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IAS OUR DREAM

Polity notes (Revised)


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Compiled by-:Hemant(hemantkumarsain) 10/28/2012

This is the revision edition of polity notes many more thing added and many more reduced .

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Who is appointed as an adhoc judge of the Supreme Court ? (a) A person fully qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court (b) A sitting judge of a High Court duly qualified for appointment as a Supreme Court Judge (c) A retired judge of Supreme Court (d) An acting judge of the Supreme Court ans is C >>"The Right to Public Office" is a 1 Moral right 2 Civil right 3 Political right 4 Economic right Civil right. >>article 50 and article 60?

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ans. article 50 deals with separation of judiciary from executive. article 60 deals with oath or affirmation by the President. >>What are the constitutional provisions with respect to prevention of prostitution ? Articles 23 and 24 of Part III of the Constitution provide to every person the Fundamental Right against exploitation.Article 23 prohibits the traffic in human beings and practice of forced labor.Keeping in view the provisions of Article 23, the Government of India enacted the Suppression of immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956. >>Part XVII ??? deals with official languages. >>Part XV ??? administration of sc,st and bc part XV consists of art 330-342 the federal scheme, Office of the Governor, Role of federal judiciary, Emergency provisions in our Constition are taken from? Govt of India Act,1919 Govt of India Act,1935 UK Constitution govt of india act 1935 >>Part XVIII ? deals with emergency provisions (article 352 to article 360) which of the following rights can be claimed only by the citizens of India? 1) Freedom of speech 2)Right to form association 3) Equality before Law 4) Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms select the correct answer from the code given below:

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a)1,2,3 b)2,3,4 c)1,2,4 d)1,3,4 c art 19. Is the right ans Dual Citizenship is allowed in which country/s? A.U.K B.Chin C.Israel D.Syria C.Israel who was the first indian scientist to become the member of parliament 1-vikram sarabhai 2-s.c.shekhar 3-meghnad saha 4-c.v.raman 3-meghnad saha >>Under the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, people enjoy the DUAL citizenship. It has a separate state constitution adopted by J & K Constituent Assembly( Jan 26,1957) Freedom of Speech under the Indian Constitution is subject to reasonable restriction on the ground of protection of a) Sovereignty and Integrity of the country b)The dignity of the office of the Prime Minister c) The dignity of Council of Minister d) The dignity of Constitutional functionaries Ans is a Sovereignty and Integrity of the country Which one of the following was described by Dr Ambedkar as the 'heart and soul' of the Constitution ? a)Right to equality

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b)Right against exploitation c) Right to Constitutional Remedies d) Right to Freedom of religion Right to constitutional remedies... Article 32... Five type of writs can be used: Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quowarranto and Certiorari habeas corpus.? bring the body of: writ of supreme court under articl 32 the salaries and allowances of all the higher posts that is president, prime minister, governor etc. of india has been described in which schedule ? a) first b) second c) sixth d) seventh ANS is second schedule Which of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporate "Abolition of Untouchability' ? a) The Right to religion b) The Right to equality c) The Right against exploitation d) The Right t o equality Ans is b) The Right to equality our constitution recieves amendibility from the article a) 363 b) 365 c) 368 d) 370 Ans is c) 368 Q:Which rail zones has the maximum route kilometres? Northern Railways-6968 kms Western Railways-6182 kms dispute relating to water of inter-state rivers or river valleys in the article 1-260 2-261

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3-263 4-262 Ans is article 262 > >HOW MANY CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS HAVE BEED DONE TILL DATE?? Till now total 96 ammandments have taken place. The 96th was taken place on 23 September 2011 under which Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya" Which of the following article(s) deal with the education for the children aged between six and fourteen years? (i) Article 21 (ii) Article 45 (iii) Article 51(A) (k) Choose the correct option: a) (i) only b) (i) and (iii) only c) (ii) and (iii) only d) All the above b) (i) and (iii) only Art 21A ,45,51 A ? Article 21A is a fundamental right regarding education. Children six to fourteen years shall provided free and compulsory education Article 45 is a directive principle of state policy, regarding provision for free and compulsory education for the children, who is not justiciable in the constitution 51A fundamental duties

INDIAN PRESIDENT GIVE RESIGNATION TO WHOM??? 1.ATORNY GENERAL 2.CHIEF JUSTICE OF INDIA 3.PRIME MINISTER 4.VICE PRESIDENT 5.NONE OF THE ABOVE its always to vice president.

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Vice President if vp also on leave then CJI and vice president also give their resiganation to President if presi on leave then CJI.| Sources of Indian Constitution contribution of other country in making of Indian constitution 1. Fundamental Rights----------- USA 2. The Parliamentary System of Government --------UK 3. Directive Principles of State Policy--------- Ireland (Eire) 4. Emergency Provisions ----------Germany (Third Reich) 5. Amendment Procedure ------------South Africa 6. Permeable To The Constitution of India-------- France 7. Federal Model of Governance---------- Canada

>> Fundamental duties are taken from Russia not japan we have adopted an
expression "Procedure established by law" under Article 21 from Japan >>who is the chief election commissioner oof india at present >>Shahabuddin Yaqoob Qureshi! He joind office on- 30 july 2010 . he is 17th CEC of india The subject 'Water' comes under a) State list b) Union list c) Concurrent list d) None of the above Ans is .option a (state list) which amendment is also known as mini constitution? a) 26 b) 36 c) 42 d) 44

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2 amendment done by indira gandhi govt in 1976,so many changes in const 4 so that is is call as mini costi,after that janta party govt done there 44 amrnd. to minimize 42 amend what is article 111 about? president have power that he can return the Bill if it is not a " Money Bill to the Houses (assent to bill ) Match the following? 1]USA- Communist party 2]Australia- Conservative party 3]UK- Labour party 4]Russia- republic party USA-Republic party, Australia-Labour party, UK-Conservative party, Russia-Communist party SHEDULE 8 HAS HOW MANY ORIGINAL LANGUAGES(NOT AMENDED)?? 1. 18 2. 14 3. 21 4. 22 originally listed 14 languages. Sindhi added by 21st ammendment 1967, Konkani,Manipuri,Nepali added by 71st ammendment 1992 & Bodo, Dongri, Maithili & Santhali added by 92nd ammendment 2003. secretariat of parliament 1-99 2-98 3-97 4-96 Ans is 2 98

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the money bill is described in the article ? Ans is Definition of Money bill is 110 what is the role of NALSA (national legal service authority)?? to provide legal aid to poor sections of people to fulfil obligation under DPSP Which conditions president is not bound to follow the advice given by council of ministers??? during emergency Fundamental Rights guaranteed in the Indian Constitution can be suspended only by a) A proclamation of National Emergency b) An Act passed by Parliament c) An amendment of the Constitutions d) The judicial decisions of the SC a) A proclamation of National Emergency except art 20 and 21 which of the following states of india does not have a legislative council so far even though the constitution ( seventh amendment ) act, 1956 provides for it ? a) maharashtra b) bihar c) karnataka d) madhya pradesH d) madhya Pradesh Six states have Legislative Council in India i.e. Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Bihar UPSC has been established under the article. a) 314 b) 315 c) 316 d) 317 ANS IS b) 315 if a new state of the indian union is to be created , which one of the following schedules of the constitution must be amended? a) first b ) second c) third d) fifth Ans is First... Article 1 to 4

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the concept of public interest litigation originated in a) the united kingdom b) australia c) the united states d) Canada Ans is united states A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) can be filed in any High Court or directly in the Supreme Court. The best part of a pil is that, it can be filed by a third party who is not directly affected. Thus, many poor and affected people of india, who can't move to the court are relieved through this measure and many ngo's have helped them out to fight for their right(s). The seeds of the concept of public interest litigation were initially sown in India by Krishna Iyer J., in 1976 in Mumbai Kamagar Sabha vs. Abdul Thai and the Supreme Court in S.P. Gupta vs. Union of India, popularly known as Judges Transfer Case, Bhagwati J How many times the preamble have been amended till now? Ans is only once socialist,secular and integrity all 3 words added in preamble through 42nd amendment 1976,,.... The Law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India in accordance with Article (a) 130 (b) 136 (c) 141 (d) 124 Ans is article 141

money bill can be retained by rajya sabha for a period of ? a) 14 days b) 28 days c) 3 months d) 6 months 14 days The right to vote is available to Indian citizens under the Constitution is a a) Fundamental Right b) Civil Right

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c) Political Right d) Political Duty Ans is c) Political Right Its a political right given only to a major citizen of india Important Doctrine of Constitution _____________________________ **Doctrine of Severability It provides that only that part of the law will be declared invalid which is inconsistent with the fundamental rights and the rest of the law will stand. However, invalid part of the law will be severed only if it is severable, i.e., if after separating the invalid part, the valid part is capable of giving effect to the legislatures intent, then only it will survive otherwise the court shall declare the entire law as invalid. **Doctrine of Waiver of Right It provides that a person has the liberty to waive the enjoyment of such rights as are conferred on him by the state, provide that such person must have the knowledge of his rights and the waiver should be voluntarily, However, citizens cannot waive of any of the fundamental rights which article of the constitution of india is related to doctrine of eclipse? what is it all about? article 13 It provides that a law made before the commencement of the constitution remains eclipsed or dormant to be extent in comes under the shadow of fundamental rights i.e. is inconsistency brought about by the fundamental rights is removed by the amendment to the Constitution of India Who appoints " ad hoc" Judges of the Supreme Court? It's appointed by president (head of the state) for specific case only.

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Which one of the following was not included in the Fundamental Rights as given in the Constitution of 1950? a) Right to property b) Right to freedom of speech c) Right to education d) Right against exploitation Ya C. Right of education Which of the following is not generally considered as a part of the right to equality? a) Equal protection of law b) Equality of opportunity for all c) Equality of right to satisfaction of basic needs of all d) Equality of treatment in all circumstances Ans is d Equality of treatment in all circumstances Which one of the following Article of Fundamental Rights is automatically suspended as soon as the Proclamation of National Emergency comes into effect? a) Article 14 b) Article 16 c) Article 19 d) Article 21 Ans is c wt ws d golaknath vs state of punjab case ? y its imp?? Anendment in constitution cn be done includng sec 368 n fundamental rights. Bt later sc restrict n declar dat by changing in 368 its nt allow to amend fundanental rites..... .... In the golaknath case first and seventeenth amendments which are against the f.rs were challenged. Further fourth amendment was also challenged. It majority of the supreme court opined tht parliament had no right to amend any provisions of part III. But even supreme court also confused if it quashes it has social impact. To over come this parliament amended constn and made 24th amendment

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'"Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala',"? Ans :-In 1973 first time basic structure of the constitution came into light vd this case Which Article of the Constitution abolishes untouchability? a) Article 42 b) Article 15 c) Article 14 d) Article 17 Ans is d The famous slogan GARIBI HATAO (Remove Poverty) was launched during the (a) First Five-Year Plan (1951-56) (b) Third Five-Year Plan (1961-66) (c) Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969-74) (d) Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-79) (d) Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-79) by indira Gandhi What can Supreme court do if govt don't obey his recommendations or orders ?? Under Articles 129 and 142 of the Constitution the Supreme Court has been vested with power to punish anyone for contempt of any law court in India including itself How many permanent members are there in Security Council? (a) Three (b) Five (c) Six (d) Four There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting of five vetowielding permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and 10 elected non-permanent members with two-year terms. This basic structure is set out in Chapter V of the UN Charter..

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In India, disguised unemployment is generally observed in (a) the agriculture sector. (b) the factory sector. (c) the service sector. (d) All these sectors. the agriculture sector Article 370 of the constitution of India provides for (a) temporary provisions for Jammu & Kashmir. (b) special provisions in respect of Nagaland. (c) special provisions in respect of Manipur. (d) provisions in respect of financial emergency. temporary provisions for Jammu & Kashmir. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected by the (a) President (b) Prime Minister. (c) Members of both Houses of the Parliament. (d) Members of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected by the Members of the Lok Sabha. Who is the chief advisor to the Governor? (a) Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. (b) Chief Minister. (c) Speaker of the Lok Sabha. (d) President. Chief Minister Social Contract Theory was advocated by (a) Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. (b) Plato, Aristotle and Hegel. (c) Mill, Bentham and Plato. (d) Locke, Mill and Hegel. Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. The United Kingdom is a classic example of a/an (a) aristocracy (b) absolute monarchy

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(c) constitutional monarchy (d) polity. Ans is c The members of Estimate Committee are (a) elected from the Lok Sabha only. (b) elected from the Rajya Sabha only. (c) elected from both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. (d) nominated by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha .. a elected from the Lok Sabha only **PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES IN INDIA** Overview Since Parliament needs to perform substantial functions in limited time, it cannot go into the details of every legislative and other matter that comes before it For this reason, Parliamentary Committees are constituted to study in detail the legislative and other matters that come before Parliament Committees can be appointed in both Houses of Parliament, and their roles and functions are more or less similar Functions of the Committees To consider the Demand for Grants of various Departments/Ministries and make reports to the Houses To examine Bills that are referred to the Committee by the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha To study annual reports of various Ministries and Departments To consider policy documents presented to the Houses if/when referred to the Committee by the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha _______________________________ TYPES OF COMMITTEES 1.Ad hoc Committees

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They are appointed for a specific purpose and cease to exist when the task is finished They can either belong to one particular Parliament House or be a joint committee There are two types of Ad hoc committees Committees appointed either by a motion in Parliament or by the Speaker/Chairman to enquire into a specific subject Select or Joint Committees on Bills. These Committees are constituted to study and report on specific Bills Examples of Ad hoc Committees: Committees on Draft Five Year Plans, Railway Convention Committee, Fertilizer Pricing Committee etc 2.Standing Committees Standing Committees are Committees appointed every year or periodically, and their work goes on in a continuous basis The three most important Standing Committees (which deal with finance) are worth special mention Committee on Estimates Committee on Public Accounts Committee on Public Undertakings Additionally, there are 24 Departmentally Related Standing Committees that deal with affairs of a specific Department/Ministry __________________________________________ IMPORTANT COMMITTEES 1. Departmentally Related Standing Committees There are a total of 24 Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSC) The DRSCs were first introduced in 1993 in a batch of 17, and a further 7 were added in 2004 Each of these Committees consists of no more than 45 members. 30 are to be nominated from the Lok Sabha and 15 from the Rajya Sabha

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Ministers are not eligible to be nominated to these Committees The term of the Committee is one year 2. Committee on Estimates Consists of 30 members elected from the Lok Sabha Ministers are not eligible for election to this Committee The term of the Committee is one year Primary functions include report what improvements in organisation, efficiency or administration can be made suggest policies to bring about improvements in efficiency and economy the Committee can select and study estimates pertaining to any Ministry or government body as it may see fit Committee can also examine matters of special interest that come up or are referred to it by the Speaker 3. Committee on Public Accounts Consists of 22 members: 15 elected from the Lok Sabha and 7 from the Rajya Sabha Ministers are not eligible for election to this Committee Term of office is one year Primary function is to determine if money granted by the Parliament has been spent by the Government within the scope of the Demand The Committee bases its examinations on the Appropriation Accounts of the Government and the Audit Reports presented by the Comptroller and Auditor General The Committee is not concerned with policy, but only with execution of the policy and its results 4. Committee on Public Undertakings Consists of 22 members: 15 elected from the Lok Sabha and 7 from the Rajya Sabha Ministers are not eligible for election to this Committee

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Term of office is one year Functions of the Committee include Examine reports and accounts of Public Undertakings Examine reports of the CAG on Public Undertakings Examine whether Public Undertakings are being managed with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices The Committee does not examine government policy or day-to-day administration of the Undertakin Which one of the following Parliamentary Committees in India acts as a watchdog on departmental expenditure and irregularities ? a) Estimates Committee b) Committee on Public Undertakings c)Public Account Committee d)Committee on Public Assurances c)Public Account Committee which one of the following committees is not a standing committee of Parliament ? a) Public Account Committee b) Estimates Committee c) Committee on Public Undertakings d) Consultative Committee to the Ministry of Finance d) Consultative Committee to the Ministry of Finance Main Standing Committe of Lok Sabha are Committe on Public Accounts Estimates Committe Committee on Public Undertaking All the Above all the above...time period for each one year...member here selected by pr and single transferable vote...xcept pac...in orhers generally member of ruling pary as chairman.

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Doctrine of Pith and Substance ...write abt it this principle was applied by the SC in 2 separate cases - Prafulla Kumar Vs. Bank of Khulna and State of Bombay Vs. Balsara Under which article the the president of India can be impeached?? article 61 article 60 deals with oath or affirmation by the President. Which article declares that " there shall be a President of India"?--::Article 52 Parliament can make any law for the whole or any part of India for implementing international treaties (A) With the consent of all the states (B) With the consent of the majority of states (C) With the consent of the states concerned (D) Without the consent of any state Without the consent of any state under the article of 253 What is the maximum age for retirement of a judge of the Supreme Court? 65 years What defines the aim of constitution? preamble Gadgil formula ?? write about it? The Gadgil formula was formulated with the formulation of the fourth five year plan for the distribution of plan transfers amongst the states In the Centre State financial relations in India, Gadgil Formula is used in (A) Division of tax revenue (B) Formulating the policy for fresh borrowings

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(C) Writing off states' indebtedness to the Centre (D) Allocating Central Plan assistance between states (D) Allocating Central Plan assistance between states The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the ex-officio Chairman of which of the following parliamentary committees? a) The Committee of Privileges 11b) The Rules Committee c) The Committee on Public Undertakings d)The Committee on Private member's Bills and Resolutions Ans s rules committee. In al d other committees speaker nominates members In which charter act the addition of law minister was added?? 1.charter act 1813 2.charter act 1833 3.govt of india act 1919 4.none of the above 2..... Which of the following committees/commission made recommendations about the Union State Relations? 1.Rajamannar Committee 2. Sarkaria Commission 3.Tarkunde Committee select the correct answer from the codes given below: A)1,2 and 3 B) 1 and 3 C) 2 and 3 D) 1 and 3 sarkaria commn by union govt,, rajmannar commn by tamilnadu govt on centre-state relations.. tarkunde commitee-on election commisioners and election reforms Sarkaria commission ?

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Headed by retd supreme court judge Rajender Singh Sarkaria, the commission was set up by central govt in jun 1983 to study and report the balance of power shared by the centre and states and to recommend necessary constitutional changes. Dhar Commission was setip fr..? Who were itzx mmbers ? SK Dhar commission was established in 1948 , its a linguistc basd commisn B C Banerjee, Doctor Pannalal, J Narayan Lal were the members of Dhar commission and they studied the creation of new states, borders, financial and administration problems and submitted their report. Though central government of India was in the opinion that creation of linguistic basis states will be harmful for the unity of the country, Dhar commission has suggested that creation of linguistic based states is necessary for administrative convenience. What is a Inter State Co uncil...wat r itzz duties ? its body established to resolve the disputes and controversies article 263 it enquires into and advices upon dispue which may arise between states investigating and discussing subjects in which the states or the centre and the staes have common interest making recommendations upon any such subject and particularly for the better coordination of policy and action on it The Union Government, constituted a Commission in 1983 under the Chairmanship of Justice R S Sarkaria to review the working of the existing arrangements between the Union and the States. One of the important recommendations of Sarkaria Commission was for establishing a permanent Inter-State Council as an independent national forum for consultation with a mandate well defined in accordance with Article 263 of the Constitution of India. Pursuant to the recommendation, The Inter-State-Council was set up under Article 263 of the Constitution of India vide Presidential Order dated

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28.5.1990. The present composition of the Council is as follows: Prime Minister (Chairman) Chief Ministers of all States Chief Ministers of Union Territories having a Legislative Assembly and Administrators of UTs not having a Legislative Assembly and Governors of States under Presidents Rule (Governors Rule in the case of J&K) Six Ministers of Cabinet rank in the Union Council of Ministers to be nominated by the Prime Minister Four Ministers of Cabinet rank as Permanent invitees What is a Censure motion ? It is moved by opposition against a specific policy of government or against a minister or against the whole council of ministers. ** It can be introduced in Lok Sabha only and if passed, council of ministers shall pass a confidence motion as soon as possible to regain the trust of the house. **There is no limit on the number of censure motions that can be introduced in a session. An Individual Minister can be removed by ______? [A]Prime Minister [B]Council of Ministers [C]Parliament [D]President It is all in d hand of presidnt...and presidnt is in d hands of parliament...and PM is d Head of that parliament....so it all dpnds on d mercy of PM.....

Congress in its Jaipur session in 1948 appointed committee to consider the

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recommendation of S.K Dhar commission. Name the committee. . Jvp ..rejected language as the basis fr reorganisation of states.. It suggested security unity and economic prosperity as the criteria of reorganisation National Commission fr SC ST .gt statutory status by which Amndmnt ? 5th amendment 6 89th amendment separated SC and ST commission 46th amendment also---It replaced single member commission to multi member commission

Parlimnt has three wings..which r thy ? Art 79 ...LS RS nd Presidnt

schedule This details the allocation of seats in the rajya sabha.? article related to Rajya Sabha Composition/Strength:- article 80 (Composition of the Council of States) Allocation of Seats-: The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution Qualifications of a Rajya sabha member -:Article 84 dis Qualifications of a Rajya sabha member -:article 102 Relation between the two Houses :-article 75(3) of the Constitution The strength of Rajya Sabha is Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories. The present

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strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President. The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service. Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B)?? Its all about JUDICIAL Review Which of the following describes India as a Secular State ? (a) Fundamental Rights (b) Directive Principle (c) Ninth Schedule (d) Preamble to the Constitution d) Preamble which of the following committees recommended that the elections to Panchayati raj bodies should be held on party lines? a) Dhar Committee b) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee c) Ashok Mehta Committee d) V.K.R.V. Rao Committee Ans is b ) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee Articles 244 and 275) Provisions for the administration of ( tribal areas in Assam,Meghalaya,Tripura,,Mizoram are included in Schedule no.?? ans is schedule VI Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G)??? Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) specifies the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. it has 29 matters. This schedule was added by th 73rd Amendment Act of 1992....

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Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)? Article 243-W:- Powers, authority and responsibilities of municipalities,etc.. 55nd Amendement of the constitution?? Fifth Fifth Amendment Act, 1986 :- Made Special provisions in respect of Arunachal Pradesh and fixed the strength of it Assembly at a minimum of 30 members. Full statehood was cofered to Arunachal Pradesh by the --------Amendment of the constitution Fifth-Fifth Sixieth Forty-Fourth Sixth-Fifth Ans is Fifth-Fifth 66nd Amendement of the constitution ??? Sixty Sixth Amendment Act, 1990 :- Included 55 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule... 36 constitutional amendment is a important amendment how ? because it gave sikkim a status of full fledge state of the UNION OF INIDIA Tribal and Excluded Areas of the Constituent Assembly was chaired by? Dr Rajendra Prasad K.M. Munshi Sardar Patel Ans is Sardar Patel

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Who.was the first president(temporary Chairman of the Assembly )of the Constituent Assembly when it met on December 9, 1946? Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first president (temporary chairman) of the Constituent Assembly when it met on December 9, 1946 after 2 days Dr.sinha died and Dr.Rajinder prasad was elected new president on 11 dec.1946. Subjects like marriage and divorce, adoption, succession, transfer of property, preventive detention, education, civil and criminal law, etc. in our Constitution are placed under which list? state list, state list consists of 61 items Articls 11 and article 12?? article 11-authorises the parliament to make laws for the right of citizenship article 12-defines the state National Development Council (NDC)? what is it? It studies and makes a report on the level of development of a nation. estd in 1950 by nehru.. it approves the planning commisions reports A quasi-federal form of government? what do u mean by this term? a quasi federal structure which is generally referred to indian form of govt is a special case of federal structure where all the conditions of federalism are not met such as in india the states are not united by any treaty or agreement .... Professor Harendra Coomar Mookerjee ? a very great name in indian constitution?? he was the vice president of the constituent assembly of india

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Constitution of India has undergone ... amendments in less than 60 years since its enactment.? 115 as of jan 2012 On 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with ........................ as the Chairman along with six other members. Dr Ambedkar A.V. Thakkar Sardar Patel ? Ans is dr ambedkar ........................is the guardian of the Constitution Prime Minister President Supreme Court of India ?? supreme court

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Judicial review is actually adopted in the Indian constitution from the constitution of the United States of America. In the Indian constitution, Judicial Review is dealt under Article....... ? India under Arts. 32 and 226 of the Constitution. In Judicial review is denoted by the writ system which functions in the Indian constitution, Judicial Review is dealt with under Article 13. Judicial Review refers that the Constitution is the supreme power of the nation and all laws are under its supremacy In addition to article 13, articles 32, 124, 131, 219, 228 and 246 provide a constitutional basis to the Judicial review in India. for eg., Article 226 empowers the High Courts to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights and for any other purpose also Which politician hold the record of becoming as chief minister and how many times jyoti basu. west bengal ... 27 yrs... **GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF INDIA (Charter Act of 1833) Lord William Bentinck 1833-1835 Earl of Dalhousie 1848-1856 Lord Canning 1856-1858 The pension of a high court judge is charged to the A. Consolidated Fund of India B. Consolidated Fund of the state where he last served C. Consolidated Funds of the different states where he has served D. Contingency Fund of India Ans is d What is the procedure for removal of CAG ?

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Impeachement, He is removed similar like that of judges of Sc or Hc The power to decide an election petition is vested in the A. Parliament B. Supreme Court C. High courts D. Election Commission depends upon the kind of election: if the election petition relates to elections to LS, RS, Legislative assembly & council... then it is high courts If it relates to president & VP election .. the only authority to decide on the petition is Supreme court. >>'SUPER CABINET' ..wats it ? there is a special team of some close allied of prime miniser to take crucial decisions of policy, development, etc. It is considered above cabinet committee often referred as 'super cabinet'. National Dev Council and Planning Comssion both r refereed to Super Cabinet manytimes >>Tendulkar committee .....comment on it?

It is to estimate poverty in the country. Its said that about 38% of the countrys population are living below poverty line. This figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of 28.5 % by the planning commission. Held in March 2009
1) Yashpal Committee Report:( It was .set up in 2008 for higher education and research. It has suggested the scrapping of all higher education regulatory /monitoring bodies and creation of a super regulation. It also recommended that the deemed university status be

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abandoned and that all deserving universities be either converted into full fledged universities or scrapped. (2) National Rural Livelihood Mission:Ministry of rural development and panchyati raj proposed to restructure the existing swarnjayanti gram swarojgar yojna into rural livelihood mission to have a focused approach to rural poverty eradication in a time bound manner. Objective is to reduce poverty among rural BPL by promoting diversified and gainful self employment and wage employment opportunities which would lead to an appreciable increase in sustainable basis. (3) NREGA Renamed After Mahatma Gandhi:On Oct 2, 2009. (4) Chandra Sheker Panel:- on the recomandation of a committee headed by cabinet secretary K.M Chander shaker. Centre had increased the pension for retired service man. (5) Rajiv Awas Yojna:Ministry of housing and urban poverty alleviation had launched the housing project called the Rajiv awas yojna for slum dwellers and the urban poor. Aimed at making India slum free in the next five years. (6) Government Gave 50% Womens Quota: For women in urban local bodies from 33 % to 50 % by the 108th const. amendment act.\ (7) B.K Chaturvedi panel to resolve the inter ministrial issues to speed up the ambitious national highways development project taken up by the road transport and highway ministry. (8) Librahan Commission:- It was set up in dec 16 ,1992 by the Narashima Rao

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govt. to probe the demolition of Babri Mosque.The commission was initially asked to give a report in three months, however it could do so only after over 16 years that saw 39 sitting and 48 extensions, finally on June 30 2009 it gave the report. (9) S.D. Tendulkar Committee:It is to estimate poverty in the country. Its said that about 38% of the countrys population are living below poverty line. This figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of 28.5 % by the planning commission. (10) Moily Panel:- For administrative reform commission it is the 2nd administrative reform commission. Bimal jalan commitee. ? A committee on the governance and ownership issues relating to market infrastructure institutions A.P. Shah committee ? a p shah commitee vas set up for state supression democratic rights of kundakulm,

If a Panchayat is dissolved, elections are to be held within. (a) 1 month (b) 3 months (c) 6 months (d) 1 year ? (c) Duration of Panchayats is five year. Fresh election to constitute a Panchayat shall be completed before the expiry of its term; or in case of dissolution before the expiry of a period of 6 months from the date of its dissolution.

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**Who is more powerfull between legislative and executive organ of govt. Legislative and Executive organs are mutually cooperative organs. One cannot sustain without the other. In the Parliamentary form of democracy parliament is the supreme body. None can overwhelm its place. Executive is nothing but the implementing agency of the legislature. But the recent developments like delegation of authority, the high technicality in the matters of legislations etc., make provisions for the supremacy of executive wing. But clearly legslature controls executive through resolutions, cut motions, committees etc., We can say that the gap between legislature and executive is narrowing but exeucitve is not more powerful than legislature who is more powerfull between legislature and judiciary organ. Judiciary is more powerful than legislature as the laws passed by the legislature are reviewed by the judiciary. Anand Marriage Act, 2012. ? recently pazsed by parliament it has codified procedure of sikh marriages which were earlier done acc. to hindu marriage laws..but other aspects including divorce succession etc are still acc. to hindu laws

what is Article 331?? president can nominate not more than two anglo indians to loksabha Who decides the number of Judges in a High Court ? (a) President (b) Parliament

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(c) State Government (d) Governor of the State Ans is a The president addresses both the Houses of Parliament assembled together A. during emergency session summoned for the purpose B. every session C. first session after each general election and the first session of each year D. any session C. first session after each general election and the first session of each year The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by A. the people B. Lok Sabha C. elected members of the legislative assembly D. elected members of the legislative council C. elected members of the legislative assembly The minimum number of members that must be present to hold the meeting of the Lok Sabha is A. one-fourth of the total membership B. one-tenth of the total membership of the Houses C. 50 percent strength of the Lok Sabha D. at least 100 members b.. quorrum must be maintained Preventive Detention for more than two months can be ordered by the recommendation of an Advisory Board whose chairman is (a) A judge of the Supreme Court

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(b) A Judge of a High Court (c) The President (d) The Chief Justice of India A Judge of a High Court **The Basel Committee, established by the..........................One important objective of the Committee's work has been to close gaps in international supervisory coverage in pursuit of two basic principles: that no foreign banking establishment should escape supervision; and that supervision should be adequate. BIS: banking for Int. Settlement **... ..Committee ws set up by the Ministry of Rural Development to advise it on d suitable methodology for BPL Census and not for estimation of poverty. The committee has suggested proportionate increase in the state level poverty estimates also.? ? arjun sen gupta committee The power of Judicial Review has been confered on the Supreme Court to check the arbitrary power of the (a) Executive (b) President (c) Parliament (d) Council of Minister Parliament >>If the parliament passes a law which is against the Constitution, it can be declared as unconstitutional by the (a) Chief Justice of India (b) A bench of High Court Judges (c) Supreme Court (d) President SC as guardian of Constitution

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>>The High Court dose not have the original jurisdiction in matters relating to (a) Civil and Criminal cases decided by subordinate court (b) Fundamental Rights (c) State revenue and its collection (d) Divorce and marriage Ans is (a) Civil and Criminal cases decided by subordinate court Which of the following types of Judicial system dose India Posssess ? (a) Double judicial set up (b) Single Court set up (c) Federal Judicial system (d) Single Judicial Hierarchy Ans is d Which of the following has the right to revise its earlier dicisions ? (a) Only Supreme Court (b) None of these C)Only High Court (d) Both the Supreme Court and High Court only Supreme court has Revisory Jurisdiction, as mentioned in article137. HC doesnt posses any such type of jurisdiction . option a). The Parliament enjoys legislative power over subjects in A. the union list only B. the concurrent list only C. both union and concurrent list D. all the three lists, viz. union list, state list and the concurrent list C. both union and concurrent list Who among the following is mainly concerned with the task of the assessment of the land revenue and property taxes ?

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(a) Commissioner (b) Collector (c) Naib Tehsildar (d) Tehsildar Tehsildar is the right ans State shall preserve and improve the breeds and prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves and other cows and drought cattle........is Articke number .......? Article 48 in constitution of india 1949 difference between Attorney General nd solicitor general both are law officers.. attorney general is a constitutional post whereas solicitor general is nt constitutional one.. sg assists the ag.. AG is the highest law officer of nation. Who among the following has the Constitutional authority to make rules regarding the manner of enforcing for orders of the Supreme Court ? (a) Attorney General of Indiab)Union Law Minister (c) President (d) Chief Justice of India Art 142 states that the orders passed by the SC shall be made enforceable in a manner prescribed by law passed by legislature.. but until such provision is made,the orders are to be enforceable by the presidential order. So the answer is C! A civil case become a fit case for appeal to the Supreme Court if (a) It involves a point of Constitutional law (b) The case had come to the High Court under an appeal from a subordinate court (c) It involves a sum of money over Rs 10,000

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(d) The High Court certifies that it involve a point of law and needs interpretation of the constitution The High Court certifies that it involve a point of law and needs interpretation of the constitution The first Law commission was set up in (a) 1955 (b) 1947 (c) 1975 (d) 1965 1955 The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President (a) In consulation with the Judges of the supreme court and the High Court (b) Alone (c) In consulation with the Governor (d) In consulation with the Judges of the supreme court alone Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall beappointed by the President by warrant under his handand seal after consultation with such of the Judges of theSupreme Court and of the High Courts in the States asthe President may deem necessary for the purpose so the ans is A.

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Q 1. Which authority conducts elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President of India ?

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Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) Under Article 324(1) of the Constitution of India, the Election Commission of India, interalia, is vested with the power of superintendence, direction and control of conducting the elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President of India. Detailed provisions are made under the Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Act, 1952 and the rules made thereunder. Q 2. Which authority conducts elections to Parliament? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) The same Article 324 also vests in the Commission the powers of superintendence, direction and control of the elections to both Houses of Parliament. Detailed provisions are made under the Representation of the People Act, 1951 and the rules made thereunder. Q 3. Which authority conducts elections to the State Legislative Assemblies and Legislative Councils? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) Article 324 (1) also vests in the Commission the powers of superintendence, direction and control of the elections to both Houses of the State Legislature. Detailed provisions are made under the Representation of the People Act, 1951 and the rules made thereunder. Q 4. Which authority conducts elections to Corporations, Municipalities and other Local Bodies ? Ans. The State Election Commissions (SECs) The State Election Commissions constituted under the Constitution

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(Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth) Amendments Act, 1992 for each State / Union Territory are vested with the powers of conduct of elections to the Corporations, Muncipalities, Zilla Parishads, District Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis, Gram Panchayats and other local bodies. They are independent of the Election Commission of India. Q 5. What is the present composition of the Election Commission? Ans. A Three - Member Body At present, the Election Commission of India is a three-member body, with one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Q 6. Has the Election Commission been a multi-member body from the beginning? Ans. No. It was not a multi member body from the beginning. It was a single member body when it was first set up in 1950 and up to 15th October, 1989 with only the Chief Election Commissioner. From 16th October, 1989 upto the 1st January, 1990, it became a three-member body with R.V.S.Peri Sastri (C.E.C) and S.S.Dhanoa and V.S.Seigell as Election Commissioners. From 2nd January, 1990 to 30th September, 1993, it was a single-member Commission and again from 1st October, 1993 it has become a three-member Commission. Q 7. What is the status Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners in terms of salaries and allowances etc.? Ans. Equivalent to Supreme Court Judges. The Chief Election Commissioner and the two Election Commissioners draw salaries and allowances at par with those of the Judges of the Supreme Court of India as provided for by the Chief Election

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Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Rules, 1992. Q 8. What is the term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner? Is it different from the Election Commissioners? Ans. The Chief Election Commissioner or an Election Commissioner holds office for a term of six years from the date on which he assumes his office. However, where the Chief Election Commissioner or an Election Commissioner attains the age of sixty-five years before the expiry of the said term of six years, he shall vacate his office on the the date on which he attains sixty-five years of age. Q 9. When the Commissioner becomes a multi-member Commission, how are the decisions taken, whether by majority or by consensus? Ans. Section 10 of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Amendment Act, 1993 is reproduced below:(1) The Election Commission may be by unanimous decision, regulate the procedure for transaction of to business as also allocation of its business amongst the Chief Election Commissioner and their Election Commissioners. (2) Save as provided in sub section (i) all business of the Election Commission shall, as far as possible, be transacted unanimously. (3) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (ii), if the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners differ in opinion on any matter, such matter shall be decided by according to the opinion of the majority. Q 10. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioners and Election Commissioners? Ans. The President.

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Under Article 324(2) of the Constitution of India, the President of India is empowered to appoint the Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners. Q 11. Who fixes the number of Election Commissioners (other than Chief Election Commissioner)? Ans. The President. Article 324(2) also empowers the President of India to fix from time to time the number of Election Commissioners other than the Chief Election Commissioner. Q 12. Who supervises the election work in a State ? Ans. The Chief Electoral Officer (CEO). As per section 13A of the Representation of the People Act 1950, read with section 20 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the Chief Electoral Officer of a State/ Union Territory is authorised to supervise the election work in the State/Union Territory subject to the overall superintendence, direction and control of the Election Commission. Q 13. Who appoints the Chief Electoral Officer? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an Officer of the Government of the State/Union Territory as the Chief Electoral Officer in consultation with that State Government/Union Territory Administration. Q 14. Who supervises the election work in a District? Ans. The District Election Officer (DEO)

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As per section 13AA of the Representation of the People Act 1950, subject to the superintendence, direction and control of the Chief Electoral Officer, the District Election Officer supervises the election work of a district. Q 15. Who appoints the District Election Officer? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI). The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an Officer of the State Government as the District Election Officer in consultation with the State Government. Q 16. Who is responsible for the conduct of elections in any Parliamentary or Assembly constituency ? Ans. Returning Officer (RO) The Returning Officer of a parliamentary or assembly constituency is responsible for the conduct of elections in the parliamentary or assembly constituency concerned as per section 21 of the Representation of the People Act 1951. Q 17. Who appoints the Returning Officer? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an officer of the Government or a local authority as the Returning Officer for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies in consultation with the State Government/Union Territory Administration. In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more Assistant Returning Officers for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies to assist the Returning Officer in the performance of his

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functions in connection with the conduct of elections. Q 18. Who is responsible for the preparation of electoral rolls for a Parliamentary or Assembly Constituency? Ans. Electoral Registration Officer (ERO) The Electoral Registration officer is responsible for the preparation of electoral rolls for a parliamentary / assembly constituency. Q 19. Who conducts the poll at a polling station? Ans. Presiding Officer The Presiding Officer with the assistance of polling officers conducts the poll at a polling station. Q 20. Who appoints the Electoral Registration officer? Ans. Under section 13B of the Representation of the People Act, 1950, the Election Commission of India, in consultation with the State / UT Government, appoints an Officer of the Government or the Local Authorities as the Electoral Registration Officer. In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more Assistant Electoral Registration Officers to assist the Electoral Registration Officer in the performance of his functions in the matter of preparation / revision of electoral rolls. Q 21. Who appoints Presiding Officers and Polling Officers? Ans. District Election Officer (DEO) Under section 26 of the Representation of the People Act 1951, the District Election Officer appoints the Presiding Officers and the Polling Officers. In the case of Union Territories, such appointments are made

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by the Returning Officers. Q 22. Who appoints Observers? Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI) Under section 20B of the Representationof the People Act 1951, the Election Commission of India nominates officers of Government as Observers (General Observers and Election Expenditure Observers) for parliamentary and assembly constituencies. They perform such functions as are entrusted to them by the Commission. Earlier, the appointment of Observers was made under the plenary powers of the Commission. But with the amendments made to the Representation of the People Act, 1951 in 1996, these are now statutory appointments. They report directly to the Commission. The power to decide an election petition in India is vested in the ________ ? Election Petitions under Part III of the Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Act, 1952 are also filed directly in the Supreme Court. supereme court is the ans all the disputes that arose in the election of President of India shall be resolved in the Supreme court of India, because the election is dealt not only Parliament, but every state would participate in the election. Supreme Court primary jurisdiction is acting as federal court. Hence it should be dealt by supreme court Article 71 - All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.

>>Which of the following does not come under legislative control over administration? 1 Adjournment motion 2 Budget session

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3 Formulation of a Bill 4 Zero hour budget session The First Election Commissioner of India was 1 Dr.Nagendra Singh 2 S.P.Sen Verma 3 Sukumar Sen 4 K.V.K.Sundaram 3 Sukumar Sen is the ans. >>By whom and on whose advice is the State Council of Ministers appointed? By governor on advice of CM >>Who treated as Soverign in in the constitution of India Prime Minister of India President of India Parliament of India The People The people is the right ans. >>In India,the Governor of the states are appointed by The Prime Minister The Parliament The Chief Ministers The President President is the ans >>Who was responsible for the superintendence,control and conduct of elections to parliament and State Legislature The Central Government The State Government

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The Election Commission of India The President of India The Election Commission of India How many Fundamental Duties have been enumerated in the constitution of India 10 9 11 12 first it was10 then art. 51a(k) was added later on for rte...now 11 i 86th amendment The Chairman of the Finance Commission must be 1 An Economist of high calibre 2 A person having experience in Public Affairs 3 An expert from Judiciary-level of High Court Judge 4 A person of Finance and Banking field 2 A person having experience in Public Affairs From which fund can the unanticipated expenditure be met without the prior approval of the Parliament? 1 Vote-on-Account 2 Consolidated Fund of India 3 From the Treasury 4 Contingency Fund of India 4 Contingency Fund of India Who is the Chief Law Officer of India? 1 Advocate General 2 Solicitor General 3 Secretary, Law Department 4 Attorney General 4 Attorney General art 76

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Which of the following bills cannot be introduced first in the Rajya Sabha? 1 Bill bringing a State under the President's rule 2 Money Bill 3 Bill pertaining to the removal of the President by impeachment 4 Bill proclaiming all the State of emergency arising out of war or external aggression. 2 Money Bill.... ,Article 118... Money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha. He Lok sabha passes it then Rajya Sabha has to

Indian Constitution was Inaugurated on Jan 26,1947 Jan 26,1949 Jan 26,1950 Jan 27,1949 26 Jan 1949 by B R Ambedkar The work of General Purpose Committe is to advise The president The vice-president The speaker The Prime Minister The speaker article 51A is.......? to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem.. The Constitution of India provides a Presidential form Govt Parliamentry System

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Cabinet System of Government Bicameral System of government Parliamentry System Mr.P.V.Narashima Rao is the--------- Prime Minister of India Seventh Fifth Sixth Ninth Ninth is the ans Secularism means (a) Suppression of all religions (b) A system of politics (c) Separation of religion from State (d) Freedom of worship to minorities its C dts d meaning of secularism in refernce of our constitution ..... explain the term 'Plural Executive' ? Plural executive is merit of parliamentary system of government.Unlike US,where executive power is vestd in single person (i.e prez) only,in india it lies with the council of ministers or more specificaly with the cabinet,thus it checks the autocratic or despotic tendancies of executive....! /, , (a) .. (b) . (c) . (d) ..

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. ART.199 -money bill(state legislature) ART.161 -govrnr pardonin power. ART.200- assent of bills(state.L) ART.110 money bill(union.L) ART 112 N 202 Annual financial statement (for union n state resp) article 110 talk about about money bill .....same way article 109 talk about? Special procedure in respect of Money Bill. It reads as A money bill shall not be introduced in the council of states After a Money bill has been passed by the House of the people it shall be transmitted to the Council of states for its recommendations and the council of states shall within a period of fourteen days from the date of its receipt of the Bill return the Bill to the House of the people with its recommendations and the House of the people may there upon either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the council of states If the House of the people accepts any of the recommendations of the council of states, the money bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses with the amendments recommended by the council of states and accepted by teh house of the people

Which of the following is not a basic feature of the Indian Constitution ? (a) Presidential Government (b) Liberty (c) Parliamentary Government (d) Federal Government

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answer shud b a..as ours is parliamentry system of govt...fedralism is dere in our constitution as it is said dat structure of constitution is fedral but its working is quasi fedral... Presidential Government >>Which is not a function of the Constitution ? (a) It lays down the limits of governmental authority. (b) It strengthens the hands of rulers to rule according to their discretion. (c) It acts as a source of power and authority of the government. (d) It minimizes confusion and conflict between various organs of government. b) It strengthens the hands of rulers to rule according to their ( discretion. Is the ans. >>The part of the Constitution that reflects the mind and ideals of the farmers is (a) Directive Principles (b) Citizenship (c) Fundamental Rights (d) Preamble Directive Principles >>The source of India's sovereignty lies in the (a) People of India (b) Preamble to the Constitution (c) President of U.S.A. (d) Prime Minister Preamble to the Constitution Separation of the Judiciary from the Executive is enjoined by (a) Seventh Schedule (b) Judicial decision

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(c) Directive Principle (d) Preamble the answer is c)... art 50 (DPSP) calls for separation of judiciary from executive What is the Anti-Defection Law? The Tenth Schedule popularly known as the Anti-Defection Act was included in the Constitution in 1985 by the Rajiv Gandhi ministry and sets the provisions for disqualification of elected members on the grounds of defection to another political party. The law was added via the 52nd Amendment Act, 1985, soon after the Rajiv government came to power with a thumping majority in the wake of the assassination of prime minister Indira Gandhi. The Congress had won 401 seats in the Lok Sabha. articles coverd 102 n 191 the word Economic Justice is found in (a) Preamble (b) Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles (c) Preamble, Fundamental Rights (d) Preamble, Directive Principles Preamble, Directive Principles is the ans. The Indian Constitution is regarded as (a) Parliamentary (b) Federal in form and Unitary in spirit (c) Federal (d) Unitary (b) Federal in form and Unitary in spirit Which of the following does not conform to the Parliament system prevalent in India (a) Plural Executive

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(b) Collective Responsibility (c) Separation of powers (d) Muliparty system Plural Executive There is a Parliamentary system of government in India because (a) The Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people (b) The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved (c) The Parliament can amend the Constituiton (d) The Council of Ministers is responsible in the Lok Sabha Ans is d article 75 At the time of enactment of the Constitution which one of the following ideals was not include in the Preamble ? (a) Equality (b) Liberty (c) Justice (d) Socialist ans is d included in 42 amendment.... The concept of welfare state is included in which part of the Indian Constitution ? (a) Directive Principles of State Policy (b) 4th Schedule of the Constitution (c) The Preamble of the Constitution (d) Fundamental Rights Ans is a What does the term sovereignity Signify ? (a) Freedom from legal constraints (b) Freedom from feudal rule (c) Freedom from military rule (d) Freedom from British rule

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(b) Freedom from feudal rule Which of the following features of the Constitution of India does not resemble the American Constitution ? (a) Fundamental Rights (b) Parliamental form of Government (c) Written Constitution (d) Federal form of government Parliamentary form of govt is the right answer as United states follow Presidential form of govt. Which of the following is a feature of the Parliamentary form of Government ? (a) Legislature is responsible to Executive (b) Executive is responsible to Legislature (c) Executive is responsible to Judiciary (d) Judiciary is responsible to Executive c....is the ans .. point of order-: a debate whether the correct procedure is called or not. It checks the proceedings are managed according to the Parliament procedure or deviated from it.. CJI-1 lac : President-1.5 lac :Vice-P 1.25 lac : Governer-1.10 lac : Other judge of supreme court-90,000 Vice President gets salary for which pos.? chairman of Rajyasabha (Article 89) Part V art 90------ it deals with the resignation of Rajya sabha chairman Vice Pres has to deposit hw much fr election as security 15000.

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7th Schedule ? concurrent list Union list(97), State list(66), Concurrent list(47).. :) Wen cn mney b drawn frm Consolidted fund of India from unseeen and unexpected expenses like natural disaster on the permission of president. But later the approval has to be taken for parliament Tarapore Committee recommendatiions ?? recomended capital accout convertibility. Guillotine--- Voting of demands is alloted 26 days of time after which speaker of lok sabha on the last day puts up all the daemands at once to vote n dispose the off whther discussed or not...This is guillotine.. dr.guillotine invented guillotine.. at d tym of old regime in france... it was used to de-head d culprits If u say against SC ..i mean court of contmpt..toh kya saja hoti hai ? It depand on justice if a person apololise than they free of without any charge but last case a was contampt of court they punished 2 months jail and 2000 rs. The Speaker cn prorouge the loksabha..true or flse The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. Frst Opposition leader of LS was ? akg from ..communist party .

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Rural sanitation is in Concurrent list..true or flse t What is Inclusive Governance.? Inclusive Government means when the government works for all society and relgeion and towards the one caste,commnunity and greed] it includes the opinions of all in collectiveness it is +ve n nature not negative it provides vent to everyone Webley Commission was setup for wat reason ? Moderates ki maang par to chck expnditure it was setup Janani Suraksha Yojana is Centr as lly sponsored 100 %..t/f ? JSY is a 100 % centrally sponsored scheme and it integrates cash assistance with delivery and post-delivery care. first Attorney General for India ? M.C. Setalvad was the first Attorney General of India. He served from 1950 till 1963. He was also the Chairman of the first Law Commission of independent India which was established in 1955.

Peel Commission ? Commission set up by england to demarcate the boundaries between the lands of jews and the arabians in palestine. Narasimham Committee ?/? Narasimhan committee pertains to banking sector reforms. It is appointed twice under the same person.

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The first committee was appointed in 1991 and the second committee was appointed in 1988 Narasimhan committee I - recommended reduction of SLR and CRR. The interest rate shall be done by the market forces, not by the authorities, banking sector shall be reorgnized, Three to four big banks including SBI should be developed as international banks. Eight to Ten Banks having nationwide presence should concentrate on the national and universal banking services. Local banks should concentrate on region specific banking. Regarding the RRBs (Regional Rural Banks), it recommended that they should focus on agriculture and rural financing. The committee recommended the establishment of an Asset Reconstruction Fund (ARF). It recommended that the RBI should be the only main agency to regulate banking in India. Narasimhan Committee II recommendations - it recommended 'Narrow Banking Concept' where weak banks will be allowed to place their funds only in short term and risk free assets. It suggested again the merger of weaker banks into larger banks. It recommended to raise the CAR.The committee considered that there was an urgent need for reviewing and amending main laws governing Indian Banking Industry like RBI Act, Banking Regulation Act, State Bank of India Act, Bank Nationalisation Act, etc

Bansal Committee ? Relating to education or below 6 years of age What is Shyamal sen committee all about ? Shyamal Sen Committee was appointed by the Government of West Bengal to look into the demand for the incorporation of parts of Dooars Terai in the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration..

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NCRWC ? National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution. Constituted in 2002 .. what do u mean by federal and non federal charactrrs of the indian constitution ? explain with example Federal features like two governments i.e. state and Central government, lengthiest written constitution, the supremacy of the constitution, rigidity in the amendment procedure of the constitution, independent judiciary and bicameral legislature. Strong centre, single constitution, single citizenship, flexibility of the amendment procedure, integrated judiciary system, appointment of government by the centrl government, all India civil services, emergency provisions etc That's Y KC wheare described Indian constitution as Quasi federal ARTICLE 101 IS DEALS WID ? vacancy of seats in parliamanet No person shall be a member of both housesof the Parliament or the state legislature The minimum age required for election to RajyaSabha is? 25 years 30 years 35 years 32 years ? yes..............for lok sabhha---25 year rajya sabha ---30 year president ---35 year Shyamal sen committee

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Related to inclusion of mouzas in the dooars and tarai area into GTA. this committe headed by kolkata high court judge shyamal sen, advocated to include 05 mouzas of the said area into the GTA. Rangrajan committee was setup for ? Financial Inclusion

"Swabhiman Scheme ? Financial inclusion of about 5cr households. Whose name is closely associated with the concept of "Pani Panchayat"? A) Markand Khanna B) Arvind Kejriwal C) Medha Patkar D) Anna Hazare E) Vilasrao Salunkhe E) Vilasrao Salunkhe State Great Hural? mangolian electorial house why is article 79 important in indian constitution As per Article 79 ------, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) ----------- provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his/her functions in accordance to the advice

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Article 155. The Governor of State shall be appointed by the President by ............... under his hand and seal. a. Warrant b. Order c. Announcement d. Resolution Warrant

lokpal ki avdharna ko konsi country se liya he ? Please explain in detail concept of ombudsman from scandinavian countries. Sweden is the first country who used this concept Norway is the first country n the world which used the concept for children In India ARC (1966) suggested and the first bill for Lokpal was introduced in the year 1968 ..shanti bhushan introduce it Article 148 ????? There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court Article 141: The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the..................... a. Country b. Territory of India c. Indian Territory d. Jurisdiction of India The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts

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within the territory of india..

Article 131(1)(c): Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute - between .............................. a. two or more States b. three or more States c. two States d. three States a....two or more States It says the original jurisdiction of the court - 131(a) - between the Government of India and one or more states; or (b) between teh Governemnt of India and any state or states on one side and one or more other states on the other; or (c) between two or more states, if and in so far as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of legal right depends; Article 312 provides that an All India Service can be created only if the Council of State/Rajyasabha declares by a resolution supported by not less than a two-thirds majority that it is necessary in the national interest to create one or more such All India Services. Controller General of accounts??? Controller General of Accounts is the principal Accounts Adviser to the Government of India and is responsible for establishing and maintaining a technically sound management accounting system. He prepares a critical analysis of expenditures, revenues, borrowings and the deficit for the Finance Minister every month. He also prepares annual Appropriation Accounts and Union Finance

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Accounts for presentation to the parliament. Shri C.R. SUNDARAMURTI, ICAS is the CGA. Set up in 1975, in dept of expenditure, in MoF.

Which of these committees was related with the policies and programme for Agriculture? A) Bhanu Pratap Singh Committee B) Agarwal Committee C) Wanchoo Committee D) Boothalingam Committee Bhanu Pratap Singh Committee -------is related to policies and programme for Agriculture? Wanchoo Committee:-------------- is for tax inquiry Tax enquiry Aggarwal Committee:----- Nepotism in granting petrol pump, LPG connections What is the difference between high commission and embassy??? in terms of status they are same for Commonwealth Countries we use High Commission for non commonwealth we use embassy, for US we have embassy and for UK we have high commission

The writ of mandamus cannot be granted against certain persons. Who are they? Mandamus can not be issued against the private persons or organisation; judges of the courts when working in the capacity of the judge; the governor of a state or the president of india.

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In the parliament terminology, what is the meaning of "Closure"? end of debate on a motion Article 326 of Indian Constitution originally granted electoral franchise to every Indian Citizen who has not been declared a bankrupt, criminal, insane, or a non resident and has attained age of ____________years? orginally it was 21 yrs nd then by 61st 1989 it z reducd to 18 yrs No amount from the "Consolidated Fund of India" can be withdrawn without the authorization from _________? Parliament of India Government of India owns a bank account. In this bank account, all the money generated from various sources will be deposited. It is levying of taxes, profit from Public Sector Undertakings and other revenues are kept in this bank account.This bank account of government is considered as Consolidated Fund of India . To withdraw the amount, it is not possible without the permission of Parliament. Parliament means Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and President. This trinity is considered as Parliament. The time of withdrawl is at the time of Budget. Budget is a procedure to withdraw the generated money for useful purposes The " Contingency Fund of India" was constituted by an act called " Contingency Fund of India Act ___________? (A)1950 (B)1959 (C)1960 1950

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THE CONTINGENCY FUND OF INDIA ACT, 1950 ACT NO. 49 OF 1950 1 [ 14th August, 1950.] An Act to provide for the establishment and maintenance of Contingency Fund. BE it enacted by Parliament as follows:-1. Short title. This Act may be called the Contingency Fund of India Act, 1950 . 2. Establishment of the Contingency Fund of India. There shall be established a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest entitled the Contingency Fund of India, into which shall be paid from and out of the Consolidated Fund of India a sum of 2[ fifty crores of rupees]: 3[ Provided that during the period beginning on the 22nd day of October, 1979 and ending on the 31st day of March, 1980 , this section shall have effect subject to the modification that for the words" fifty crores of rupees", the words" one hundred and fifty crores of rupees"] 4[ 3. Custody of the Contingency Fund and withdrawals therefrom. The Contingency Fund of India shall be held on behalf of the President by a Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance, and no advances shall be made out of such fund except for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorization of such expenditure by Parliament under appropriations made by law. 4. Power to make rules[ (1) ] 5[ For the purpose of carrying out the objects of this Act, the Central Government may 6[ , by notification in the Official Gazette,] make rules 7[ regulating all matters connected with or ancillary to the custody of, the payment of moneys into and the withdrawal of moneys from, the Contingency Fund of India. (2) 6[ Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it isin session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions. and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudiceto the validity of anything

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previously done under that rule."]

Butler committee report ? The committee was set up in 1927 to report about the extent of sovereignty and paramountcy but the report left it still undefined. . overeignty and paramountcy means british empire and queen, its about the mutual relations between states and queen its a three member committee consisting of butler, WS Holdworth, and SC peel it is appointed to enquire the relatonship bet the indian states and the parmountcy power and to suggest ways and means for a more satisfactory adjustment of the existing economic relations between them and british india ***offcially called Indian states committee ***it visited 16 states and submitted its report in 1929 Which is the highest body that approves a Five year Plan (A)Ministry of Finance (B)Lok Sabha (C)National Development Council ans is C first it shall be approved by the Planning Commissionthen it goes to the NDC because in NDC more members are there so it takes the approval of NDC and then it goes to Parliament for fnal approval It was under the PM It includes all the Union ministers, CMS of all states and UTS and members of the planning commission it shall be approved by all the members of the NDC ministry of Finance is just an instrument to present budget

Vaidyanath Committee sat for ? strengthen rural cooperative credit institutions Article 18 of the Indian Constitution deals with what?

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Abolition of Titles: Article 18 of the constitution prohibits the State from conferring any titles. Citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign State.The British government had created an aristocratic class known as Rai Bahadurs and Khan Bahadurs in India these titles were also abolished. However, Military and academic distinctions can be conferred on the citizens of India. The awards of Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan cannot be used by the recipient as a title and do not, accordingly, come within the constitutional prohibition". The Supreme Court, on 15 December 1995, upheld the validity of such awards. What happened wit VV Giri in 1969 wit repct to Presidntial elctions ? V V Giri who was holding the office as acting president after the death of Zakir Hussain wanted to continue the office after the elections... but there was contorversy in the congress party as party chief wanted neelan sanjeeva reddy to be the candidate but Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's choice was V V Giri and ultimately he became the 4th president of india Apart frm JK ..which states hv special status ? article 370 of constitution have info abt this j&k only **371A says nagaland

JK has a legislativ council...they hv 36 members..hw r thy elcted ? Of the 36 seats, six are filled by nominees of the state governor. 21 members are nominees of the Legislative Assembly. Local bodies such as zila parishads and municipal bodies are entitled to elect seven members.Certified teaching professionals with a minimum of three years experience in a secondary-level institution are eligible elect two members.

HORSE-TRDING...---: MLAs trading yar when the government collapses then the new government shall form then the MLAs are treated as horses the people from new government would purchase them

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floor crossing means they vote to another party in crucial times it is mentioned in Anti defection law of Schedule X-: .its mentioned in shedule 10th of Indian constitution acc to which if a member defects from his party to some other party he is disqualified by the Speaker. What is Article 19 ? Right to equality

Can NRIs vote in elections in India ? Gv details Yes they can bcoz they r the citizens of the country,every citizen has right to vote

Who is a LokSabha Secretariat ? What r his duties nd power ? T.K.Vishwanath ..The Lok Sabha Secretariat is an independent body which functions under the ultimate guidance and control of the Hon'ble Speaker, Lok Sabha. In the discharge of his Constitutional and statutory responsibilities The Secretary-General shall make every effort to circulate to each member a copy of every notice or other paper which is required by these rules to be made available for the use of members. (2) A notice or other paper shall be deemed to have been made available for the use of every member if a copy thereof is deposited in such manner and in such place as the Speaker may, from time to time, direct. All the departmental procedure is done through him

What is Contingency Fund of India ? contingency fund is under the president of India to meet the emergency expenditure Article 267 (1) deals with this 500 crores are kept as corpus fund **In 2005, it was raised from 50 to Rs 500 crore The secretary to the govt of India, Ministry of Finance, Department of

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economic affairs will act on behalf of president of India **wthout the authorization of the Parliament ths fund cannot be utilized

In which state Presidntial rule was frst imposed ? Kerala Kerala on July 31, 1959. in 1960 it is ended Namboodri pad's government was first abolished under president's rulein 1959 it is done under Jawaharlal Nehru itself

Largest Legislativ Council in which state ? Up with 80 seats

Which President in India died in office ? late Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed also....wid Late Zakir Hussain..

First Dalit Chief Minister in ny state in India ? Damodaram Sanjivayya of Andhra Pradesh from 1960 to 1962...:) Final Authority to interpret the Constiturtion rests wit ? Supreme court is the custodian and guardian of Indian constitution. What is a cumulative voting Plan ? if there are five contestants then every voter has five votes ,he can either choose to cast in the favour of only one candidate in such a case the candidate will get all the five votes or he can also vote for multiple candidates inturn each one of them getting one of his votes..!

Swaran Singh Committee recommnded ? swaransingh committee recommended the fundamental duties and the major

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recommendations for the 42nd amendment in 1976 and indira Gandhi

Utopia...synon ? Heaven,this word is mostly in political science

Difference between Committee nd Commission is ? A committee is a group of people who work according to fixed rules in order to make a decision or produce a document as a group...... A commission is a group of people who are entrusted by a government to carry out a task. Give types of unemploymnt nd explain them ? Structural,Disguised,cyclical,seasonal,underemployment,open,voluntary,involu ntary unemployments.Structural,Disguised,cyclical,seasonal,underemployment,open ,voluntary,involuntary unemployments.Structural,Disguised,cyclical,seasonal,underemployment,open ,voluntary,involuntary unemployments.Structural,Disguised,cyclical,seasonal,underemployment,open ,voluntary,involuntary unemployments.Top of Form Structural,Disguised,cyclical,seasonal,underemployment,open,voluntary,involu ntary unemployments. The prime minister of India is not the head/ chairman of the following? (A)Planning Commission (B)National Defense Fund (C)National Relief Fund (D)Department of Atomic Energy (E)National Productivity Council National Productivity Council-: NPC is a national level organization under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, providing training, consultancy and undertaking research in the area of productivity. It also promotes enhancement of productivity culture in the Nation. In 1958

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In the wake of the sarkaria commission report, which state suggested the abolition of the office of the governor? (A)Karnataka (B)Andhra Pradesh (C)Tamilnadu (D)Kerala (E)Gujarat Andhra Pradesh first Chief Minister since independence who constituted a committee viz Rajamannar Committee (1969) to study the centre state relations and submit an official report on state autonomy. In April 1974, Dr. Kalaignar introduced an epoch-making resolution in Tamil Nadu Assembly, advocating more powers for the states based on the recommendations of Rajamannar Committee.

The CAG cannot be removed from office other than through a procedure of impeachment similar to what is applicable to a Judge of the Supreme Court of India The Constitution of India [Article 148] provides for an independent office to the CAG of India. He/she is the head of Indian Audit and Accounts Department. His/her duty is to uphold the constitution of India and laws of the Parliament in the field of financial administration. Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has been appointed as external auditor of three major UN organisations, the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Genevabased World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)and World Food Organisation(WFO). Comptroller and Auditor General of India Vinod Rai has been elected the Chairman of the United Nations' panel of external auditors. Article 149 {Duties and powers of the Comptroller and AuditorGeneral}

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The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively. V. Narahari Rao was the first CAG of INDIA...now itzz VINOD RAI ! Article 98 {Secretariat of Parliament} ---Each House of Parliament shall have a separate secretarial staff: Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses of Parliament. ----Parliament may by law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to the secretarial staff of either House of Parliament. ---Until provision is made by Parliament under clause (2), the President may, after consultation with the Speaker of the House of the People or the Chairman of the Council of States, as the case may be, make rules regulating the recruitment, and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to the secretarial staff of the House of the People or the Council of States, and any rules so made shall have effect subject to the provisions of any law made under the said clause.

Article 63 {The Vice-President Of India} There shall be a Vice-President of India.

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PMO is to promote ..river based industrial corrider...tell abt it ? Pmo hs identified nw1(varanasi -haldiya strech of ganga) ,nw2(the brahamputra in asam) nw3(inland strech kerla) *nw-national waterways Public Distribution System(PDS) is operated under the responsibility of the: 1.Central Government 2.State Governments [A]Only 1 [B]Only 2 [C]Both 1 and 2 [D]Neither 1 nor 2 Both 1 and 2 PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central and the State Governments.The Central government through FCI has the following responsibilities: 1. Procurement, storage, transportation of food grains 2.Bulk allocation of food grains to the State Governments. The State Government's responsibility is operational. They are as follows:Identification of families below the poverty line, Issue of Ration Cards,Supervision of the functioning of Fair Price Shops.

Article 16 (4) ? quota in promotion on consensual basis Article 16 of Indian constitution provides "Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment" 16(4) states that Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State. Notable

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point is that it provide for reservation only in appointment and not in promotion. Now Govt. wants to ammend the provision and introduce reservation in promotions also. What is sine die..why in newz ? Adjournment sine die means "adjournment without assigning a day for a further meeting or hearing."This is in news because of the interruptons in smooth running of Lok Sabha, The question arises " Whether It will will be adjourned sine-die?" But govt. has come with a statement that there is no such situation. What is AFFIDAVIT ? The word affidavit has been directly lifted from Latin, and it means that someone has pledged their faith in full knowledge of the law. An affidavit is a written declaration which is accompanied by an oath or affirmation indicating that the contents of the affidavit are true. We make an affidavit in connection with a court case, or in support of something like a mortgage application.

Mukhyamantri Teertha Darshan Yojana ? by m.p. goverment, first train was on 3sep for Rameswarm.....it is for those ppl who's 60+, What is Adminisrative Adjudication ? It is an third party intervention which has legal power to decide the case, and give award ( a decision ) which is binding on the parties in the dispute. EX - State tribunal and Labour Court ( as per Industrial Disputes Act ) It is third state in resolution of dispute after private discussion ( 1st step ) and Concillation ( 2nd step, intervention by third person, who is known by both parties ) Hoover Commission ? Hoover Commission, formally Commission on Organization of the U.S.

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Executive Branch, (194749, 195355), either of two temporary advisory bodies, both headed by the former president Herbert Hoover. He was a prominent educationist na IAS , edu secy at one point of tme...pioneer of Lok Jumbish..died yest...name him Anil bordia..... honoured with Padma Bhushan in 2010 and UNESCO award "Avicenna Gold Medal"for his recognization in the field of Education;.....He was the Head of the committee which gave the report on RTE;...and I have a proud that he did his schooling from Vidhya Bhavan ,Udaipur and college from M B Science Udaipur City from which i belong to. Formation of NIA is unconstitutional ? Cmmnt Yes it was. Difference between IG nd DGP of Police ? IG is the inspector general of police whose duty is to control zone in the state , n ig is the head of administrative division , whereas DGP is the director general of police who is the head of state police department, n whose duty is to control all the state, n he can charge to the governor ,cm, if they did any wrong for state Explain how v r following the same Police System as v follwed during the British period ? indian police is legally more of a ENFORCEMENT function, than of a Policing function. The act enacted in 1870, still is in followment. Food for Work programme was renamed as ? National rural employment programme (NREP) priority will be accorded to works for the development of waste lands and marginal lands allotted under land reform measures, renovation of derelict tanks for large-scale development of fisheries with the target- group orientation, social forestry including fuel and energy plantations, fodder and pasture development and roadside plantations with maximum involvement of the

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target-groups in their management coupled with nursery development of target-group land-holders........

What is Twenty Point Programme in Indian cntxt ? Eight five year plan consists of 20 main points Diffrnce between Jawahar Rojgar Yojana nd Nehru Rojgar Yojana ? Jawahar is fr rural employmnt nd Nehru is fr.urbn emplymnt

Wadhwa Commission was setup fr ? murder of austrelian missionary..Graham stein Any Body expalin the difference between REPUBLIC & DEMOCRACY???? In a democracy the majority has unlimited power over the Minority. this system of government does not provide a legal safeguard of the rights of the individual and the minority. it has been referred to as majority over man.........in a repu blic the majority is limited and constrained by a written Constitution which protects the rights of the individual and the minority. the purpose of a Republic form of government is to control the Majority and to protect the God-given, inalienable rights and liberty of the individual.........u.s.a had been founded as a republic under constitution..........

1st amendment June 18, 1951To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws.

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To place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law 2nd amendmentMay 1, 1953A technical amendment to fix the size of each parliamentary constituency between 650,000 and 850,000 voters. 3rd amendmentFebruary 22, 1955Limits maximum no of seats in lok Sabha up to 500 States to be divided into constituencies such that one member of a constituency represents between 500000 and 750000 people 4th amendmentApril 27, 1955Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution 5th amendmentDecember 24, 1955Provides for a consultation mechanism with concerned states in matters relating to the amendments to the territorial matters and in the re-naming of the state 6th amendmentSeptember 11, 1956Amended the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes7th amendmentNovember 1, 1956Reorganization of states on linguistic lines Abolition of Class A, B, C, D states Introduction of Union Territories 8th amendment January 5, 1960Clarify state's power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property Include Zamindari abolition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution9th amendment December 28, 1960Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc. 10th amendment August 11, 1961Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory after acquisition from Portugal 11th amendment December 19, 1961Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college

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12th amendmentDecember 20, 1961Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, after acquisition from Portugal 13th amendmentDecember 1, 1963Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A 14th amendmentDecember 28, 1962Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India Creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa15th amendmentOctober 5, 1963Raise retirement age of judges from 60 to 62 Other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.16th amendmentOctober 5, 1963Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates17th amendmentJune 20, 1964To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution18th amendmentAugust 27, 1966Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories19th amendmentDecember 11, 1966Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts20th amendmentDecember 22, 1966Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges. Validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges except those not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment was needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh21th amendmentApril 10, 1967Included Sindhi as a National Language22nd amendmentSeptember 25, 1969Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam23rd amendmentJanuary 23, 1970Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 198024th amendmentNovember 5, 1971Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution25th amendmentApril 20, 1972Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property26th amendmentDecember 28, 1971Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic27th amendmentFebruary 15,

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1972Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers28th amendmentAugust 29, 1972Rationalized Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence29th amendmentJune 9, 1972Places land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution30th amendmentFebruary 27, 1973Changes the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law31th amendmentOctober 17, 1973Increased size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats went to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise32nd amendmentJuly 1, 1974Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh33rd amendmentMay 19, 1974Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures Prescribes procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker34th amendmentSeptember 7, 1974Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution35th amendmentMarch 1, 1975Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India36th amendmentApril 26, 1975Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union37th amendmentMay 3, 1975Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly38th amendmentAugust 1, 1975Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances39th amendmentAugust 10, 1975Negated the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister40th amendmentMay 27, 1976Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India. Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution41th amendmentSeptember 7, 1976Raised Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Union and State Public Commissions from sixty to sixty two.42nd amendmentApril 1, 1977Amendment passed during internal emergency

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by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic43rd amendmentApril 13, 1978Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 4244th amendmentSeptember 6, 1979Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 4245th amendmentJanuary 25, 1980Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 199046th amendmentFebruary 2, 1983Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax47th amendmentAugust 26, 1984Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution48th amendmentApril 1, 1985Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab49th amendmentSeptember 11, 1984Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council50th amendmentSeptember 11, 1984Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure51th amendmentJune 16, 1986Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies52nd amendmentMarch 1, 1985Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other53rd amendmentFebruary 20, 1987Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.54th amendmentApril 1, 1986Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges Provisions for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment55th amendmentFebruary 20, 1987Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal

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Pradesh56th amendmentMay 30, 1987Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa57th amendmentSeptember 21, 1987Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies58th amendmentDecember 9, 1987Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments59th amendmentMarch 30, 1988Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab60th amendmentDecember 20, 1988Professional Tax increased from a maximum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-61th amendmentMarch 28, 1989Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 1862nd amendmentDecember 20, 1989Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 200063rd amendmentJanuary 6, 1990Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed64th amendmentApril 16, 1990Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab65th amendmentMarch 12, 1992National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.66th amendmentJune 7, 1990Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution67th amendmentOctober 4, 1990Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab68th amendmentMarch 12, 1991Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab69th amendmentFebruary 1, 1992To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory70th amendmentDecember 21, 1991Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election71th amendmentAugust 31, 1992Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as National Languages72nd amendmentDecember 5, 1992Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly73rd amendmentApril 24, 1993Statutory provisions for

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Panchayat Raj as third level of administration in villages74th amendmentJune 1, 1993Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities75th amendmentMay 15, 1994Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals76th amendmentAugust 31, 1994Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution77th amendmentJune 17, 1995A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions78th amendmentAugust 30, 1995Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution79th amendmentJanuary 25, 2000Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 201080th amendmentJune 9, 2000Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre 81th amendmentJune 9, 2000Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies82nd amendmentSeptember 8, 2000Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates 83rd amendment September 8, 2000Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions 84th amendment February 21, 2002Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats 85th amendmentJanuary 4, 2002A technical amendment to protect seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees 86th amendment December 12, 2002Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six 87th amendmen tune 22, 2003Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats88th amendment January 15, 2004To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax 89th amendment September 28, 2003The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

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90th amendment September 28, 2003Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area 91th amendment January 1, 2004Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15 % of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws 92nd amendment January 7, 2004 Enable Levy of Service Tax Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithili as National Languages 93rd amendment January 20, 2006To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions 94th amendment June 12, 2006To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States

Article 19 (1) deals wit ? Freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed as a fundamental right by Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India.

What do you understand by the term Paid News? Give some recent example regarding this. Paid news or paid content are those articles in newspapers, magazines and the electronic media, which indicate favourable conditions for the institution that has paid for it. The news is much like an advertisement but without the ad tag. This kind of news has been considered a serious malpractice since it deceives the citizens, not letting them know that the news is, in fact, an advertisement. Secondly , the payment modes usually violate tax laws and election spending laws. More seriously, it has raised electoral concerns because the media has a direct influence on voters. sme utval

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yadav or so is accused in paid news controversy as she didnt she didnt declare cost of advertisement in hindi news paper EC has barred her for three years frm contestng election she happens to b wife of billionaire liquor barron yadav. her son is said to b main accused in nitish katara murder

Bring out Salient features of the recent draft on protection of children from sexual offenses Bill, 2010 According to this new bill, legal age to have non penetrative sex is lowered to 12. Govt aims to decriminalize sexual exploration of two children of same age.

Bring out the N.R. Madhava Menon Committee recommendations on Autonomy of Central Educational Institutions freedom to recruit distinguished faculty from anywhere in the world, to take up consultancy assignments and at the same time open the institute to independent reviews. Advocating a thorough revisiting of the process of appointment of a V-C, a five-year tenure for the V-C and reappointment of a V-C if the Executive Council so recommends suggests that the Indian Institutes of Management be allowed to grant degrees to make them more autonomous... suggests that all universities switch to choice-based credit courses along with the semester system in the minimum

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possible time. This will make the academic structure flexible and promote student mobility, both in the country and abroad........ the Central educational institutes should be free to decide the fees to be charged, the scholarships to be granted and the recoveries to be made, subject to the government's broad policy guidelines.. To improve the performance of teachers it recommends that all faculty members be subjected to a review once in five years by a committee appointed by the executive council......

Give a brief account of National Water Mission approved by the Prime Minister Council on climate change This Mission aimes at cnsrvation of water, minimizn wastage and ensuring its equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management... Five goals of the Mission are 1: Comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources; 2: promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation and preservation 3: focused attention to vulnerable areas including overexploited areas

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4: increasing water use efficiency by 20 per cent 5: promotion of basin level integrated water resources management..... The Mission envisages its implementation through a two-tier setup- one at Central level and the other at State level. At Centre, an apex Board under the Chairmanship of the Minister of Water Resources and at the State level, a Monitoring Committee under the Chairmanship of the Principal Secretary / Secretary will be constituted.... The Mission would be run by a secretariat headed by a director who will be supported by adviser (technical) and adviser (coordination and monitoring). The technical support will be provided by Central Water Commission, Central Ground Water Board, Brahmaputra Board and National Institute of Hydrology.... On 28 May 2010 Prime Ministers council Chaired by Manmohan Singh approved the national water mission. Prime Minister suggested that the water conservation should be made a peoples movement in the country. The council decided to raise efficiency regarding water conservation Bring out the Salient features of the Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010. it was drafted as the step towards ratification of the Convention against torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9th December, 1975.

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Ratification of the Convention requires enabling legislation having provisions that would be necessary to give effect to the Articles of the Convention. Although some provisions existd in the Indian Penal Code, they neither define torture nor make it criminal so this need led thiz bill to be drafted... The Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 seeks to provide for punishment for torture committed by government officials. The Bill defines torture as grievous hurt, or danger to life, limb and health. Complaints against torture have to be made within six months. The sanction of the appropriate government is required before a court can entertain a complaint.... what is Contempt of Parliament ? contempt of parliament is the offence of obstructing the legislature in the carrying out of its functions, or of hindering any legislator in the performance of his or her duties Women and development - Self help group movement govt is promoting the rural woman entrepreneurship through different agencies like KVIC, grameen bank's microfinance through Self help groups and NABARD,,etc. as by encouraging IT, like in e-seva project in district of west godavari, andhra pradesh, where web -enabled rural kiosks termed e-seva centres have been established at

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mandal levels(sub-district) n these are run and managed by women from self help groups, positing them as information leaders, n helps bridge gender divide too...with innovative methods n scientific management under state guidance rural woman may be mobilised and can be effective agents of change for better homes better society and ultimately for producing "shining economy" in present global scenario!! Write a short note on Outcome Budgeting. The Outcome Budget is a progress card on what various ministries and departments have done with the outlay announced in the annual budget. It is a performance measurement tool that helps in better service delivery; decision-making; evaluating programme performance and results; communicating programme goals; and improving programme effectiveness. It was introduced in India's budgetary parlance in 2005-06 and was stipulated to comprise scheme- or project-wise outlays for all central ministries, departments and organisations during the year listed against corresponding outcomes (measurable physical targets) to be achieved during the year. It measures the development outcomes of all government programmes. Which means that if one wants to find out whether some money allocated for, say, the building of a school or a health centre has actually been given, one might

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be able to. It also tells if the money has been spent for the purpose it was sanctioned and the outcome of the fundusage. The Outcome Budget, however,does not necessarily include information of targets already achieved. This method of monitoring flow of funds, implementation of schemes and the actual results of the usage of the money is followed by many countries. Relationship between Planning Commission and NDC (National Development Council) if planning commission is the vehicle ndc is the steering wheel.ndc is the apex decision making body in india.all plans prepared by the planning commission has to be approved by the ndc The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister. The Council comprises the Prime Minister, the Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of all States or their substitutes, representatives of the union territories and the members of the Commissions. The functions of the Council are 1. to prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the National Plan, including the assessment of resources for the Plan;

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2. to consider the National Plan as formulated by the Planning Commission; 3. to consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting national development; and 4. to review the working of the Plan from time to time and to recommend such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets set out in the National Plan. It has been set up with three objectives 1. to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan 2. to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres and 3. to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country.

Surinder Nath Comittee report was for ? the report was for reforms in india's civil services, which encompasses the system of performance appraisal, promotion, empanelment and placement for the IAS

Who is the father of Lok Adalat? Based on the principles of maghatma Gandhi (shri P N Bhagawati, He introduced Public Interest Litigation in Indian Judicial system.)

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Lok Adalat means peoples court is presided over by Retired judges,social activist,or people who r involved in law section,,it is creatd wit d concepts of Mahatma Gandhi.. The first Lok Adalat was held on March 14, 1982 at Junagarh in Gujarat the land of Mahatma Gandhi. Lok Adalat accepts the cases which could be settled by conciliation and compromise, and pending in the regular courts within their jurisdiction.

The first Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru presented the first five-year plan to the Parliament of India on December 8, 1951. The total plan budget was ? under d 1st FYP provision was made to spend a total of Rs. 2,378 crore during d plan period..bt d actual expenditure amounted to Rs. 1,960 crore only. Justice Mukul Mudgal committee::Action Taken in Recent Incidents of Doping With a view to investigate the recent incidents of doping, including use of food supplements allegedly claimed to contain banned substances, Government has appointed Justice Mukul Mudgal, retired Chief Justice of the High Court of Punjab & Haryana as a one member Committee with the following terms:i)To determine the facts and circumstances leading to large scale recent incidents of alleged doping in Athletics discipline. ii)To examine reasons for such large scale prevalence of doping and modus operandi involved, including availability of the prohibited substances in and around training camps/competitions. iii)to enquire into the role of agencies involved, if any.

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iv)To suggest remedial measures to improve the protocols of dope testing and its integrity and promotion so that such lapses, if any, do not happen in future. v) Any other issues. The Report of the Committee is still awaited. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioners and Election Commissioners? recommendation decidd by cabint,tat is send to presidnt of India What is the status Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners in terms of salaries and allowances etc.? Equivalent to Supreme Court Judges. What is the present composition of the Election Commission? A Three - Member Body At present, the Election Commission of India is a three-member body, with one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Which authority conducts elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President of India ? Under Article 324(1) of the Constitution of India, the Election Commission of India, interalia, is vested with the power of superintendence, direction and control of conducting the elections to the offices of the President and VicePresident of India. Detailed provisions are made under the Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Act, 1952 and the rules made thereunder Some latest new reforms for implementing MGNREGA - government came out with a set of reforms that include payment of unemployment allowance if a legally entitled worker is not given the promised job on time. -include solutions to reducing delay in payments to workers, providing requisite number of days of work as per demand, improving quality of assets created under MGNREGA and their relevance to the livelihood of the poor and ensuring full wages stipulated under the programme.

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-"if you are not provided work within 15 days of your applying for work, you will be provided unemployment allowance," the reform note says that in case the states "fail to provide work within 15 days", workers who applied for work "must be paid unemployment allowance". -these reforms could be implemented in 2000 of the poorest blocks of the country, especially those with high concentration of SC/ST population," Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority (NSRA) - Being formed to regulate safety from nuclear radiation. -Regulator will not report to DAE but to parliament. -It will be able to access any premises where radiation is present, used or proposed to be used and seize documents concerned. -it will be the sole agency granting consent on nuclear transactions. -For any violations, defautlers to face imprisonments, fines. -The Authority will replace the existing atomic energy regulatory board (AERB).

POLITY What is a No-Day-Yet-Named Motion? If the Chairman admits notice of a motion and no date is fixed for the discussion on such a motion,.... it is immediately notified in the Bulletin Pt. II under the headingNo-Day-YetNamed-Motion Date and time is allotted for discussion on such motions by the Chairman, in consultation with the Leader of the House after taking into consideration the state of business before the House. what is a substantive motion ? Motions may be classified as Substantive or Subsidiary. A substantive motion is a self-contained proposal made in

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reference to a subject which the mover wishes to bring forward. A subsidiary motion as its name suggests, relates to a substantive motion. What is a Motion? Rules 167-174 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Rajya Sabha provide that no discussion on a matter of general public interest shall take place except on a motion made with the consent of the Chairman. The term motion in parliamentary parlance means any proposal made for the purpose of eliciting a decision of the House. It is phrased in such a way that, if passed, it will purport to express the will of the House. who can bring abt a Adjourmnt motion ?? member of council What is the difference between a Bill and an Act? A Bill passed by both Houses of Parliament becomes an Act only after it has been assented to by the President.

What is a Calling Attention ? Rule 180 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Rajya Sabha provides that a Member may with the previous permission of the Chairman call the attention of a Minister to any matter of urgent public importance and the Minister may make a brief statement or ask for time to make a statement at a later hour or date. The Calling Attention is an Indian innovation in the parliamentary procedure. What is a substitute motion, ? a motion which substitutes the original motion because of a change in

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situation What are the functions of Business Advisory Committee in detail? Business advisory committee of lok sabha speaker is ex officio chairman has 15 members including speaker nominated by speaker function is to discuss time alloted for different business of the house meets at the beginning of the session of the house. What is meant by matters under Rule 377? Matters, which are not points of order can be raised by way of Special Mentions under Rule 377. This procedural device, framed in 1954, provides opportunity to the members to raise matters of general public interest. At present, the number of matters that can be raised by members under Rule 377 on a single day is 20. What is meant by Discussion under Rule 193 ? Rule 193 lays down how a member will submit in writing his request for a discussion on a matter of urgent public importance

What is the difference between a unitary and federal constitution ? * Constitutions are either unitary or federal. * A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. This means that all powers of the Government are centralized in one Government that is Central

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Government. The most famous example of Unitary Constitution is UK. * In Unitary Constitution the provinces are subordinate to the centre, but in federal constitution , there is a division of powers between the federal and the state governments. * Both are independent in their own sphere. * Constitution of India has features of both unitary and federal constitution.

Ashok Mehta Committee In December 1977, the Janata Government appointed a committee on Panchayati Raj institutions under the chairmanship of Ashok Mehta. The committee submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the declining Panchayati Raj system in the country. As a result of this report, the Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal passed new legislation. However, the flow of politics at the state level did not allow the institutions to develop their own political dynamics. Recommendations The main recommendations of the committee are: 1. The 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj should be replaced by the 2-tier system: Zilla Parishad at the district level, and below it,the Mandal Panchayat consisting of a group of villages covering a population of 15000 to 20000. 2. A district should be the first point for decentralisation under popular supervision below the state level. 3. Zila Parishad should be the executive body and made responsible for planning at the district level. 4. There should be an official participation of political parties at all levels of Panchayat elections. 5. The Panchayat Raj institutions should have

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compulsory powers of taxation to mobilise their own financial resources. 6. There should be a regular social audit by a district level agency and by a committee of legislators to check whether the funds allotted for the vulnerable social and economic groups are actually spent on them. 7. The state government should not supersede the Panchayat Raj institutions. In case of an imperative supersession, election should be held within 6 months from the date of supersession. 8. The Nyaya Panchayats should be kept as separate bodies from that of development Panchayats. They should be presided over by a qualified judge. 9. The Chief Electoral Officer of the state in consultaton with the Chief Election Commissioner should organise and conduct the Panchayati Raj elections. 10. Development functions should be transferred to the Zila Parishad and all development staff should work under its control and supervision. 11. The voluntary agencies should play an important role in mobilising the support of the people for Panchayati Raj. 12. A minister for Panchayati Raj should be appointed in the state council of ministers to look after the affairs of the Panchayati Raj institutions. 13. Seats for SCs and Sts should be reserved on the basis of their population.

Bachat Lamp Yojna Bachat Lamp Yojana is a program by the government of India to reduce the cost of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs, i.e., energy saving lights) sold to consumers.[1] Implemented through the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in India's Ministry of Power, the program's goal is to deliver CFLs at the cost of normal lightbulbs. The difference in cost will be covered by the sale of Certified Emission Rights under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto

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Protocol.[2]. Lighting accounts for almost 20% of the total electricity demand in the country. The majority of lighting needs in the country are met by incandescent bulbs, particularly in the household sector. Incandescent bulbs are extremely energy inefficient as over 90% of the electricity is converted into heat, and only up to 10% is used for lighting. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) provide an energyefficient alternative to the incandescent lamp by using one-fifth as much electricity as an incandescent lamp to provide the same level of illumination. CFLs have almost completely penetrated the commercial market, and the sales of CFLs in India have grown from about 20 million in 2003 to around 200 million in 2008. Statistics by lighting association indicates that the penetration of CFLs in household sector is only about 5% - 10%. The relatively low penetration rate is largely due to the high price of the CFLs, which costs 8-10 times as much as incandescent bulbs. It is estimated that about 400 million light points in India today are lighted by incandescent bulbs; their replacement by CFLs would lead to a reduction of over 10,000 MW in electricity demand. The "Bachat Lamp Yojana" aims at the large scale replacement of incandescent bulbs in households by CFLs. It seeks to provide CFLs to households at the price similar to that of incandescent bulbs. It plans to utilize the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol to recover the cost differential between the market price of the CFLs and the price at which they are sold to households. The Bachat lamp yojana was launched in February 2009. The Bachat Lamp Yojana is designed as a publicprivate partnership between the Government of India, private sector CFL suppliers and State level Electricity Distribution Companies (DISCOMs). The CFL suppliers would sell high quality CFLs to households at a price of Rs. 15 per CFL within a designated project area in a DISCOM region of operation. The CFL supplier will be chosen by the DISCOM through a due

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diligence process from a list of CFL suppliers empanelled by BEE. Under the scheme only 60 Watt and 100 Watt incandescent Lamps will be replaced with 1115 Watt and 20 - 25 Watt CFLs respectively. BEE will monitor the electricity savings in each project area. It is expected that around 50 lakh CFLs will be replaced in each DISCOM area. Maximum of four CFLamps will be distributed to every customer at the price of a normal bulb (i.e. Rs.15). The difference in CFL cost will be obtained by the implementing agency through CDM in the form of CER's. BEE officials expects the plan to cover all of India by 2011 Bhagidari System-: The Bhagidari System (Hindi: , people partnership) is an initiative of the government of the state of Delhi in India to promote broad-based civic participation in local governance.[1] The government's stated goal is to create "greater transparency and accountability in administration" in order to improve "the quality, efficiency and delivery of public services." The initiative was announced by the (then newly elected) Chief Minister of Delhi, Sheila Dikshit, in December 1998. It was launched in 2003 in the area of waste management, with mixed results.

Bhore committee-: Bhore committee set up by the government of India in 1943 to investigate and recommend improvements to the Indian Public Health system. Under the chairmanship of Sir Joseph Bhore the committee made many landmark recommendations in its final report in 1946.also known in India as Health Survey and Development Committee It said "If it were possible to evaluate the loss, which this country annually suffers through the avoidable waste of valuable human material and the lowering of human efficiency through malnutrition and preventable morbidity, we feel that the result would be so startling that the whole country would be aroused and would not rest until a radical change had been brought about" Some of the important recommendations of the Bhore Committee were 1. Integration of preventive and curative services to all administrative levels. 2. Development of Primary Health Centres in 2 stages a. As a short term measure: 1 Primary health center per 40,000 population, 30 beds,3 Sub centers and 2 medical officers b. As a long term programme(3 million Plan):Primary health units with a 75 bedded hospital

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per 10,000 -20,000 population; secondary health units with 650 bedded hospital Regional Health units with 2,500 beds 3. Major changes in medical education which includes 3 month training in preventive & social medicine to prepare "social physicians"

Islington Commission-: The Islington Commission was the public name of a 1912 Royal Commission on Public Servcies in India under the Chairmanship of Lord Islington. It made the following recommendations in its report submitted in 1915: 1. Recruitment to the superior posts should be made partly in England and partly in India. However, it did not favour holding competitive exams simultaneously in England and India, which was the prime demand of the Indian Nationalists. 2. 25% of the superior posts should be filled by Indians partly by direct recruitment and partly by promotion. 3. The services under the Government of India should be categorised into Class I and Class II. 4. The principle of maintenance of efficiency should be adopted while fixing the salaries of civil servants. 5. There should be a probationary period of 2 years for direct recruits. For the ICS, it should be 3 years. Kangsabati Project-: The Kangsabati Project also often referred to as the Kangsabati Irrigation Project and The Kangsabati Reservoir Project, is a project started in the Indianstate of West Bengal in 1956 as part of the Indian Second Five-year Plan to provide water to 3,484.77 km of land in the districts of Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, Bankura, andHooghly.[1] It involves irrigation land using water from the Kangsabati River, as well as the Shilaboti and the Bhoirobbanki rivers. As part of the Project, a 38 m high and 10,098 m long dam was constructed at Khatra. A anicut dam built on the Kangsabati River near Midnapore in 1872 was also added to the operations of the projec__________________

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Article 365 ?? "365. Where any State has failed to comply with, or to give effect to, any directions given in the exercise of the executive power of the Union under any of the provisions of this Constitution, it shall be lawful for the President to hold that a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution."

Article 19 ? Ryt 2 freedom.. A. Freedom of speak and ryt to press B. Without weapon sbha krne ka freedom C. Committee freedom D. Freedom to go anywhere in d country E. To live anywhere across india F. Ryt to property G. Ryt to employement..

which articles describe the effct of National Emergncy on Fundamntal ryts ?? 358 & 359 but article 20 and 21 can never be revoked . technicl diffrnce between Article 358 nd 359 ?? 358 only for article 19 is suspended , but in 359 hole part 3 will be suspended Article 20 ?? Double jeopardyDouble jeopardy,assuring tht culprit cudn't be the witness in same case,n assuring one get under trial if found guilty. .

how did 44th Amndmnt Act of 1978 restrictd d scope Article

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359 ?? it introduced armed rebellion in place of internal disturbance.and make article 20 &21 unaffected during national emergency giv the diplomatic powers of the President ?? diplomatic power is the only power where our president enjoys with sole owner..he signs for india in international agreements but it should be got approved by parliament..he appoints ambassadar,commisioners to countries what is Absolute veto ? kisi bhi vidhiyak ko sansad me rokne ki sakti , jo ki rastrapati ko hoti he what is Qualified veto? when majority f parilament cn overrule veto used by presdent what is Suspensive veto it is wen president returns the bill to the house..n the parliament agn passes it by simple majority..dn the president is bound to sign the bill..called suspensive veto 24th Constitutional Amndmnt Bill ?? It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend ... After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill was challenged in supreme court in Keshwanada Bharati vs State of Kerala in 1973. where the SC it stated that the amendment power of the Parliament is limited as to an extent it does not change the basic str of the constitution..Original art.368 did not mention the word power to amend the constitution with this amendment it specifically mention that parliament has the power to amend it the pocket of Indian President is larger than the pocket of US President..commnt?? both posses the pocket veto....but the duration of withholding the bill is unlimited for india but for us president its ten days.....

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what are Ordinances ?? ordinance is temprory law to handle the immidiate situation when session is not going on. President & governor has power to issue ordinance. It can become law when parliament or state legislative assembly passed it by majority othewise it dismisses..// article 123 empower the president to promulgate ordinances during the recess of parliment nd is the most impt legislative power of president

Ratification means ?? to approve article 72 ?? power the president to grant pardons to person who have been tried nd convicted of any offences in the cases-1)punishment for offence against a union law 2)punishment by a court martial 3)sentence of death sort out difference between the pardoning power of Governor nd Presidnt in India ? 1)president ca n pardon sentences in court martial but governor cannot,2)president can pardon death sentence but governor canno acc to Ivor Jennings who is describd as alternative Prime Minister ?? Main opposition leader. who is Whip ..wat is his functions ? A whip is an official in a political party whose primary purpose is to ensure party discipline in a legislature

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The Leader of House in India is clld .........in US ? Majority leader Adjournmnt Sine die ?? djourning an event for a later date, without declaring the exact date this is all about polity .... keep in touch stay blessed

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