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DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATABASES

VANITHA MAGESH I M.E

Object Oriented Database


Definition
An object database (also object-oriented database management system) is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in objectoriented programming.

Advantages
Since interaction between objects and database is done transparently, there is no need for a query language to access data from an Object Oriented Database Management System. But one can still use queries in OODBMS. In OODBMS, a large class can hold several medium-sized classes, which can hold even more medium-sized classes. This means that OODBMs has the ability to handle complex data compared to RDBMS. Data is described easily through class hierarchy Object-oriented databases by definition allow the inclusion of more of the code (i.e. the object's methods) in the database itself. This incremental knowledge about the application has a number of potential benefits of the database system itself, including the ability to optimize query processing and to control the concurrent execution of transactions. Performance, always a significant issue in system implementation, may be significantly improved by using an object-oriented model instead of a relational model. The greatest improvement can be expected in applications with high data complexity and large numbers of inter-relationships. Clustering, or locating the related objects in close proximity, can be accomplished through the class hierarchy or by other interrelations. Caching, or the retention of certain objects in memory or storage, can be optimised by anticipating that the user or application may retrieve a particular instance of the class. When there is high data complexity, clustering and caching techniques in object databases gain tremendous performance benefits that relational databases, because of their fundamental architecture, will never be able to approach. Object-oriented databases can store not only complex application components but also larger structures. Although relational systems can support a large number of tuples (i.e., rows in a table), individual types are limited in size. Object-oriented databases with large objects do not suffer performance degradation because the objects do not need to be broken apart and reassembled by applications, regardless of the complexity of the properties of the application objects.

Disadvantages
Lower efficiency when data is simple and relationships are simple. Relational tables are simpler. Late binding may slow access speed. Schema changes Lack of agreed standards

Object Relational Database


Definition
Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS) is a DBMS or Database Management System akin to a relational database, but with an object oriented database model that allows custom web development professionals to combine the database with custom data types. It bridges the gap between relational databases and Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS).

Advantages

Reuse and Sharing: The main advantages of extending the Relational data model come from reuse and sharing. Reuse comes from the ability to extend the DBMS server to perform standard functionality centrally, rather than have it coded in each application.

Increased Productivity: ORDBMS provides increased productivity both for the developer and for the, end user Use of experience in developing RDBMS: Another obvious advantage is that .the extended relational approach preserves the significant body of knowledge and experience that has gone into developing relational applications. This is a significant advantage, as many organizations would find it prohibitively expensive to change. If the new functionality is designed appropriately, this approach should allow organizations to take advantage of the new extensions in an evolutionary way without losing the benefits of current database features and functions.

Disadvantages
The ORDBMS approach has the obvious disadvantages of complexity and associated increased costs.

There are the proponents of the relational approach that believe the essential simplicity' and purity of the relational model are lost with these types of extension.

ORDBMS vendors are attempting to portray object models as extensions to the relational model with some additional complexities. This potentially misses the point of object orientation, highlighting the large semantic gap between these two technologies.

Object applications are simply not as data-centric as relational-based ones.

Application
Some areas in which ORDBMSs can advantageously be used in Life Sciences include: Bioinformatics. Genomics, Proteomics. Diagnostics, Drug discovery, Biomarker detection, Drug interactions. Genetic engineering, Gene expression and therapy. Data mining for detecting patterns and providing insights. Environmental bioremediation.

MULTIMEDIA DATABASE
Definition
A multimedia database is a database that hosts one or more primary media file types such as .txt (documents), .jpg (images), .swf (videos), .mp3 (audio), etc. And loosely fall into three main categories: Static media (time-independent, i.e. images and handwriting) Dynamic media (time-dependent, i.e. video and sound bytes) Dimensional media

Advantages
The incorporation of multimedia database systems will improve the quantity and quality of information manipulated by computer users in all fields, computer aided design, and information retrieval. When a multimedia application lacks a database, the data structure is buried in the script, where all of its value is lost. This omission also makes the script more complicated and less flexible. Using a multimedia database makes the data structure logic available to other multimedia applications and simplifies the script so that many scripts can share the same multimedia metadata. When a multimedia or abstract data database is organized and annotated for one application, other applications can use those annotations without going through the same time-consuming process. This capability adds great value to the data through reuse and controlled redundancy. When multimedia application content is controlled by the multimedia database, multimedia content can be added, deleted, or modified without modifying the application script. Search and retrieval operations are critical in interactive multimedia applications; they must be equally efficient and powerful.

Applications
Vedio on demand servers Multimedia document management system Multimedia mail system Multimedia shopping guide

DATAWAREHOUSE

Definition
A data warehouse or enterprise data warehouse (DW, DWH, or EDW) is a database used for reporting and data analysis. It is a central repository of data which is created by integrating data from one or more disparate sources. Data warehouses store current as well as historical data

and are used for creating trending reports for senior management reporting such as annual and quarterly comparisons.

Advantages
Integrating data from multiple sources; Performing new types of analyses; and Reducing cost to access historical data. Other benefits may include: Standardizing data across the organization, a "single version of the truth"; Improving turnaround time for analysis and reporting; Sharing data and allowing others to easily access data; Supporting ad hoc reporting and inquiry; Reducing the development burden on IS/IT; and Removing informational processing load from transaction-oriented databases;

Disadvantages

Major data schema transforms from each of the data sources to one schema in the data warehouse, which can represent more than 50% of the total data warehouse effort Data owners lose control over their data, raising ownership (responsibility and accountability), security and privacy issues Long initial implementation time and associated high cost Adding new data sources takes time and associated high cost Limited flexibility of use and types of users - requires multiple separate data marts for multiple uses and types of users Typically, data is static and dated Typically, no data drill-down capabilities Difficult to accommodate changes in data types and ranges, data source schema, indexes and queries Typically, cannot actively monitor changes in data

Applications
Agriculture. Biological data analysis. Prediction for Telecom subscribers, Credit Card users etc. Decision support, Financial forecasting, Insurance fraud analysis Logistics and Inventory management, Trend analysis.

KNOWLEDGE BASED DATABASE

Definition
A knowledge base or knowledgebase (also KB or kb) is a special kind of database for knowledge management. A knowledge base is an information repository that provides a means for information to be collected, organized, shared, searched and utilized. It can be either machinereadable or intended for human use.

Advantages
It can handle large amounts of data (up to billions of objects) Supports object search, optimization, indexing, and fast access Navigation between object relations is in the form of a graph (tree) Can capture and apply the domain knowledge of a number of human experts Can make knowledge more accessible and easier to use Can carry out repetitive work accurately and automatically Can maximise creativity and minimise routine work

Disadvantages
Sometimes, the rules and knowledge contained in the database are not accurate and well defined, as both the logic and knowledge obtained is limited to the experience of specialized people in the domain Can be costly to develop and maintain The different writing styles and knowledge levels of contributors often result in a disjointed, non standardized document, which is one of the biggest disadvantages of a knowledge base. Redundancy becomes the rule rather than the exception. It is almost certain that the same mistakes will be added to the knowledge base several times over. Dedicated maintenance is thus required.

Application
Crop land pattern matching system for agriculture. Intelligent manufacturing. Matching buyers and sellers agent in e-commerce. Embedded KBS in the devises like fuzzy washing machine. Government schemes information system. Diet planning system. Disease diagnostic system. Disease diagnostic system for cattle and livestock. Patient monitoring system.