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AUTOMATIC GEAR CHANGER USING TWO WHEELER SPEED CHANGER

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACT

The Automatic gear changer system is used to change the gear in a tensionless manner. In this system a fuel power is not required to change the gear. So, that the human energy will not be wasted. The system consists of a battery electronics control board, soft gear mechanism through which the signals are given to the control board which with control the motor which will in turn change the hard gear. Thus the soft hand gear system for two wheelers work. This type of system can be implemented in vehicles. Here

through the soft gear or switching system we can set the gear we want. The gear changing motor which is a stepper motor will rotate according to the gear required. The electronic control board makes all the controls in the system. The automatic gear changer device consists of two actuator operation control
units for controlling the operation of a first and a second actuator. They are in turn, controlled by a main control circuit. There is also a communication line to enable data transmission and reception between each operation control circuit and the main control circuit through the actuator operation control line and the communication line.

INTRODUCTION:

The topic of current interest in the area of controller development for automatic transmissions with a finite number of gearshifts which transmits the gears automatically with respect to speed. Gearshifts in automatic transmissions involve a change in the power flow path through the transmission. Advantages of these automatic transmissions include simplicity ofmechanical design and savings in transmission weight and size, which are beneficial in terms of fuel economy and production costs. This enables gain in fuel economy while meeting drivability and performance goals, these savings become more significant. The designed automatic transmission is done in an auto-clutch featured bike which can be applied effectively and efficiently in a clutch featured bikes with suitable control techniques. The ultimate goal of our project is to transmit the gears without the human interference and to attain efficient, safe and easy driving in cost effective way. Microcontroller is the heart of the system which handles all the sub devices connected across it. We have used Atmel 89s52 microcontroller. 1.2 Automation

Automation is the use of control system to control a process replacing the human operators. It is a step beyond mechanization, where human operators are provided with the physical requirements of work. Automation is now often applied primarily to reduce the human effort thereby to attain desired operation. Another major shift in automation is the increased emphasis on flexibility and convertibility in different process. One safety issue with automation is that it is often viewed as a way to minimize human error in the system, increasing the degree and the levels of automation also increase the sequence of error that accidently created in automated systems. Different types of automation tools that exist in todays environment are Programmable logic controller, Microcontroller, SCADA, etc. 1.3 Types of Transmission _ Manual transmission _ Automatic transmission 1.3.1 Manual Transmission A manual transmission or sequential type is a type of transmission used on motorcycles and cars, where gears are selected in order, and direct access to specific gears is not possible.

With traditional manual transmissions, the driver can move from gear to gear, by moving the shifter to the appropriate position. A clutch must be disengaged before the new gear is selected, to disengage the running engine from the transmission, thus stopping all torque transfer. 1.3.2 Automatic Transmission An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually and to achieve efficient driving. 1.3.3 Advantages of Automatic Transmission Easier to drive in stop-and-go traffic and available in most cars, an automatic transmission has definite benefits The main benefit of automatic transmissions is that they are simply easie to use. Fuel efficient.

CHAPTER - 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM: The presented project is aimed to perform operations such as automatic gear transmission, automatic headlight control, and digital speedometer. Here the speed is the inputs to the microcontroller unit. The inductive speed sensor senses the speed of the vehicle from the front wheel and sends train of pulses as output to the microcontroller unit. The microcontroller unit checks the pulses for sample time period and calculates the speed of the vehicle. As programmed, the microcontroller actuates the Relay 1 and Relay 2 through the driver unit depending on the speed of the vehicle. The DC motor function is to transmit the gear lever pole reversal technique which is performed using the relays. Since it requires slowing down the engine at the time of gear transmission, the supply to the ignition coil is grounded so as to slow the engine.

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 2.1 Inductive Speed Sensor Inductive proximity sensors are designed to operate by generating an electromagnetic field and detecting the eddy current losses when a ferrous metal target enters the field. The sensor consists of a ferrite core, an oscillator, a trigger-signal level detector and an output circuit. The oscillator creates a high frequency field radiating from the coil in front of the sensor centered on the axis of the coil. When a metal object enters the high-frequency field, eddy currents are induced on the surface of the target. As a metal object advances into the field, eddy currents are induced in the target. This results in a loss of energy in the oscillator circuit and consequently smaller amplitude of oscillation.

The detector circuit recognizes a specific change in amplitude and generates a signal which will turn the solid state-output ON or OFF. When the metal object leaves the sensing area, the oscillator regenerates allowing the sensor to return to its normal state. The inductive speed sensor has a built-in hysteresis to avoid unwanted switching of the sensor due to, Mechanical vibration of the sensor or the gear wheel Electrical interference Circuit oscillation at very low rotational speed

A larger hysteresis provides a better immunity to disturbances but, on the other hand, reduces the maximum sensing distance d, as the sensor signal must exceed the hysteresis levels to be recognized.

POWER SUPPLY UNIT:

The 7805 is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits .The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx lines are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage, up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amperes of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating).

OVER ALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHAPTER 3

ATMEGA MICROCONTROLLER: 4.1 ATMEGA 8089S52 DESCRIPTION-

AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER

Features Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

Description The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the Indus-try-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters,

serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Figure.3.5. Block diagram of the microcontroller

Figure.3.6. Pin diagram of 89s52

Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and

P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Table.3.3. Port functions Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the highorder address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when

emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port Pin Alternate Functions P1.0 T2 (external count input to Timer/Counter 2), clock-out P1.1 T2EX (Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction control) P1.5 MOSI (used for In-System Programming) P1.6 MISO (used for In-System Programming) P1.7 SCK (used for In-System Programming) Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table.

Table.3.4.Alternate Port functions of 89s52

RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out.

ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however,

that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALEdisable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Memory Organization MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed. Program Memory If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external memory. Data Memory The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. When an instruction

accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. OSCILLATOR CHARACTERISTICS: XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Fig.4. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven, as shown in the figure. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

CHAPTER 4

HARDWARES USED

RELAY DRIVER UNIT: Relays are devices which allow low power circuits to switch a relatively high current and voltage ON/OFF. For a relay to operate a suitable pull-in and holding current should be passed through its coil. Generally relay coils are designed to operate from a particular voltage at 5V or 12V.

The NPN transistor BC547 is used to

control the relay. The transistor is driven into saturation (turned ON) when logic 1 is written on the port pin thus turning ON the relay. The relay is turned OFF by writing logic 0 on the port pin. A diode is connected across the relay coil to protect the transistor damage due to back EMF generated in the relays inductive coil when the transistor is turned OFF. The LED is used to indicate that the relay is turned ON or OFF.

Relays Relays come in various configurations for their switch contacts, as well as different DC voltages for to operate their coil. They may be as simple as an on/off switch or as complex as integrating several switches into one unit. In a "double-pole" configuration, one switch terminal toggles between two different output terminals. Regardless of the configuration, each switch on a relay can be "normally open" (NO) or "normally closed" (NC); that is, when the coil is at rest and not energized, the switch contacts are NO or NC. In an open circuit, no current flows, similar to a wall light switch in the "Off" position. In a closed circuit, metal switch contacts touch each other to complete a circuit, and current flows, similar to turning a light switch to the "On" position.

In the accompanying schematic diagram, points A and B connect to the coil. Points C and D connect to the switch. Voltage applied across the coil at points A and B creates an electromagnetic field that attracts a lever in the switch, causing it to make or break contact in the circuit at points C and D (depending if the design is NO or NC). The switch contacts remain in this state until the voltage to the coil is removed. Rated load : 12-28VDC Coil resistance : <=100m ohms Coil rated voltage : 3-24VDC DC Motor The DC motor has two basic parts: the rotating part that is called the armature and the stationary part that includes coils of wire called the field coils. The stationary part is also called the stator . The armature is made of coils of wire wrapped around the core, and the core has an extended shaft that rotates on bearings. The ends of each coil of wire on the armature are terminated at one end of the armature. The termination points are called the commutator, and this is where the brushes make electrical contact to bring electrical current from the stationary part to the rotating part of the machine. The stator coils will be referred to as field coils they are connected in series or parallel with each other to create changes of torque in the motor

Photo Detectors The MRD500 photodiode used is a p-intrinsic-n (PIN) silicon diode operated in reverse bias. The very thin p-type conducting layer acts as a window to admit light into the crystal. The reverse bias voltage maintains a strong electric field throughout the intrinsic region forming an extended depletion layer. The depletion layer should be thicker than the absorption length for photons in silicon in order to maximize the efficiency. Any incident photon whose energy exceeds the band-gap energy is absorbed to produce an electron-hole pair by photoelectric excitation of a valence electron into the conduction band. The charge carriers are swept out of the crystal by the internal electric field to appear as a photocurrent at the terminals. The photocurrent is proportional to the rate at which light is entering the diode.

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCDs do not emit light directly. The LCD display used in this project is 16*2 type LCD display it consists of 14 pins.

Pin connection P2.7 - Inductive proximity sensor P2.2 - To Relay 1 (upward gear shifting) P2.3 - To Relay 2 (downward gear shifting) P2.4 - To Relay 3 (ignition cut off relay) P3.4 - Enable (LCD command word)

P3.5 - To select data/command register (LCD command word) P1.0 - D0 (LCD data line) P1.1 - D1 (LCD data line) P1.2 - D2 (LCD data line) P1.3 - D3 (LCD data line) P1.4 - D4 (LCD data line) P1.5 - D5 (LCD data line) P1.6 - D6 (LCD data line) P1.7 - D7 (LCD data line)

DC MOTOR CONNECTIONS:

Relay specification:

Relays 1 and 2 12V, 25A Relays 3 and 4 12V, 5A To run the DC motor in both directions to shift the gear up and down pole reversing technique is adopted. Here relays 1 and 2 are connected to the DC motor and the relays 3 and 4 operate the relays 1 and 2 through the microcontroller respectively. When relay 3 is energized through the microcontroller units relay 1 is energized and thus the motor runs in anticlockwise direction and shifts the gear upwards and when the relay 4 is energized opposite action takes place and shifts the gear downwards.

Photo Detector Circuit MR500 is used as a sensor to detect the light intensity which is silicon photodiode. This photodiode operates under an oscillator with frequency of 2 KHz correspondingly current is obtained as output which is proportional to the intensity of the light. A current to voltage amplifier is used with input current from the photodiode is applied to the inverting terminal of the amplifier.

The output of the current to voltage amplifier is connected to the relay through the relay driver unit which operates the functionality of the headlight.

CHAPTER 5 SOFT GEAR MECHANISM

A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear; however, a gear can also mesh with a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping.

When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined, a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship.

This is because the gearlike mechanism (usually a "soft gear" made of rubber) is on the board and not the base, so the wheel pivots against the board when rotated. Thus users often need to bend down and set the wheel, or come down from the board to set the wheel. Thus it would be much better if the gearing were on the base so that the wheel could be pushed with the foot, but tradition (consistency from board to board) dictates maintaining a "backwards" convention.

Soft gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears".

The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. In spur gears, teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant

CHAPTER 6

RESULTS ANALYSIS

PROJECT SNAPSHOTS: MICROCONTROLLER BOARD

DC MOTOR MOUNTING:

INDUCTIVE SPEED SENSOR MOUNTING:

RESULTS ANALYSIS The Inductive speed sensor output pulses decide the output of the system. The sensor produces pulses when it crosses the metal target fixed in the wheel. The sets of gear pattern is decided by the pulses obtained from the sensor and they are tabulated below,

OBTAINED OUTPUT:

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSIONS

The project presented has involved the development and implementation of automatic transmissions for bikes. The motivation of this work is to implement this idea in clutch featured bikes with a suitable clutch control. The automatic transmission can be also used in 5 and 6 speed versions by altering few changes in the program. According to the achieved results the mechanism done is reliable if it is installed in bikes. Using the simplest microcontroller and the required hardware enables to convert the old traditional semi automatic gear transmission mechanism to a fully automated

one. The application of this mechanism leads to make the driving process easier and fuel efficient driving can be achieved.

REFERRENCES

[1] J-O Hahn1, J-W Hur, G-W Choi, Y M Cho and K I Lee. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Airforce Academy, South Korea.:Self-learning approach to automatic transmission shift control in a commercial construction vehicle during the inertia phase. [2] Zhenyu Zhu, Chunxin Xu, College of Mechanical Science and EngineeringJilin

University, Changchun, Jilin 130025, China.:Experimental Study on Intelligent GearShifting Control System of Construction Vehicle Based on Chaotic Neural Network [3] Chunsheng Ni, Tongli Lu, Jianwu Zhang, School of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical System and Vibration Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 China.:Gearshift control for dry dual-clutch transmissions [4] Muntaser Momani, Mohammed Abuzalata, Igried Al-Khawaldeh and Hisham Al-M ujafet, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman, P.O. Box 15008, 11134, Jordan.: Pneumatic PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism