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BSC 1084 Dr.

Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

BODY TISSUES AND MEMBRANE


TISSUE - similarly specialized cells that together perform a common function FOUR MAJOR TISSUE TYPES 1. Epithelial Tissue - covers body surfaces and lines body cavities, forms glands 2. Connective Tissue - binds and supports body parts 3. Muscular Tissue - specialized to generate force and bring about movement 4. Nervous Tissue - responds to stimuli and transmits impulses For Study - make your own drawings of tissues, search www.google.com - images Also go to http://faculty.irsc.edu/DEPT/BiologicalSciences and select BSC 2093 L (anatomy and physiology) under Lab Resources Find study materials on the tissues (histology) and the skin - characterize cell shapes, intercellular connections, layers, special structures - sample locations in the body EPITHELIAL TISSUE - composed of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer or sheet - apical surface is not connected to any other cell, next to lumen or outside - covers the body surfaces and lines inner cavities, or forms glands - maintenance and repair of tissue by mitotic replacement from basal cells - basement membrane non-cellular structure made up of fibers secreted by epithelial tissue and underlying connective tissue. functions:- supportive foundation for epithelial cells (attachment keeps epithelial cells closely arranged in a sheet) - anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue - provides a track along with cell replacement can occur following damage to the epithelial tissue - avascular = no capillaries in epithelial tissues - important cell connections: tight junctions - water-tight membrane connections desmosomes rivet-like supports anchor adjacent cells - Functions of epithelial tissues: Physical protection Secretion Absorption (controls permeability to body) Sensation Move (substances across the surface of the tissue) - cilia - Cell Types (Figure 4-1, p. 74) Squamous (squashed) - very thin, flat like a fried egg, sunny side up, bulges at nucleus Cuboidal - isodiametric, as tall as it is wide Columnar - taller than it is wide - Cell Modifications Cilia movement of the cells surrounding (moves mucus) Microvilli - increase surface area for absorption (Fig. 3-2, p. 54) Goblet cells - simplest glands (secrete mucus)

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

- Layers of cells used in name of tissue Simple - a single layer of cells functions = filtration, diffusion, absorption, secretion Stratified - multiple layers of cells in area of wear and tear function = protection Psuedostratified -not all cells extend from base to apical surface of tissue - Some of the basal cells will carry out cell division for replacement of cells in order to maintain the tissue. functions = absorption and secretion - Examples Of Epithelial Tissues: (Fig. 4-2,3 p. 75-76 and Table 4-1, p. 77) - tissue name, structural characteristics, and location in the body simple squamous epithelium alveoli of lungs, capillary wall stratified squamous epithelium epidermis (keratinized); lining of mouth, esophagus, vagina (non-keratinized) transitional epithelium - lining of urinary bladder (stretch without rupture, cells change shape from balloons to flat scales with stretching, cells held by tight junctions to prevent leakage, 6 or more layers when relaxed, 2 layers when distended) simple cuboidal epithelium - glands, walls of ducts simple columnar epithelium - lining of stomach, small intestine ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium - lining of trachea - Types of Epithelium 1. Covering and Lining 2. Glandular a. Exocrine produce secretions that empty by way of duct to target area. ex. salivary, oil glands, sweat glands, digestive glands b. Endocrine ductless glands, secretions are released into tissue fluid and travel in blood ex. thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, ovary, testes *pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions CONNECTIVE TISSUE - most abundant group of tissues in the body - Composed of: (1) widely scattered cells (2) separated by a noncellular matrix -- which consists of A. ground substance - consistency may be: solid (in bone) rubbery (in cartilage) semifluid (in areolar) fluid (in blood) B. fibers of collagen or elastin

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

- Functions of connective tissues: binds structures together provides support and physical protection immune protection levers for movement (bone) produces blood cells stores fat, insulates - Cell Types **caution about cell names: __ blast is a cell that is actively secreting the matrix (ground substance and fibers) __ cyte is a mature cell that is responsible for maintenance of tissue 1. Fibroblasts - produce the matrix 2. Adipocytes (fat cells) - store energy 3. Lymphocytes (a type of leucocyte or WBC) - provide immunity 4. Chondroblasts - produces cartilage matrix 5. Osteoblasts - produce bone matrix 6. Erythrocytes (RBC) - transport respiratory gases 7. Macrophages (WBC) - fight infection 8. Mast cells (WBC) fights infection (bad guy in allergy) - Matrix - is composed of: a. ground substance - determines consistency of matrix solid in bone, rubbery in cartilage, gelatinous in areolar, fluid in blood b. protein fibers - add support and flexibility 1) collagen - flexibility and strength (25% of bodys proteins) - role of vitamin C in collagen production(p. 78) - cosmetic collagen (Box 4-3, p. 78) 2) elastin - elasticity 3) reticular - support networks - Connective Tissue Types (Table 4-2, p. 77 and Fig. 4-4,5 pp. 75-76) 1. Blood (Figure 4-4 A, p. 80 and Fig 11-3, p. 276) a. Cells (Formed Elements) Red Blood Cells = Erythrocytes Function = transport respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) White Blood Cells = Leukocytes Function = fight infection, provide immunity Platelets = Thrombocytes Function = blood clotting b. Matrix = liquid (Plasma) which is NOT produced by connective tissue cells c. Function = transport nutrients and wastes, regulate body temperature, fight infection, clotting

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

2. Loose Connective Tissue a. Cells = fibroblasts b. Matrix = jelly-like with fibers loosely woven in all planes c. Types of Loose Connective Tissue: 1) Areolar Connective Tissue (Figure 4-4 B, p. 80) Function = strength, elasticity and support 2) Adipose Tissue (Figure 4-4 C, p.80) Adipocytes- large cells with limited cytoplasm around periphery of cells, - nucleus peripheral in cytoplasm, - fat globules stored in center of cell Functions = provide insulation - store energy (survival fuel), - mechanical protection (cushion) - secrete leptin (appetite-suppressing hormone) - brown fat thermogenic (no ATP produced) 3. Dense (Fibrous) Connective Tissue (Figure 4-5 A, p. 82) a. Cells = fibroblasts b. Matrix = semi-gel matrix with densely packed fibers, Fibers arranged in parallel or non-parallel fashion c. Types of Dense Connective Tissue 1) Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Function = provide extra support in many planes Example = under skin, muscle fascia (bundles muscle fibers into functional muscle organs) 2) Dense Regular Connective Tissue Function = provides strength in one plane Examples: tendons - which connect muscles to bone ligaments - connect bone to bone 4. Elastic Connective Tissue a. Cells = few fibroblasts b. Matrix = mainly elastin fibers Location: walls of large arteries, around alveoli of lungs Functions: support recoil 5. Cartilage a. Cells = chondrocytes in lacunae b. Matrix = rubbery of chondroitin sulfate, contains collagen fibers, ***avascular (lacks blood supply) c. Types of Cartilage 1) Hyaline Cartilage (Figure 4-5 B, p. 82) Covered by a perichondrium layer of dense irregular CT to which other tissues attach Function = support; prevents friction at joint surfaces Example: ends of long bones at joints, ends of ribs,

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

formed most of embryonic skeleton 2) Elastic Cartilage Function = stretchable elastic support Example: tip of nose and external ear 3) Fibrocartilage Function = absorb shock, reduce friction at joints Example: intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis 5. Bone (Figure 4-5 C, p. 82) a. Cells = osteocytes in lacunae (cavity in matrix) b. Matrix = ossified calcium mineral salts - mainly calcium phosphate - provide rigidity - containing collagen fibers - provide tensile strength - laid down in layers called lamellae (resemble growth rings of a tree) c. Types of Bone (Osseous Connective Tissue) 1) Compact Bone See also Fig 6-1, p.115 basic unit = osteon (or Haversian system) Matrix in layers called lamellae Small canals extend between lacunae and central canal called canaliculi Osteocyte cytoplasmic extensions pass through canaliculi in lamellae Function = form strong outer covering of all bones organs, support and movement of body 2) Spongy Bone (Look at figures on pages 115 & 118) NO osteons trabeculae -bony scaffolding of interconnected plates of calcium salts and collagen fibers cancellous cavities = spaces contains red bone marrow (produces blood cells) or yellow bone marrow (stores fat) Functions = support, house bone marrow MUSCULAR TISSUE Composed of actin and myosin myofilaments These fibers interact to bring about muscle contraction Sliding Filament Model of muscle contraction studied later A. Functions: generate force bring about movement generate heat B. Types of Muscle Tissue (Table 4-3, p. 84)

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

1. Skeletal Muscle (Figure 4-6 A, p. 85) also called the striated muscle, somatic muscle think of a striped or banded muscle fiber multinucleate fibers (cells), can be long running length of muscle, nuclei at sides of muscle cell striated = banded pattern due to arrangement of actin & myosin under voluntary control, or at least controlled by cerebrum major component of skeletal muscle organs, important in thermogenesis 2. Smooth Muscle (Figure 4-6 B, p. 85) often called visceral muscle single nucleus per cell spindle-shaped cells, very short non-striated under involuntary control makes up wall of hollow organs ex. stomach, intestines, ureters, arteries 3. Cardiac Muscle (Figure 4-6 C, p. 85) usually one nucleus per cell branching cells faint striations intercalated discs (Fig. 12-6, p. 303) - velcro-like membrane surfaces where cells meet, - contains desmosomes which provide for structural support and gap junctions which allows rapid communication between cells required for coordinated heart contraction under involuntary control self-excitable - can beat on their own without input from the CNS autorhymaticity can determine its own rate of contraction; modified by nerve impulse and hormones for homeostasis forms the bulk of the heart wall (myocardium) NERVOUS TISSUE See Table 4-4, p. 87 A. Cell types (Figure 4-7, p.86) 1. Neuron - generate and conduct impulses Parts: dendrite - carries message toward cell body cell body contains most of cytoplasm and nucleus axon carries impulse away from the cell body **note the direction of flow along the fibrous extensions 2. Neuroglial cells - support and protect neurons a. Schwann cells - produce myelin sheath around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - function of myelin sheath is to insulate nerve fiber for maximum rate of nerve impulse transmission

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BSC 1084 Dr. Presley

Chapter 4 6th edition

B. Synapse = gap between neurons C. Neurotransmitter = chemical released by axon of neuron to communicate with neuron across the synapse BODY MEMBRANES - careful about the name membranes - made up of a group of tissues 1. EPITHELIAL MEMBRANES -consist of epithelial tissue and underlying connective tissue Mucous Membranes * line interior walls of hollow organs that open to the outside of the body - consists of mucus secreting epithelium with underlying connective tissue - function: protection - examples: in oral and nasal cavities as openings to the digestive and respiratory tracts Serous Membranes * line cavities not exposed to the external environment, and cover internal organ Parietal layer = lines wall of the body cavity Visceral layer = covers internal organs - consists of simple squamous epithelium with underlying connective tissue - secrete a watery substance (called a serous fluid) - functions: lubricates to prevent friction and compartmentalizes region - examples: plural membrane = around the lung (See Fig 4-8, p.88) pericardial membrane = around the heart peritoneal membrane = around the intestines; mesenteries Cutaneous Membrane = Skin (see next chapter) - consists of stratified squamous epithelium with underlying connective tissue 2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES: (Table 4-5, p.89) - tissues involve only connective tissues Synovial Membranes - line freely movable (synovial) joints - composed of connective tissue (no epithelium) - function = lubricate joints Meninges - 3 layers that cover the brain and spinal cord - connective tissue only - function = protect the brain and spinal cord Periosteum covers bone, provides attachment for tendons & ligaments Perichondrium covers cartilage, contains capillaries Superficial fascia between skin and muscles Deep fascia - covers skeletal muscles ____________________________________________________________________

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FOR STUDY Read Chapter 4. Follow my chapter notes to indicate the details required for the test. You may find more representative illustrations of each of these tissues by going to www.google.com and select the second button images and search by name of the tissue. Also go to http://faculty.irsc.edu/DEPT/BiologicalSciences and select BSC 2093 L (anatomy and physiology) under Lab Resources. Find study materials on the tissues (histology). Histology tutorial can also be found at www.GetBodySmart.com . Learn the key terms. Make flash cards of those that you need to learn. actin fibroblasts adipocytes fibrocartilage adipose tissue glands areolar tissue goblet cells autorhymaticity ground substance avascular Haversian canal axon hemopoietic tissue blood hormones body membranes hyaline cartilage calcified matrix intercalated disc cardiac muscle involuntary cartilage lacunae cell body lamella chondrocytes leucocyte cilia ligament collagen fibers lymphocytes columnar matrix compact bone meninges connective tissue membranes microvilli connective tissues mucosa cuboidal mucous membranes cutaneous membrane mucus dendrite multinucleate dense irregular fibrous CT muscle dense regular fibrous CT myocardium desmosomes myosin ductless gland nervous tissue elastic cartilage neuroglia elastic connective tissue bone neuron elastic fibers neurotransmitter electrochemical impulse osteoblast endocrine osteocyte epithelial membranes osteon (Haversian system) epithelial tissues pericardium erythrocyte perichondrium exocrine periosteum

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peritoneum plasma platelet pleural membrane red bone marrow Schwann cell self-excitable serous membranes simple skeletal muscle smooth muscle spongy bone

squamous stratified striations synapse synovial membrane tendon tissue transitional trabeculae visceral muscle voluntary yellow bone marrow

Learn for each tissue: cell shape, cell arrangement in tissue, composition of matrix if present, special features of the tissues (lacunae, trabeculae, intercalated discs, desmosomes, etc.) MAKE a study TABLE. Justify why blood is considered a connective tissue. Does blood exhibit all three components of a connective tissue? List the two types of body membranes categories. What tissues can be found in each type? Give major category types under each and know examples by location. Answer the Review Questions at the end of the chapter. Complete Chapter 4 in the Student Workbook. Especially study the Multiple Choice Test #2 and Test #3. Use the ESP tutorials: Levels of Organization Tissues: Introduction Epithelial Tissue Epithelial glands Connective Tissue Nervous Tissue Muscle Tissue Body Membranes Quiz If you are looking at Saladin text materials look in Chapter 5 for histology. For a FUN Review go to Davis Plus: http://davisplus.fadavis.com (keyword: Scanlon). Go over the Exam Review Outline and Hints for Exam 1. Having learned the material on my chapter notes, you have developed a sizeable database of knowledge. On the exam you will be expected to USE this knowledge in new and unique ways. Get ready to THINK during the exam. Bring to the exam: a green Scantron (Form 882-E) 50 answers on front and back #2 pencils a good eraser -- clean erasures are essential since grade provided by the optical grader is final and internet students will need a photo ID

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