged for environmental reasons. The Planning Commission has recommended the setting up of an Indian Chemicals Inventory to highlight production trends, increase awareness, and bring about information transparency on chemicals among the general public and stakeholders. How far are we away from the establishment of such an inventory? Having such a national inventory is very important. The establishment of the same allows authorities to maintain an updated overview of the chemicals marketed in the country, reveal whether the substance manufactured is used within a country or exported and identify risk zones to facilitate the setting up of risk reduction facilities. Such an inventory can also help highlight the production trends and information transparency. Work in this direction has already commenced. The responsibility for preparation of such an inventory has been entrusted to CHEMEXCIL by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. How can the construction chemicals industry collectively scale the huge market potential that India has? The following initiatives need to be taken: The sector has untapped potential for facilitating quality infrastructure which is so important for the economy. Awareness about same in concerned circles needs to be created by pooling of efforts both by the industry and the policy makers. A Knowledge/Vision document which informs the present status as also what is required to be done to facilitate growth of the sector needs to be prepared. To promote green construction practices through judicious use of construction chemicals and provision of appropriate incentives for same. Need for standardization of construction chemicals usage. Focus on creating trained manpower (capacity building) for the sector.

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Relyon Facility Services Pvt. Ltd

Kalyan Industries

Pioneer Coldstore & Cladding Pvt. Ltd.

Communication Feature

Prevention of Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Exposed to Severe Conditions


into anodic cathodic regions as illustrated in Fig.1 Prevention of Rebar Corrosion Various methods of prevention of rebars have been tried by the industry with limited success especially in a severe environment. Traditionally durability of reinforced concrete is specified by prescription of minimum cement content, maximum watercement ratio, higher cover thickness and strength of concrete for different degree of exposure conditions. Some standards even specify the type of cements like blended cements with pozzolanic materials, for severe exposure structures. All these methods are aimed at restricting the diffusion of chlorides into the concrete. Most of the methods, at the best, can only postpone but seldom stop the rebarcorrosion in structures like jetties and bridge piers subjected to splash zone. For this reason cathodic prevention of new reinforced concrete structures is being increasingly used in corrosive environments and for structures even in less corrosive environment but where longevity and guaranteed durability are of particular importance.
Impressed Current Cathodic Prevention

M N Ramesh
CEO, Savcor India Private Limited

he mechanism of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is a well understood phenomenon. It occurs by the formation of anodes and cathodes on the surface of the rebar. Corrosion occurs at the anode, while the reduction reaction occurs at cathode, where the steel is protected from corrosion. The process of corrosion of rebars causes a serious damage to the r c members hampering their structural performance, especially in a severely exposed atmosphere like marine environs. The formation of anodic and cathodic regions is caused by the diffusion of negative chloride ions into the cover concrete which drive the free electrons due to the repulsive forces, in the region where chloride ion concentration is high. Consequently the steel locally polarizes

Fig1. Polarization of rebars ion concrete

Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique that involves the application of small electrical current using anodes that have been embedded in the concrete during construction. This system can be applied to an entire structure or to selected elements of a structure with the aim of preventing reinforcement corrosion when chloride penetration from the environment takes place during the service life of the structure. The basic philosophy of

cathodic prevention is that a much smaller current is required to prevent pitting corrosion compared to a higher current requirement to suppress ongoing corrosion. The cost of the application of cathodic prevention is substantially lower than the cost of the application of cathodic protection. The conditions for pitting initiation and propagation were pointed out by Pourbaix who during the 1970s introduced the concept of imperfect passivity and perfect passivity intervals. The different domain of potentials is shown below. As can be seen from the graph, for cathodic prevention, a modest lowering of the steel potential can produce a significant increase in the critical chloride level. The free corrosion potential of steel ranges from200mV to 0mV versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Pitting corrosion can take place if the chloride level exceeds 0.4%w/w cement. The negatively charged steel effectively repels the negatively charged chloride ions, preventing the critical chloride concentration required to initiate corrosion of the steel. In addition, cathodic polarization at the steel also promotes the formation of hydroxide at the steel surface, which promotes passivity and further increases the required amount of chloride ion concentration to initiate pitting corrosion. Cathodic prevention, prior to corrosion initiation, can prevent rebar corrosion at practically all levels of chloride contamination thereby rendering reinforced concrete structures durable in aggressive environments for a durability of 50-100 years. When cathodic prevention is applied, the initiation of a new pit is

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Roof India - 2012

Communication Feature

prevented but pitting can propagate. For this reason cathodic prevention has to be applied before corrosion initiates and must be maintained throughout the service life of the structure. If pitting corrosion has initiated, the current capacity typical for cathodic prevention will no longer be sufficient and cathodic protection current would be required. Cathodic prevention installed within structures prior to the onset of corrosion can be used to effectively handle the risks associated with prestressed concrete structures which can suffer from catastrophic failure. Cathodic prevention is very much useful is critical structures such as chemical containment, defense and nuclear applications where premature failures or breaches cannot be tolerated. The use of cathodic prevention for prestressed steel will eliminate the risk of hydrogen evolution because a lower current is required to prevent the initiation of pitting corrosion. A typical operating current for cathodic prevention ranges from 1-2mA/m of steel. The cathodic prevention design current density is normally 10mA/m of steel surface. Cathodic Preventionenabled (CPrE) Structures Sometimes a compromise approach is adopted in cases where there is a long term risk of ingress of chlorides, leading eventually to onset of corrosion of reinforcement and hence deterioration which may subsequently require cathodic protection to be applied as a part of a remediation program. In these cases
400 200 0 -200 Pitting can initiate and propagate

designers/specifiers often require the structure t Be compatible with future cathodic prevention. Such an approach can be adopted by the designers of rc / psc structures built in the aggressive environment. However the cathodic protection compatibility can be achieved from simply making all the rebars electrically interconnected by spot welding to installing all the anode systems and associated embedded components at the time of construction for later connecting to DC power supply for system energisation. These two approaches will differ hugely in costs. Therefore it is important that requirements are clearly stated in the technical specification. The different requirements that should be taken into account are as follows: Ensure that all metallic components within the structure are compatible with a possible future cathodic protection system. Ensure that reinforcements and other embedded metallic components within the structural elements are electrically continuous at the time of construction; if necessary, consider a number of bar-to-bar continuity welds, or ensure that only non-coated metallic bar ties are used. Where future access is either restricted or difficult ( for example, in road/ rail tunnels), including bonding cables to reinforcement at time of construction, terminated at suitable access points. Where future clearances are restricted, consider inclusion of recesses for instrumentation cabinets and future cable runs at the time of design and construction.

Fig.3 Ribbon anodes and connection installed for cathodic prevention

effective planning for the final design, procurement, installation and operation of cathodic protection system, before corrosion becomes established and hence before any deterioration of the structure occurs, with all the corresponding saving of remedial work. It is a very important point to note that cathodic prevention requires electrical continuity of the steel reinforcement. Structures fabricated using fusion-bonded epoxy-coated reinforcement bars, unless they were purposely made electrically continuous, are not suitable for the later application of cathodic protection. Summary Impressed current cathodic prevention is a secured solution for preventing reinforcing steel corrosion in a highly corrosive marine atmosphere. World over, specifications for the construction of marine r c structures provide for installation of cathodic prevention system. Implementation of such specifications undoubtedly enhances the healthy service life of the structures without a need for implementing any remedial measures.
For further details: Savcor India Pvt. Ltd. Nama Aurore, No.54 (1 Floor), South End Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore-560004, Ph:+91 80 26769233/34, Fax: +91 80 26769232, Web: www.savcor.com/ART, www.savcorproducts.com.au

1 2

4 3 6

-400

mVvs SCE
-600

Pitting does not initiate but can propagate Pitting does not initiate and propagate Risk of hydrogen embrittlement in presence of high strength steel

5
-800 -1000 -1200 0 0. 1 1. 2

Chloride content (weight % vs cement)

In some cases a condition monitoring system, providing information on ingress of chloride and hence when corrosion is expected to initiate, may also be specified. This would give the owner advanced warning to allow

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Baicon - 2012

Communication Feature

Modern Loaders 'Moving More and Making More


nhanced productivity and reduced operational and ownership costs make the new Cat 950H wheel loader a valuable partner in SEW Infrastructure's Trichy-Dindigul road project. Established in 1959 and having more than 50 years of rich experience in construction, SEW has not only constructed some of the biggest dams and irrigation projects in India, but also works across 12 other verticals such as tunnelling, hydro power, thermal power, port development, highways, oil and gas etc. We have done a road project from Trichy to Dindigul, a stretch of approximately 90 km with four lanes, for our client -- Reliance Infrastructure, says Sanjay Kumar Tripathi, Associate Vice-President O&M, P&M, SEW Infrastructure Ltd. With more than 22 years of experience in the maintenance and management of earth-moving machinery, construction, plant and machineries, Tripathi looks after the operation and maintenance management of plant and machinery.

The Trichy-Dindigul road project required the deployment of two loaders, which would help in the smooth execution of the project. We fulfil our requirement of plant and machinery on the basis of two arrangements -primarily by owning equipment ourselves and secondly, by renting equipment. We have bought a Cat 950H loader from Gmmco and also hired a loader for this project. I would like to mention that the Cat Loader has given us very good productivity and reliability, due to which we have completed this project within the given time-frame, says Tripathi. While maintaining world class operator comfort and durability, features such as improved ease of control with electro-hydraulic implement controls that have simultaneous lift and tilt capabilities, help in quicker loading cycles and easy manoeuvrability. Add in a 5-degree forward inclined ladder with self-cleaning steps for ease of entry and exit, along with centrally located hydraulic and electrical service centres

for improved daily maintenance, providing operators unmatched comfort and more uptime. The Cat 950H wheel loaders translate into 'Moving More and Making More' for our customers. Electro-hydraulic implement controls and load-sensing hydraulic system with simultaneous lift and tilt capabilities offer better control with less effort. Repeatable fine modulation gives superior bucket control with less spillage. New and proven systems such as engine idle and shutdown idle management systems work together for better fuel efficiency without sacrificing power and performance. Homing onto the Cat 950H loader as a perfect solution for their needs, Tripathi says, We considered this loader mainly due to its superior engine having ACERT Technology. ACERT Technology is an innovative performance enhancement and emissions reduction solution for diesel engines. Through a process called multiple injection, a number of preciselymetered microbursts of fuel are delivered into the combustion chamber. Secondly, the reliability factor of this machine is greater as compared to other machines. The mean time between failures is supposed to be very high. In other words, the machine should be robust and reliable, continuously working and producing results even when the application is severe. Considering the complexity and toughness of our application, we went ahead and procured the Cat 950H Loader, which has proven to be the right decision. The machine has given 5,600 uninterrupted hours so far, and we are expecting many more hours of smooth performance without any down time. K Srinivasu, Project Manager, SEW Infrastructure Ltd., who is executing the

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INSTRUCT

Communication Feature

Trichy-Dindigul Project, says, We have been using the Cat 950H Loader since one and a half years. It provides maximum comfort to our operators and contributes to prolonged accident-free productivity. The work output has been excellent and has helped us meet our deadlines. We have run this machine for about 6000 hours and have found it to be extremely reliable. The Cat 950H loader is designed to provide maximum operator comfort. The ergonomically designed cab offers a best-in-class work environment. Operating comfort of the 950H is good. Driving is very comfortable. The seat is very wide and comfortable, operating speed and brakes are good. It gives good mileage. It is very easy to maintain and requires nominal repairs. I have not come across any major repair issues in the last 2 years. Earlier, I have operated various loaders, but this one is the best, sums up Giri, the operator working on the Trichy-Dindigul Highway Project.

Caterpillar's emphasis on providing good after-sales support in the form of training, technical support and repairs has helped in maintaining maximum up-time of the deployed Cat 950H loaders. Ease of service for daily checks, extended service intervals and a focus on reducing owning and operating costs translate into minimal idling of equipment, thereby helping in the timely execution of projects. Cat reliability, simplified serviceability, superior dealer support and availability of spare parts keeps the 950H loader running, with less downtime and lower operating costs. While deciding on the purchase of this product, we were well aware of the country-wide dealership support and after-sales service provided by Gmmco and TIPL. So we did not have any doubt in our minds and were confident that we have, indeed, made the right decision. Gmmco has supported us very well on our Trichy-

Dindigul project. All the necessary spare parts, filters, consumables as well as training and technical guidance was provided by the Gmmco local dealer, who has always given prompt and timely support, as and when required by us. We are happy and satisfied with the product as well as the excellent support, says Tripathi. Tripathi has every reason to be pleased because the Cat toughness and durability are built into every HSeries wheel loader. They move more material, at less cost than any other machine. Moreover, genuine Cat quality means excellent resale value. When the time comes to part with your H-Series wheel loader, your machine will command an exceptional price.

For further details:


Caterpillar India Private Ltd
E-mail: sathya_p@cat.com Web:www.india.cat.com

A Fancy Glass House right in the Midst of a City


s it there or is it not? That is what passerbys along the uniquely designed House NA in Tokyo are wondering. The glass house from Japanese architect, Sou Fujimoto has been drawing the attention of local citizens in a big way. The transparent design has meant that the unconventional home uses natural light to the optimum level. Made from glass and with steel frames to hold it in shape, the house has been designed to blend seamlessly with its exteriors. The house also has several balconies surrounding it which have been aesthetically designed. Provisions for installation of curtains have also been made in the House NA.
(Source: Inhabitat)

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The Masterbuilder Corporate ad

Equipment Focus Formwork

Formwork - Future Approach in India

A.L.Sekar, B.Murugesan and C.N.V.S. Rao


Larsen & Toubro Ltd

It is not the strongest of the species that survives, or the most intelligent. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change that does it. - Charles Darwin. Winds of change are blowing across every sphere of construction in India. Same is the case with the formwork and scaffolding systems in India. An approx. data on formwork derived from the cement consumption in India reveals that in India, formwork executed is around 750 million Sqm. out of which formwork executed using system or engineered formwork hardly constitutes around 10%. It is a known fact that formwork constitutes around 6%-8% of the cost of concrete and 60% of the time of the structure. So it is the right time an emphasis is laid on the right approach on formwork for the future of the Indian construction. With the increased growth in high-rise construction, demanding infrastructure projects shaping up the metros and tier 2 cities in India, the questions that arise now are - Are the formwork systems available in India today sufficient enough for executing such demanding projects? Are the major formwork suppliers across the world that have entered the Indian market able to give end to end solutions to the Indian construction industry? Though the utilisation of formwork has gone up by leaps and bounds over the years our approach is still old fashioned. Have we modernized our approach is still a question to be answered by all the stake-holders. This paper deals with focal points which will shape up the Future Approach of Formwork for the Indian construction industry. They can be broadly defined as Value Chain Linkage, Safety Integration in Formwork, Comprehensiveness in Quality, Standardisation, Green concept and sustainability and finally the Costing of Formwork. Value Chain Linkage Formwork is one of the vital links in the total Value Chain,

the other two links being reinforcement and concrete. At present, the Indian construction industrys major concern is the stringent timelines (duration) in the projects. With the clients demands increasing day by day, the construction companies focus is mainly on the floor to floor cycle time to meet the timelines of the projects. But to achieve this, a good engineered formwork system is alone not a solution. A good formwork system by itself might not give all the desired results; it only enables to reduce the timelines in one of the vital links of the value chain. There should be a wholistic approach considering the other two links of rebar and concrete. Also there should be emphasis on the development of the skill levels of the supervisors, labour and the approach of the engineers rather than just on the

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Equipment Focus Formwork

selection of the right system. To put it in a simpler way, our future approach while selecting a formwork system should be such that it should integrate the necessary features to support the other two links of the value chain i.e. rebar and concrete which will enable us to carry out these two activities also in a fast track manner. Only such a comprehensive approach would yield the desired results and help us to meet the demands of the customers. Safety Safety in formwork is another major concern today especially in high-rise construction and large infrastructure projects like metros, flyovers, airports etc. It is a known fact that in India, Safety levels are yet to catch up to the International Standards. There is a lot of pressure on the Indian construction companies today to improve the same by the Govt. of India, Foreign Investors and also the increased number of PMCs (which are basically reputed MNCs). Safety cannot be treated as a separate entity, rather it should be an integral part of the formwork system. Formwork & scaffolding being the major contributors to the safety in construction sites as they are also used for the rebar and concreting works, it is time we pay proper heed to how these have to be integrated with safety so as to ensure the overall safety at sites. The various areas of safety that we need to focus and integrate with formwork are: - - - - - - - Access (both Vertical & Horizontal) Working platforms Lifelines and Safety Catch Nets Erection & Dismantling of Formwork Storage & Maintenance of Formwork Simple Tools & Tackles Design and Engineering

Quality Quality of the finished product is another aspect resulting from a good and efficient formwork system. For achieving a good concrete surface, the right kind of sheathing member should be used in any formwork system, depending on the type of finish demanded by the client. Invariably, plywood has been the most commonly used sheathing member world-wide and has yielded the best results till date with regards to form finish. Nevertheless considering other factors in choosing the right kind of formwork system for the right job, today aluminium formwork has started penetrating and off late captured the market rapidly with a share of about 15% of the overall formwork value in India. Due to its easier handling, good quality surface finish, repeatability and durability, and best suited for high-rise residential buildings which are the trend today, aluminium in future might be a strong contender as far as sheathing is concerned in formwork. Apart from this, to achieve a good quality product, the formwork system should deal with critical issues such as Grout tightness, Deformation, Facilitating Concrete Compaction, Provision of Clean-out doors and Box-outs etc. Only when all these issues are addressed along with the selection of the right sheathing member, a good quality product can be delivered. Looking into the future, our approach in selection of the system should keep all these aspects in view to deliver quality products. Standardisation Standardisation of the various formwork systems is also an aspect to introspect because we cannot afford to have too many systems at sites which leads to lot of complications in terms of usage as well as accountability. The formwork systems should be standardized such that a single system is adaptable to various structural elements and also across various projects. Though it has its own limitations, still standardization can be done to an extent which reduces the number of components involved in a system, increase efficiency of the components involved and the flexibility in usage of these (in terms of sizing and detailing). This automatically reduces the pain for the engineers / supervisors and also the labour who are the end-users of the system and gives better results as they can easily account for the materials and use them efficiently. In this particular aspect, our future approach should be Using less for more output through Innovative Solutions. Green Formwork Rapid industrialization, growth in population and urbanization in the two previous millennia and in the current century have not only taken a heavy toll on non-renewable natural resources of the planet but also caused unprecedented
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - May 2012 201

So our future approach when choosing a formwork system should address the above aspects and how they are integrated into the formwork system. Only then, in our way forward, we will be able to live upto the expectations of the customers and also reach to the level of International Standards.

Equipment Focus Formwork

rise in global warming. Most leading business houses and industries across the world have adopted Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as the roadmap of their current and future business ethics and principles. Whether this principle is adhered to while manufacturing of formwork systems? A confident YES may not be forthcoming. Currently no importance is being given to this aspect of Green Concept and Sustainability. Stepping into the future, our approach should be Greener Formwork Systems to do our part for the betterment of environment. The focus here can be on some of the important parameters like Energy Consumption, Wastage, Recycling and Depletion of Natural Resources. If these aspects are dealt with in the sourcing of raw materials, manufacturing of the products involved in the formwork systems as well as utilisation of the system as a whole, it helps in delivering Greener Formwork Systems.
Description
Investment Cost Apportioned Fixing and Removing Cost Upkeep and Maintenance Cost Total Cost

Hire charges or WDV method (5% per month)


9960 3000 1000 13960

Cost per use method


4800 3000 1000 8000

(Mobilisation delay, work front delay, delay due to shortage of other resources & demobilization) Also the associated costs like the upkeep and maintenance can be dealt with a central approach by building it up in the investment cost or with a localized approach to create a sense of ownership for the sites using the formwork systems. The above example clearly indicates that the life of formwork plays a major role in the Costing of Formwork. Formwork cannot be a scapegoat for inefficiency within and across sites which revolve around these time-bound methods of costing. However if the realistic costing is done as per the cost incurred per use, it can help construction companies in India to take a positive call on purchase or hire of modern formwork systems and change their approach in future. Conclusion Finally to conclude, Formwork Systems cannot be decided just by suppliers alone as they might not think of all the related elements in the value chain, instead it has to be decided by the end-users and engineers who are the future change-managers. And the guiding principle should be Formwork must be approached not in isolation, but in a comprehensive manner to include the entire Value Chain, Safety, Quality and Sustainability. Also the thrust should be on realistic costing of formwork to enable viable usage of Modern Formwork Systems.

Costing of formwork With the rapid growth in the construction industry, introduction of modern formwork systems is essential to meet the delivery requirements of the customers and at the same time be competitive. However the modern formwork systems come with a high-price tag. Hence costing of formwork for a particular project is very critical for the engineers. However different costing methods are used by different contractors. Considering the factors like the efficiency of formwork being linked to the succeeding & preceding activities, idling at sites and poor planning; the time-bound costing method (Written Down Value or Hirecharges) ends up with higher formwork costs especially on materials for no fault of formwork. A small example below gives a clear picture of how the time-bound costing methods can be compared: Sample Calculations of Formwork Costing for Aluminium Formwork - - - - - Cost of formwork - Rs. 16000 / Sqm. (say) Duration of the project - 10 Months (Only for Structure) No. of possible re-uses - 100 (say) No. of re-uses expected / month - 3 Actual duration considering all delays - 20 Months (say)

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Techobl 2012

Concrete Equipment Maintenance

The Art of Caring


Sreekumar Menon Head - Service, Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd.

Concrete Equipments:

Maintaing your Batching Plant: Preventive Measures At concrete batching plants where some kind of formalized inspection and maintenance schedule is in place, there tend to be fewer breakdowns. If the importance of regular Plant Maintenance is recognised and it is communicated to employees, chances are good that noisy bearings, worn belts, leaky air systems, clogged filter bags, etc., will be detected and repaired before breakdowns interrupt the concrete batching process. Stock critical plant parts such as solenoid valves, air cylinders, bearings, and various repair kits. A maintenance person can put a list of these items. Keep the concrete plant parts area neat and put labels on stock shelves it provides a great way to track parts and equipment, and can help with spotting failure trends and recovering warranty reimbursements to which you are entitled. Cleanliness Keeping a concrete batch plant clean is a constant battle, but one worth winning. Abrasive dust is especially hard on solenoid valves and cylinders. Add to that a little moisture, which mixes with the dust to form a crust that's hard to remove, and you have a mess that hinders maintenance and inspection activities.

Batch Control Out of all the processes in a concrete batch plant, the one most critical to overall speed is the control of batching process as it affects the speed of the ribbon discharge into the truck-mixer. There are many different ways to sequence the materials water, aggregate, cement, sand but the crucial issue is to find the optimal discharge speed. In addition to the obvious benefits of avoiding stoppage of the batch process, proper ribboning of the materials into the mixer will shorten the delivery cycle time to assure that the batch is properly mixed and adjusted for slump. Of course, the plant has choke points as well, such as the discharge hopper or charging hopper of Truck mixer. Tips on Truck mixer The mixer drum should rotate on maximum revolution while loading and on minimum when transporting. A high revolution while transporting will affect the quality of the concrete. Proper co-ordination between the supplier and the site is required. The quantity, day, time, each load and route are to be planned well. If it takes an hour to place a load of concrete at site, then the next truck mixer should reach an hour apart. The travelling time must also be considered.
Batching Plant

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4th International Seminar on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering

Concrete Equipment Maintenance

Transit-Mixer

Concrete Pipe m/c

After reaching the site it must be mixed well before placing.The concrete should be discharged within 90 minutes after mixing hence delay in unloading at sites to be avoided. A well planned concrete pour can keep concrete fresh and quality maintained. Cleaning of Truck mixer The mixer blade and drum should be cleaned immediately while the concrete is still wet A small quantity of aggregate and water loaded and rotated in the drum will clean efficiently by spinning a few rotations. A diluted hydrochloric acid can soften and clean the concrete layer on the mixer. Proper protections are to be used on this job. Rinse out the interior drum and blades of the mixer thoroughly with water and let the mixer drum dry completely before storing it this prevents corrosion of the equipment If some concrete is stuck in the drum it has to be removed by chipping or taping the exterior of the mixing drum with a rubber mallet. Take care when hitting the drum as dents may develop.

Maintaining your Concrete Pump Concrete Pumping Preparation Pumping is a very efficient and reliable means of placing concrete, which makes it a very economical method as well.

When concrete is pumped through the pump line, it is separated from the pump line walls by a lubricating layer of water, cement and sand. It is important to have all concrete mixes specified as "pump able" prior to any concrete pours. A through check-up on operations of the pump and toping of lubricants and fuel is a must. A level hard standing area needs to be available for the concrete pump and a ready-mix-concrete truck to park (back to back). Cement grout to lubricate the pipeline for concrete pumping. (1 x 50kg bag per 20 meters) A homogenous concrete with a mix suitable for concrete pumping. Sufficient labour available to lay pipes and spread the concrete. Clear all obstructers at site, easy to access to avoid delay in concrete pour. For the least line resistance, the pipeline should contain a minimum number of bends. Delay in discharge of the concrete from the pump will result in chocking the pipe lines. Constant supply of freshly mixed concrete is needed without any tendency to segregate. A suitable place to wash-out the concrete pump at the end of the job (Approx 0.3 m3 of concrete will be surplus at the end of the concrete pumping process). The pump must be cleaned

thoroughly with water and no buildup concrete should be left out. R M C Ordering "Ready mix" is not a special type of concrete. Instead, the term describes the way the concrete is delivered to a job site and ready to use. Plan and confirm with the ready mix concrete supplier the delivery date, time and the mix details of the supply. When calculating the volume of concrete required, add approximate 10% of the quantity compensating of settling or uneven grades The pedigree of the traditional drum mixer is well established: so are its drawbacks. Once loaded, it has a fixed amount of ready-mix-concrete to deliver within a fixed period of time before it sets. The type of concrete cannot be changed. And it goes to waste - at significant cost. If it takes an hour to place a full truckload of concrete, then schedule the trucks to arrive an hour apart. Fresh concrete is perishable and will lose quality if it churned in the truck mixer too long. A cost-effective solution is with our volumetric ready-mix-concrete trucks. The dry ingredients are mixed on site; the concrete is always arrives fresh. The ready-mix-concrete mixer-trucks will also save further cost as they can dispense the concrete at rate of up to 1 cubic metre per minute through swiveling chutes.

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Trueventus, Malaysia

Communication Feature

The All-Amrican Zipper: "Churning A Success Story!"


he Asphalt Zipper is manufactured in a state-of-the-art facility with the latest laser welding and robotics at the only plant in the state of Utah (USA) making it a fully American machine. The first Asphalt Zipper model was launched in India at the EXCON 2011 show in Benagaluru. This equipment has since then proved over at least at four successful operations and trials over a period of six months the very purpose it was meant to perform. A simple, rugged and highly reliable equipment capable of performing multiple tasks as that of Pothole Patch repairs, Milling off bituminous layers for RAP recycling. Pavement dismantling for (F.D.R) Full Depth Reclamation as well Soil Stabilization for asphalt pavement projects are effectively done at 300 mm depths in a single pass. The Zipper is available in covering 0.2 mtr (8) to 2.4 mtr(94) sizes such that the host vehicle can be as compact as a Skid steer, while there are models to suit the commonly available like JCB

3DX (Backhoe Loaders) for such works. Not only does the Zipper offer a very high return on investments as a Milling Machine but also the application of FDR and Soil Stabilization makes it a sure winner when compared to conventional and even higher end machines. The results from the Zipper have been consistent churning the additives, new aggregates, fines etc; at desired pace and depth with full control by the Host-vehicle operator or the wireless remote making the job more easier. The result is a thoroughly mixed (homogenous) mix best suited for easy grading and roller compacted later. Application of the Zipper is not restricted to these but reach more avenues of Mining being launched shortly for coal and limestone. The major advantage is the easy mobilization, which happens in a matter of minutes without any cranes or trailers. The controls are simple and easy. Minimal crew requirement also makes the

Asphalt Zipper 500B

operations cost effective. Cummins and John Deer powered Diesel Engines options are offered on models with customization of Cutting Drums and varieties available to suit standard, fine Milling and Z-Mag for stubborn asphalt ensure that most applications are accommodated. Field trials at at least two locations in the city of Bengaluru have resulted in excellent stability of the newly constructed pavement with reduced thickness of BC layers while withstanding traffic abuse without any signs of distress over the past several months.More applications in the near future for National Highway are in the pipeline which would then ensure that the Zipper is recognized as a vital equipment for Indian Contractors .As for consultants they would look more closely as options best suited for their clients projects covering aspects of Mobilization, internal site travel and ease of operation with ownership costs at a fraction of that spent on larger machines with almost similar output.

For further details:


Bharat Road Development Combines Private Limited

14, Viral Apartments, Opp. Shoppers Stop, S.V. Road, Andheri (West), Mumbai - 400 058. Ph: +91-22-65346038, Fax: +91-22-26288753 E-mail: info@brdc.co, Web: www.brdc.co
Asphalt Zipper 600

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The Masterbuilder Subscription form

Communication Feature

New Products Same Proven Quality


iugong India has recently widened its product basket with a launch of the CLG414BSIII Motor Grader and the latest generation State of Art D series Hydraulic Excavator. LiuGong India is a subsidiary of engineering giant Guangxi LiuGong Machinery Co., Ltd., one of the top 20 largest construction machinery companies in the world. With over 50 years of manufacturing experience, LiuGong not only offers the booming Indian construction machinery market solutions that are not only easy to own and easy to maintain but machines that are built locally to international standards in its factory in Madhya Pradesh. LiuGong's CLG414BSIII is set to redefine performance, fuel efficiency, and operator comfort in Motor Grader. The machine, used primarily for highway construction and road maintenance, offers the new, powerful, water-cooled BSIII Cummins engine rated at 112 kw. The engine has two power options that allow the operator, not a computer, to select settings; high power for exceptionally tough jobs, or fuel efficiency for simple long-distance grading. The

machine muscles its way through the toughest surfaces and conditions. In addition, the engine's electronically controlled technology automatically increases power and brute torque under load, thus improving efficiency and also contributing to low emissions. As with all LiuGong machines, operator comfort, accuracy and safety receive the utmost attention. The fully enclosed air-conditioned cab offers an adjustable control console so that the operator can counter them to their needs. The CLG414BSIII has a spacious cab mounted on a viscous isolation mount system. This system provides a vibration-free environment with an excellent visibility to the worksite. A standard Grammer suspension seat makes sure that the operator remains comfortable and alert. The CLG414BSIII offers a high reliability hydraulic system, using world-class components. Power from the Cummins engine is transferred to a Hangzhou YD13 transmission with six forward and three reverse gears. The rear axle is equipped with a three-section driving axle with an automatic NO-SPIN self-locking

differential. The mold board is supported and rotated by a unique sealed ball bearing roller circle. Next to enter the fray was an example from the new D series of hydraulic Excavators, which look destined to make some big waves in the industry. The new D series model have been completely redesigned and incorporate the new designs that meets Tier 2/ stage II interim emission standards and a whole host of new features that will offer enhanced performance, fuel efficiency and operators comfort. Our machines also have of Standard lubricated track chains. Besides this the operator's cabin is one of the most spacious in the industry. The excavator of Liugong has power boost and heavy lift for increasing lifting capacity. With clear vision and focused backup from Engineering Dept., Liugong believes in partnering with the customers. Liugong provides products as 'Value for Money', products for right application and customized products for customer needs. The company currently offers wheel loaders (1.5 to 10 ton), excavators (6 to 45 ton), compactors, motor graders. However we are planning to introduce other products in future.

For further details:


Liugong India
Excavator 920D

E-mail: marketing-india@liugong.com Web:www.liugong.in

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Communication Feature

Quick Stopper Plug for Leakages


C-Fix-ST is a prepacked polymer modified, ready to use mortar for quick and permanent sealing of leakages in basements, water tanks, underground structures, gallaries, tunnels, dams, cellars, pipes etc. Only water is to be added at the sites. The mortar plug develops very high strengths in about 5 7 minutes and is stone hard. The bonding and waterproofing properties are excellent and the sealing is permanent. MC-Fix-ST sets hydraulically within minutes without shrinkage. The mortar is chloride free and does not saponify, thereby no loss of strength over the passage of time. The application is very simple. First chisel the leakage spots or the cracks in dove tail fashion, as illustrated in the diagram. Remove loose particles, dust etc and moisten the prepared surfaces.

Mix MC-Fix-ST in small quantities with water, knead it into a paste and mould it into a plug shaped mass. Hold it immediately against water leak in the prepared joint and press to ensure that no voids are left. Hold it in place until it sets either with hand or trowel. The setting time can be accelerated by using warm water to adjust with the

work rhythm. MC-Fix-ST is a universal waterproof quick leakage stopper and can be used anywhere, where a reliable and permanent leakage stopping is required even against the hydrostatic pressure. MC-Fix-ST is an indispensible aid while carrying out waterproofing jobs especially where continuous seepage of water does not enable any waterproofing system applications. If still drier surfaces are required a slurry of MC-Fix-ST can be applied, to take care of even damp surfaces.

For further details:


411, Arenja Corner, Sector 17, Vashi, Navi Mumbai-400703 Ph: +91-22-27892856/27880803 Fax: +91-22-27893870 E-mail: Info.india@mc-bauchemie.com Web: www.mc-bauchemieindia.com

MC Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Orbit Tower Work Completed in London Olympics Site


he much awaited ArcelorMittal Orbit Tower in the London Olympics village in Stratford, east London has been unveiled. The structure that is estimated to have cost 22.7 million Pounds is expected to become yet another iconic landmark on the London skyline. Designed by artist Anish Kapoor, it was the London Mayor, Boris Johnson, who requested billionaire; Lakshmi Mittal to provide over 19 million Pounds towards the towers cost. The twisted,

376-foot looped and twisting tower has however come in for mixed response from the residents of the city. It is now the tallest sculpture in UK and is about 72 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty in New York. While some have stated that the structure is a downright eyesore, there are others who have appreciated the design. Some critics have called the bright red structure an eyesore, but artist Anish Kapoor, who designed it, says he finds it beautiful. The artist also noted that even the Eiffel Tower was considered a monster when it was built. An elevator carries visitors to the top of the 35-story structure. A spiral staircase is also available for visitors wanting to have a birds eye view of the Olympic site.. (Source: CBS News)

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Communication Feature

Tail Lifts that are Easy to Use, Safe and Offer Flawless Performance
andhi Automations Pvt Ltd is a name that has become synonymous with entrance automation systems and loading bay equipment in India. The company offers a wide range of products that includes, high speed industrial doors, sectional overhead doors, dock levelers & dock shelters, aircraft hangar doors & shipyard doors, motorized rolling shutters, tail lifts & scissor lifts and boom barriers & gates. The company, considered a trendsetter in this field, offers worldclass tail lifts that apart from being easy to operate, are known for their excellent performance. Applications Very smooth to use: Using the tried

and tested features of our well proven futura Retractable range of lifts, we have incorporated the advantage of a flat/horizontal platform. This is especially suited to roll cage operations. But more specifically to the typical British food industry operator. Anteo superb guide rail system eliminates any Racking or Bounce of the lift frame and platform during deployment and retraction. Available in futura version, one can choose to have the facility of tilting the platform at any level, a must where the operator loads or unloads on gradients. Very safe to use: The platform is available with 3 way stops/ leading edges, in column lift style to the three open sides, and the

new Fully Automatic mechanically operated foot protector/ Roll cage stop. The guard automatically rises and falls as the tail-lift is operated. As the platform moves away from body floor level cam locks lift the guard thus preventing anyone on the platform from trapping or crushing feet or toes, at the same time holding roll cages from preventing falling as the lift descends to ground level. As the lift is raised back to floor level, the guard automatically falls level with platform and body floor allowing smooth transition of roll cages into the vehicle. Very easy to use: With Anteo automatic positioning in and out.

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Regional Conference of the Int'l network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWISE)

Communication Feature

Deploy platform Switch on the isolator in control box. Lower lift away from park position. Using 2-handed control, power out lift. Using 2-handed control or wander lead with changeover switch, raise and lower lift.

Mechanical Functions Steel guides with high yield limit, treated and chrome-plated. Tail- lift deployment and stowage under chassis by means of double extension cylinder. Tilt of platform in all position. Self-lubricating bushings and chrome-plated pins.

Stow platform Bring platform to a convenient height. Using 2-handed control retract platform to stow under vehicle chassis. Raise lift to park position. Switch off isolator in control box.

Control with no electronic components, lit for night use. Battery disconnect device with key. Two - hand use for operator's safety. Motor with thermal safety device. Motor relay with 350 A silver pin (peak current) Proximity switches for automatic positioning of tail lift.

Hydraulic Characteristics Compact and soundproof hydraulic group, with closing seal. 2 single-acting lifting cylinders with lubrication. 2 single-acting tilting cylinders with lubrication. 1 double cylinder for tail lift deployment and stowage under chassis. Bellows for cylinder protection. Built-in-safety solenoid valves on every cylinder. Tank with air filter. Chrome-plated steel cylinder rods with high yield. Tank with air filter. Chrome-plated steel cylinder rods with high-yield. Flow adjusters compensated on all downward movements. External control box fixed to the body.

Assembly Bolted assembly plates. For trucks and trailers on demand, tail lifts with pre-assembled platform, controls and guides.

Main Options Fixed internal 2 button controls with changeover switch. Wander lead with changeover switch. Hinged side ramps 390mm deep, 500mm or 620mm deep. Safety gate Foot control Tilt Cylinders.

Product Finishing Material conforms to EC standards. Chrome- plated steel pins. Self-lubricating bushings and chrome-plated pins. Delivered fully assembled and tested, tail-lift mounted to the chassis by bolting, thus eliminating the need for welding and re-painting the semi-trailer.

General Information Platform Steel platform with front ramps 400mm high. Side ramps 390 mm deep 500 mm deep 600 mm deep

For further details:


Gandhi Automations Pvt Ltd
2nd Floor, Chawda Commercial Centre Link Road, Malad (W), Mumbai 400064 Ph: +91-22- 66720200/66720300,
Fax: +91-22-66720201,

Controls -

E-mail: sales@geapl.co.in Web: www.geapl.co.in

World's Largest Underground Train Station, En Toute to Completion


lated for completion in 2015, the express Rail Link West Kowloon Terminus (The largest underground high speed rail station in the world) designed by Global architectural firm will connect Hong Kong to Beijing, occupying more than 4,200,000 square feet. The structure's roof will rise 148 feet high above surroundings, showing dynamic shaped figures alongside green spaces. The station will be able to handle 15 different tracks for 124 mph trains, reducing travel time by half, from 100 minutes to 48 minutes on high speed trains.

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16th National Congress on Corrosion & its Control (16th NCCC)

E.Scape

Laser Scanning Could

Revolutionize Infrastructure Projects


Developer and Architect
f the advent of BIM (building information modeling) took construction to another level, the use of laser scanning along with the process is taking it to the next. While it is one thing to design structures using the latest software, it is quite another to build them on the site. What laser scanning does it to make life easier for the engineers on field as they can measure accurately and quickly based on the model. An increasing number of commercial building contractors in the US are already using the technology to help build what they created using BIM tools. The technology is now also being used for creating large infrastructure projects such as bridges and roads. A good example for a federal authority using laser scanning for projects is available in the form of CalTrans (California Dept. of Transportation), Los Angeles, California. The agency which is responsible for the construction and maintenance of r bridges, highways, and railways in California has successfully begun using the technology. The Presidio Parkway and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge seismic safety reconstruction are two high profile projects where the technology is being used. The system works by collecting important data points at a construction job site using a 3D scanner. The technology could potentially serve a wide range of construction applications and the latest success could just be the beginning of something really big. (Source: Constructech)

Dont See Eye to Eye on


One World Trade Centre Spire
he One World Trade Center in Manhattan has been in news for various reasons in recent times. If it was earlier for the fact that the buildings construction is fast nearing completion, it is now for a controversy that has erupted on a plan to enclose the 408 foot antenna on top of the building with an ornamental white shell. A situation has emerged whereby the controversy could well stop the building from becoming the tallest in the US. While Mr.Douglas Durst, Chairman of the developer, Durst Organization Inc, doesnt want to enclose the antenna, the architects of the landmark building, Skidmore Owings & Merill LLP dont want the antenna to be left exposed. They feel that that the exposed antenna would mean that a crucial architectural element would be missing from the buildings design. The developers and the owners, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey on the other hand feel that it would be too expensive and treacherous to maintain the shell. According to Mr.Durst, it save them about US $20 million, if the antenna is not enclosed. He also added that it would be very difficult to maintain the enclosed antenna as it workers wont be able to safely access the same. He felt that this aspect should have been taken care of during the design stage itself. The architect firm on its part says that it had already devised a workable maintenance plan for the purpose. The spire with the enclosed dome shell would bring the towers height to 1,776 feet making it the tallest in North America. Omitting the shell would however mean that the tower would be 1,368 feet in height, making it the third tallest in the US.
(Source: WSJ)

San Francisco- Oak Land Bay Bridge project where laser scanning is being used

High-Speed California Bullet Train Route may Cost Whopping

US$ 3.5 million a Day

s Californians dream of their very own high speed train route, economists may be having nightmares about finding the sources for funding the dream project. Latest estimates say that US$3.5 million is what the authorities will need to spend a day in order to build the 130 mile odd railway line. The spending would mean that the project could turn out to be one of the most expensive in the US history till date. The project has already been in the news for all the wrong reasons in recent times, with a group of politicians opposing the idea given the economic implications it would have for the state California. There are other potential roadblocks that certain quarters feel could delay the project. Some of them include, political roadblocks, legal disputes, permit delays and technical problems, all of which could mean that the project cannot meet the 2017 deadline and further escalation in costs.

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Tac System Formwork Sdn Bdh

Ultratech Cement Ltd (Aitya Birla Group)