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Question Bank

Machine Foundation (BC 2.2)

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Multiple Choice Type Questions

Q.1 In rigid block foundation,rotation and translation are occurred in X,Y and Z direction These X, Y and Z axes are called respectivily a) Pitching , rocking & yawing c) Pitching , yawing & rocking b) d) Rocking , pitching & yawing Yawing , Pitching, & rocking

Q.2 Which one of the following expression given below correctly relates natural frequency fn, spring stiffness k, mass m of the machine foundation vibrating system with Cu, the cofficient of elastic uniform compression of the foundation soil? a) c)

fn = 1 / (k / m)
fn = 2 (k / m)

b) d)

fn = (k / m)
fn = 1 / 2 (k / m)

Q.3 The Value of damping factor D for most soils genrally varies between a) 0.1-0.2 b) 0.01-0.1 c) 0.001-0.01 d) 0.01-0.05 Q.4 The system under free vibrations, vibrates at a frequency known as a) Vibration frequency. b) Operational frequncy. c) Natural frequency d) Frequency freedom Q.5 Which are geometric properties of machine foundation a) C.G., M.I & Mass Moment of Inertia b) Size c) Capacity d) C.G. Q.6 Classified machine foundation according to their structure form. isolated a) combine b) raft c) block type, box type, wall & frame type. Q.7 Which are recommended methods for dynamic analysis of block type foundation? a) Barkans Mehotd b) Reynolds Method c) Recks Method d) elastic method Q.8 Which are the design criteria for machine foundation a) Natural frequency should be 30% away from operating speed b) Amplituted of foundation should not exceed c) Stress of soils is within permissible limit d) All of the above Q.9 Soil Dynamic is defined as the constituent part of soild mechnics which deals with soils a) Over dynamic conditions b) Under dynamic conditions c) Over and under dynamic condition d) None of the above Q.10 If how ever the foundation block supported on an elastic pad of contact area A and the thickness T then the values of the stiffness are given by the following expressions: a) For vertical motors:kz=EA/t b) For horizontal motors Kx=CA/t c) For rocking motors Ky=E1y/t d) All are correct Q.11 The size of the foudation block ( in Plan) should be larger than the bed plate of the machine with a minimum all round clearance ofa) 51 cm b) 15 cm c) 1.5 cm d) 5.1 cm

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Q.12 The depth of the foundation should be such ________as to rest the foundation on a good bearing strata and to ensure stability against rotation a) c) In a vertical plance In both horizontal and vertical plane b) d) in a horizontal plance Z-plane

Q.13 A rigid block has how many degrees of freedom a) 1 c) 3 b) d) 2 6

Q.14 The vertical amplitute (a2) under the action of an exciting force pz sin wmt, where wm= circular operating frequency a) az =

pz m( m 2
2 z


az =

pz m(z m)


az =

pz m( m 2 )
2 z


pz m(z m)

Q.15 For foundation with non circular base, the radius of equivalent circular base for rocking about the horizontal axis is given by a) r 0 = 4 c)



b) d)

r 0= 3 r 0= 2



r 0= 2

l0 = monment of inertia of the base about axis of rotation

Q.16 For foundation with non circular base, the equivalent circular radius for torsion is given by;a) r = 4 c)



b) d)

r = 3 r = 4

z z


r =

Q.17 The spring constant for a rigid circular footing resting on elastic half space for horizontal mode of vibration is a) K x =

32(1 v) gr 0 7 8v 32(1 v) gr 0 c) K x = 7 + 8v

b) d)

32(1 + v) gr 0 7 8v 32(1 + v) gr 0 K x= 7 + 8v K x=

Q.18 The spring constant for a rigid circular footing resting on elastic half space for torsion mode of vibrationa) K = (16 / 3)Gr3 c) b) d)

K = (3 / 16)Gr3 K = (3 / 16)Gr2

K = (16 / 3)Gr2

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Q.19.Block foundation has; a) Large mass and smaller natural frequency b) Small mass and large natural frequency c) Large mass large natural frequency d) Small mass and small natural frequency Q.20 According to Bakers the relation between elastic uniform compression coeff ( Cu) & uniform shear coeff ( Cr) is a) Cu=1.50 Cr c) Cu=1.73 Cr b) d) Cu=2.00 Cr Cu=3.46 Cr

Q.21 According to I.S recommendations the relation between elastic unifrom compression ( Cu) & uniform shear coeff ( Cr) is; a) Cu=2.00 Cr c) Cu=1.73 Cr b) d) Cu=1.50 Cr Cu=3.46 Cr

Q.22 According to codal provisions the natural frequency should at least be away from operation speed of the machine by an amount of: a) 20% c) 40% Q.23 Block foundation are generally used for:a) Diesel engines c) Rolling mills b) d) 30% 50%

b) d)

Turbo Generatores All of the above

Q.24 Bakers Method of analysis is based upon a) Linear theory of elasticity c) both a and b

b) d)

Linear Spring theory None of the above

Q.25 In Impact machine ( Is-2974 Pt-11-1980) the values lie between a) 0.4 > w/Wn>1.5 b) 0.6> w/ Wn> 1.5 c) 0.5 > w / Wn>2 d) 0.8> w / Wn > 1.25

Q.26 When natural frequency is lower than the operating frequency. The foundation is said to be a) heigh turned b) over turned c) under turned d) balance turned Q.27 What is the percentage of the soil stress below the foundation shall not exceed of the allowable soil pressure( seismic forces are not considered) a) 75% b) 60% c) 80% d) 70%

28 In a rigid block under the action of unbalanced forces, match the following (a) Translation along Y axis (1) Pitching or rocking vibration (b) Translation along X axis (2) Rocking vibration (c) Rotation about Y axis (3) Longitudinal or sliding vibration (d) Rotation about X axis (4) Lateral or sliding vibration (a) a --1, b 3, c 2, d 4 (b) a 3, b 4, c 2, d 1 (c) a 2, b 4, c 3, d 1 (d) a 1, b 4, c 2, d 3

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Linear elastic weightless spring method is also unown as (a) Richart method (b) Barkens method (c) Whitmans method (d) Poissions method In pure rocking vibrations of a block, what is the value of amplitude of vertical motion at the edge of footing. My * a / 2 a) Azr = Mmo(W 2 n W 2 ) b) Azr =


Mmo * a / 2 My (W 2 n W 2 ) My (W 2 n W 2 ) a / 2 * Mmo Mmo(W 2 n W 2 ) a / 2 * My

c) Azr =

d) Azr =

where My = moment acting in XZ plane Mo = moment of inertia of the mass of foundation and machine w.r.t. axis of rotation 31. The size of foundation block should be larger than bed plate of machine with a minimum al round clearance of (for reciprocating type machines) (a) 10 cm (b) 12.5 cm (c) 20 cm

(d) 15 cm
32. Natural frequency is given by relation (for reciprocating machines)

(a) 15.8 /
(c) 13.8 / 33.

(b) 12 / (d) 14.8 /

Stresses produced at the time of impact in the foundation base should be

(a) 0.8 times allowable static stresses

(b) 1.2 times allowable static stresses (c) same as allowable static stresses (d) 1.5 times allowable static stresses 34. Weight of anvil for foundation of impact machine should be (a) 15 times weight of tup (b) 20 times weight of tup

(c) 25 times weight of tup

(d) 30 times weight of tup

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As per code IS 2974 (part II) the reinforcement provided in the foundation block of impact machines should be (a) 20 kg per cu. M. of conc.

(b) 25 kg per cu. M. of conc.

(c) 30 kg per cu. M. of conc. (d) 15 kg per cu. M. of conc. 36. The concept of isolation by wave barrier is based on (i) Reflection (ii) Scattering (iii) Diffraction correct answer is

(a) (i) & (iii)

(b) (i) & (ii) (c) (i), (ii) & (iii) (d) (ii) & (iii) 37. According to Barken, for effective isolation the depth of trench should be ______ of the wave length of vibration

(a) 1/3
(c) 1/9 38.

(b) 1/6 (d) 1/12

(i) in active isolation test we use one exitor footing (ii) in passive isolation test we use two exitor footing (iii) in both test we use two exitor footing (iv) in both test we use one exitor footing Which of the statement are true ? (a) (i) & (ii) (b) (iii)

(c) (iv)
(d) None of these. 39. The minimum scale depth for passive trench is given between (a) 0.61.2

(b) 1.21.5
(c) 1.51.8 (d) 22.5 40. For foundation subjected to rocking vibration only a portion of soil near edges foundation need to stabilize at depth of? (a) 1 m

(b) 2 m
(c) 2.5 m (d) 3 m 6 of 16


Passive vibration isolation system consists essentially of following (a) Mass (b) Spring (c) Damper (dashpot)

(d) All of these

42. Active vibration isolation system contains the following (a) Spring (b) Feedback circuit (c) (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

43. Damper has to

(a) Terminate the oscillation

(b) Softens vibrations (c) (a) & (b) (d) None of these 44. Factors affecting soil cement (a) Nature of soil (b) Cement content (c) Conditions of mixing & curing & admixtures

(d) All of these

45. Compaction and drainage are examples of (a) Modifications of the properties with the help of admixtures

(b) Modifications of improvement of soil property of the existing soil without any admixture
(c) both a & b (d) None of above 46. For an impact type machine foundation system Area of block = 0.2 Resonant Frequency = 40 Hz Mu of block, oscillator & motor = 2000 kg Co-efficient of elastic uniform compression of soil will be (a) 0.64 X 104 kN/m3

(b) 6.4 X 104 kN/m3

(c) 64 X 104 kN/m3 (d) None of these

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For a forging hammer of impact type machine foundation system Givenvibration amplitude of foundation = 0.18 mm Vibration amplitude of anvil = 0.02 mm Area of pad = 1.8 m X 1.8 m Area of foundation contact with soil = 7 m X 5 m Equivalent sprint constant = as calculate in 324 104 km/m2 (a) 20 kN/m3

(b) 200 kN/m3

(c) 18.5 kN/m3 (d) 185 kN/m3 48. (i) If natural frequency is lower than the operating speed, the foundation is said to be under tuned (ii) If natural frequency is higher than the operating speed, the foundation is said to be over tuned (iii) If operating speed is higher than the natural frequency of foundation is said to be under tuned (iv) If operating is lower than the natural frequency the foundation is said to be under tuned.

(a) only i & ii are correct

(b) only iii & iv are correct (c) only i is correct (d) only iii is correct 49. How the strength and stability be affected if the fine grained soil are compacted wet of optimum water content and the coarse grained soil are compacted on the dry side of the optimum water content? (a) Strength increases but stability decreases (b) Strength decreases but stability increases

(c) Strength and stability both increase

(d) Strength and stability both decrease. Q. 50 What is the expression given for the amount of cement needed in tones for the constructin of foundation? (a) AH/( (b) AH (c) AH/( (d) AH /P Q. 51 Consider the two statements A.) In case of active isolation, the transmissibility is defined as the ratio of force transmitted to foundation to the vibratory force developed by the machine itself. B.) In case of passive transmissibility is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the sensitive instrument to the amplitude of the base. (a) A is true but B is false. (c) Both A and B are true. (b) a is false but B is true. (d) Both A and B are false.

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Q. 52 The shear stiffness (Ks) of a rubber block of thickness h, cross-sectional area A and shear modulus G is given by (b) (a) (c)
Q. 53


In case of stablisation of soil which of the following geotechnical property of the soil plays important role. a) consoldation. c) Stability b) d) permeability compaction

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True/False Type Questions

1. In a block type machine foundation the degree of freedom is zero. 2. For a foundation of mass in and spring constant of the state is K, the critical damping will be less than 2 . 3. The operating frequency of the machine is given by 300 (1 + T / T ) . Where is static deflection and T is transmissibility 4. Passive vibration isolation system consists of spring only. 5. The weight of anvil for foundation of impact machine should be 25 times the weight of tub. 6. The natural frequency for reciprocating machine is given by 12/ . 7. In case of machine foundation the frequency ratio should not be more than 0.6 8. If the elastic deflection of the foundation (reciprocating machine) is 9 mm. the natural frequency will be 5.26 cycle per second 9. The stresses produced at the time of impact in the foundation base should be 1.2 times that of allowable static stresses. 10. Barkens method is also referred as linear elastic spring method. 11. Richarts Chart exhibits the relation between limiting amplitude of vibration and frequency 12. The rotation about x, y and z axes are known as pitching, rocking and yawing respectively 13. Damping coefficient is the damping force per unit velocity of the vibrating machine at any instant. 14. The unit of amplitude is hertz. 15. The value of Cu is less for rock as compared to that of soil. 16. The repeated plate load test is conducted to determine the stiffness of the soil 17. The block vibration test can be used for finding spring constant and damping constant both. 18. Lazan Oscillator is a rotating eccentric mass type oscillator to produce unbalanced forces and moments along the three axes. 19. For a good machine foundation the combined centre of gravity of machine and foundation and the centre of contact area should lie on the same vertical line. 20. According to Barkan the mass of vibrating soil should lie between 0.67 to 1.5 times the total mass of machine foundation & vibrator. 21. The shear stiffness of a rubber block of thickness h1 cross sectional area A and shear modulus G is given by GA/n. 22. Tup is a weightless block which strikes the material being forged on the anvil. 23. Steel springs, felt, Cork layer, rubber mounting are used as absorber. 24. The main objective of machine foundation is to decrease the difference between natural frequency of the foundation system and the operating frequency of the machine 25. The stiffness of the soil cannot be determined by plate load test.

Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F F T F F 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. F T T F T 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20.


21. 22. 23. 24. 25.



1. What is machine foundation? 2. Discuss the types of machines with their speed 3. Name the types of machine foundation with diagram. 4. What do you mean by vibration, periodic motion and period of motion? 5. Define free vibration and forced vibrations with suitable examples. 6. What is natural frequency of the system? How it depends upon degree of freedom. 7. Mention the prohibitive range of frequency ratio as per BIS 2974 (Part 1) 1992
8. What is damping. Discuss viscous damping

9. Explain degree of freedom of a block foundation of machines. 10. Discuss any three important design crilenias of the machine foundation. 11. Sketch response curve of free vibrating system. 12. Analyze free vibration with damping effect. 13. Explain the equation for frequency of vibration in critical damping condition. 14. Write the equation of motion for forced vibrations analysis with damping 15. Define magnification factor. 16. Draw the amplitude frequency relationship for forced vibration. 17. Explain mass spring analysis to the machine foundation system. 18. Name any three methods for finding spring stiffness of the soil. 19. How the spring constant of foundation vary with soil type and width of foundation. Write equation only. 20. Describe resonance test in brief. 21. Write the equation for finding natural frequency of foundation soil system. 22. What is Barkens equation 23. Find the natural frequency of a machine foundation having a base area 8m2 mass of 180 K.N, the mass of machine is 20 K.N Cu=4.4 * 107 N/ m3 24. Explain active isolation with neat sketenes. 25. Explain passive isolation with neat sketenes.

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Long Type Question

1. Determine the natural frequency of a machine foundation having a base area 2m2m and a mass of 15 Mg including the mass of the machine. Take Cu=4x104 KN/m3 [Ans 16.43 cps (hertz)] 2. The natural frequency of a machine foundation is 4 hertz. Determine its magnification @ the operating frequency of 8 hertz. Take damping factor (D) as 0.30 [M=0.31] 3. Determine the coefficient of a compression if a vibration test on a block 1m x 1m x 1m gave a resonance frequency of 30 Hz. in the vertical direction. The mass of oscillator used was 60 kg. [Cu = 8.74x107 N/m3] 4. The exciting force of a m/c is 100 kn. Determine the transmitted force if the natural frequency of a m/c foundation is 3.0 Hz. D 204 & the operating frequency as 5 Hz. [75 kN] 5. A 2.50 Mg vertical Compressor foundation system is operated @ 40 Hz. The soil at the site is medium stiff clay (Cu = 4 x 104 kN/m3). Determine the natural frequency and the magnification factor, assuming Ms = 0.2 mf. The base area is 2.5 m2. D = 0 [M = 1.12] 6. In a test block of the size 1.5 m x 1.0 x 0.75 m, resonance occurs at a frequency of 20 cycles/ seconds in the vertical vibration. Determine the coefficients of elastic uniform compression (Cu) if the mass of oscillator is 70 kg and the force produced by it @ 15 cycles / second is 1000 N. also compute the maximum amplitude @ 15 cycles/ second. [Cu=29.16x103 kN/m3, Zmax = 0.0523 mm] 7. A foundation block of wt. 30 kN rests on a soil for which the stiffness may be assumed as 25000 kN/m. The m/c is vibrated vertically by an exciting force of 3D sin(30t) kN. Find the natural frequency, natural period, natural circular frequency and the amplitude of vertical displacement. The damping factor is 0.50. [fn = 14.39 cycles/ sec M =1.05 T = 0.069 Seconds w = 90.42 rad/s st = 0.012 cm Amplitude = 0.013 cm] 8. Determine the frequency of a m/c found which having base area 2m x 2m and a mass of 10 mg. Assuming the soil participation in the vibration is (a). Negligible (b). 20% of the mass. Cu = 104 kN/m3 [17.43 cps, 15.92 cps] 9. Resonance occurs at a frequency of 20 cycles/sec. in the vertical vibration of a list block (1m x 1m x 1m). Calculate the coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu). The mass of the oscillator is 50 kg. [3.87 x 104 kN/m3] 10. The foundation of a gas engine with a vertical cylinder & vertically oscillating parts has the following data.Total mass of engine = 5 Mg Speed of rotation = 300 rpm Mass of block = 20 Mg Mass of participating Soil = 25 Mg Spring stiffness = 60 x 104 kN/m Determine the natural frequency and maximum amplitude. D = 0.1. the unbalanced vertical force in 12 kN. [17.43 cps, 0.022 mm]

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11. Define the terms: (6) Frequency Ratio (1) Vibrations (2) Degrees of freedom (7) Resonance (3) Free vibration (8) Damping (9) Forcing frequency (4) Natural frequency (5) Forced vibrations (10) Amplitude of motion 12. A machine of mass 100 kg is imported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm. the machine produces an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N @ a speed of 50 c/s. Assume damping factor of 0.20, determine (1) The amplitude of motion due to unbalance (2) The transmissibility (3) The transmitted force [(1) 0.042 mm (2) 0.1467 (3) 57.5 N ] 13. A Seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6 Hz is used to measure the vibrations of a machine running at 120 rpm. The instrument gives the reading for the relative displacement of the seismic mass as 0.05 mm. Determine the amplitudes of displacement, velocity & acceleration of the vibrating machine Neglet damping[(1) Y0 = 0.40 mm (2) Velocity = 5.03 mm/sec (3) Ace. = 63.17 mm/sec2] 14. A small reciprocating m/c weighs 50 kg and runs @ a constant speed of 6000 rpm. After it was installed, it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to the natural frequency of system. What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 20% from the forcing frequency. [Ka = 40.7 x 105 N/m, ma = 10.12 kg] 15. Wave propagation tests were conducted near Mathura Refinery, Mathura, for determining the insitu velocities of wave propagation and dynamic elastic modulii. Seismic waves were generated by the impact of hammer falling through a height. of 2.0 m. Two geophines were placed in the ground respectively at 1.0m and 5.0 m from the source. The analysis of data gave the velocity of compression wave, Vp as 300 m/sec the soil @ the site was cohesinnless & position of water table was at 1.0 m depth below the ground surface. Determine E, G, Vs, Vr, [E = 76453 kN/m2 G = 30581 kN/m2 Vs = 174 m/s Vr = 160 m/s] 16. The soil profile at a site as shown in figure below. Two cross borehole tests were conducted at the site to determine the values of shear wave velocities in the small areas around points A and B. the average values of shear wave velocities were observed as 110 m/s and 130 m/s respectively. Determine the values of dynamic shear modulus G for the points A, B, C and D.

[Gc=2.7x104 kN/m2 GB=3.6x104 kN/m2 GD=2.96x104 kN/m2] 13 of 16

17. A 2.5m wide continuous surface footing is subjected to a horizontal transient load of duration 0.4 sec applied at a height of 4.0m from the base of footing. The properties of the soil are r=17 kN/m3., C=30 kN/m2 and = 32. Determine the value of max. horizontal load that can be applied on footing. Also compute the rotation @ time equal to 0.65 [Q=8290 kN, = -8229 rad.] 18. A reciprocating m/c is symmetrically mounted on a block of size 4.0x3.0x3.5m high. The soil @ the site is sandy in nature having = 35 and sat=20 kN/m3. The water table lies @ a depth of 3.0 m below the ground surface. The block is embedded in the ground by 2.0 m depth. The m/c vibrating @ a speed of 250 rpm generates. 2.5 kN 4.0 kN/m 2.0 kN @ ht. of 0.2m above top of block wt. of m/c <<< wt. of foundation. Limiting amplitude of the m/c is 150 microns. A block resonance test was conducted @ the site to evaluate the dynamic elastic constants. Data is given below. 1.5m 0.75 m 0.70m = block dimension S.No. 1 2 3 4 Max. vertical unbalanced force torque about Z-axis Max. horizontal unbalanced force = = =

36 72 108 144

Fnz 41.0 40.0 34.0 31.0

Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13.0 24.0 32.0 40.0

Determine the natural frequency and amplitude by weightless spring Method. [Ans = Ah=85.47 Av=39.8 Wn1=33.8 rad/s Wn2=100.6 rad/sec] 19. Determine the natural frequency and amplitude by Elastic Half Space Method in S.No. 1 2 3 4

36 72 108 144

Fnz 41.0 40.0 34.0 31.0

Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13.0 24.0 32.0 40.0 [Ans = Ah=120.4110-6 m Av=99.810-6 m Wn1=20 rad/s Wn2=62.8 rad/sec]

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20. A 15 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial complex. The hammer has the following specifications Wt. of tup without die Max. tup Stroke Wt. f upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pr Wt. of anvil block Total Wt. of hammer Bearing Area of anvil Permissible amplitude for foundation = = = = = = = = 11 kN 800 mm 40 kN 0.12 m2 600 kN/m2 300 kN 400 kN 1.8m 1.8m = = 1.5mm 1.0 mm

Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil

Its proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0.5 m below the anvil. Epad = 5105 kN/m2 & compressive stress allowable in pad is 3500 kN/m2. Test details (Vertical Resonance test) S.No. 1 2 3 4

36 72 108 144

Fnz 41.0 40.0 34.0 31.0

Amplitude @ Resonance (Microns) 13.0 24.0 32.0 40.0

Soil is sandy in nature & water table is 3m below ground surface. Allowable soil pressure=225 kN/m2. Design a suitable foundation for the hammer. 21. Determine stiffness of isolator to be kept b/n a reciprocating m/c & the foundation shown in fig. below to bring the vibration amplitude to less than 0.02 mm. The wt. of m/c is 18 kN, & it produces an unbalanced force of 4.0 kN when operated@ speed of 600 rpm. Dynamic shear modulus = 2104kN/m2, (Poissons ratio) = 0.35

[Ans 1.40103kN/m] 15 of 16

22. Its planned to install a compressor having operating speed of 1000 rpm @ a distance of 50m from a precision m/c. Suggest a suitable open bench barrier to provide effective vibration isolation. The velocity of shear waves at the site was found as 140 m/s. 23. Briefly describe the various field tests used to determined the dynamic properties of soil. 24. What is vibration Isolation. Also describe its various types with neat diagrams. 25. What the various requirements of m/c foundations.

Ref. Book
Machine Foundations Swami Saran Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd

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