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Submitted to:Nitin Kumar Deptt. of Electronics


Submitted by:Mohd Kashif Reg. no.10904780 Roll no. Section E6912



I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. We are really grateful to our HOD for providing us with an opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us with all the facilities. We are highly thankful to my Mr NITIN KUMAR for his active support, valuable time and advice, whole-hearted guidance, sincere cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated. Lastly, We are thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project, their help, it would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework. MOHD KASHIF

CONTENT A)Introduction

B) Theory

C) Background

D)Transfer function derivation

E) Stability

F) IIR vs FIR Filter

G)Classical IIR filter a) The four standard IIR Filters

b) Other IIR Filters

H)Advantages of IIR Filters

I) Reference


Infinite impulse response Infinite impulse response (IIR) is a property of signal processing systems. Systems with this property are known as IIR systems or, when dealing with filter systems, as IIR filters. IIR systems have an impulse response function that is non-zero over an infinite length of time. This is in contrast to finite impulse response (FIR) filters, which have fixed-duration impulse responses. The simplest analog IIR filter is an RC filter made up of a single resistor (R) feeding into a node shared with a single capacitor (C). This filter has an exponential impulse response characterized by an RC time constant. IIR filters may be implemented as either analog or digital filters. In digital IIR filters, the output feedback is immediately apparent in the equations defining the output. Note that unlike with FIR filters, in designing IIR filters it is necessary to carefully consider "time zero" case in which the outputs of the filter have not yet been clearly defined. Design of digital IIR filters is heavily dependent on that of their analog counterparts because there are plenty of resources, works and straightforward design methods concerning analog feedback filter design while there are hardly any for digital IIR filters. As a result, usually, when a digital IIR filter is going to be implemented, an analog filter (e.g. Chebyshev filter, Butterworth filter, Elliptic filter) is first designed and then is converted to a digital filter by applying discretization techniques such as Bilinear transform or Impulse invariance.

Example IIR filters include the Chebyshev filter, Butterworth filter, and the Bessel filter.

B) Theory
An IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filter, oppositely to FIR filters, has an infinite response to impulse signals, which is explained because it has feedback. Equation (1) describes an IIR filter:

y [ n ] = a k y [ n k ] +
k =1

N 1

M 1 k =0

bk x[ n k ]


Where: x and y represent the input and output data, respectively.

bk is the set of the

M feedforward filter coefficients, applied to the input signal samples.

a k is the set of the N feedback filter coefficients (if we include a 0 = 1 ), applied to the

previous output samples.

M 1 is the feedforward filter order.

N 1 is the feedback filter order.

The transfer function H ( z ) of the IIR filter is expressed as follows:

M 1

H ( z) =

Y ( z ) B( z ) = = X ( z ) A( z )


k =0 N 1 k =1

bk z k a k z


IIR filters can be used in applications that require sharp cut-off or narrow band filters and where linear phase is not a requirement. That is because IIR filters require much lower order implementations than FIR filters for a similar performance.

C) Background
Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are an alternative to finite impulse response (FIR) filters. An IIR implementation typically can meet filter specifications with less computation than an FIR implementation; however, IIR filters induce nonlinear phase, can become unstable, and are more sensitive to numerical problems. Like FIR filters, IIR filters are linear time-invariant (LTI) systems that can recreate a wide range of frequency responses. IIR implementations with specified stop-band, pass-band, and transition-band properties typically require far fewer filter taps (coefficients) than an FIR filter meeting similar specifications. This leads to a significant reduction computational complexity and delay of the signal through the filter. However, IIR filters have poles resulting in feedback, which has potential for instability (if poles not placed inside the unit circle). Feedback can increase the sensitivity to errors introduced from finite arithmetic computations (especially for fixed-point processors). In addition, IIR filters result in nonlinear phase distortion (delaying frequency components by different amounts especially those near the transition bands). Some of these complications are explored in these lab exercises.

The previous lab assignments implemented filters with a direct Direct Form computational structure, which is suggested by converting the transfer function directly to a difference equation, using the transfer function in the following form:

( z) = H

m= 0 N

1 + an z
n =1

M bm z m 1 m =0 = N 1 n 1 + a n z n =1


The rational polynomial in z for Eq. (1) is factored into an all-zero filter (FIR) followed by an all-pole filter. Recall the product of transfer functions corresponds to series connections (cascade) in the time domain, where the output of one filter becomes the input to the next. The factoring of Eq. (1) suggests the direct form I implementation shown in Fig. 1.

x[n] z-1


w[n ]


y[n] z-1





bM-1 bM

Figure 1. Direct form I implementation of an IIR filter. The square blocks represent unit delays, the triangles represent multiplies, and the circles represent accumulators. The variable w[n] is an intermediate value being the output of the all-zero component and the input to the all-pole component of the filter, and a0=1 for corresponding to the IIR filter of Eq. (1).




D) Transfer function derivation

Digitals filters are often described and implemented in terms of the difference equation that defines how the output signal is related to the input signal:


is the feedforward filter order are the feedforward filter coefficients is the feedback filter order are the feedback filter coefficients is the input signal is the output signal.

A more condensed form of the difference equation is:

which, when rearranged, becomes:

To find the transfer function of the filter, we first take the Z-transform of each side of the above equation, where we use the time-shift property to obtain:

We define the transfer function to be:

Considering that in most IIR filter designs coefficient takes the more traditional form:

is 1, the IIR filter transfer function

Description of block diagram

Simple IIR filter block diagram A typical block diagram of an IIR filter looks like the following. The z 1 block is a unit delay. The coefficients and number of feedback/feedforward paths are implementationdependent.

E) Stability
The transfer function allows us to judge whether or not a system is bounded-input, boundedoutput (BIBO) stable. To be specific, the BIBO stability criteria requires that the ROC of the system includes the unit circle. For example, for a causal system, all poles of the transfer function have to have an absolute value smaller than one. In other words, all poles must be located within a unit circle in the z-plane. The poles are defined as the values of z which make the denominator of H(z) equal to 0:

Clearly, if then the poles are not located at the origin of the z-plane. This is in contrast to the FIR filter where all poles are located at the origin, and is therefore always stable. IIR filters are sometimes preferred over FIR filters because an IIR filter can achieve a much sharper transition region roll-off than FIR filter of the same order. Example Let the transfer function of a filter H be

withROCa< | z | and 0 <a< 1 which has a pole at a, is stable and causal. The time-domain impulse response is h(n) = anu(n) which is non-zero for n> = 0.

F) IIR vs. FIR Filters

The primary advantage of IIR filters over FIR filters is that they typically meet a given set of specifications with a much lower filter order than a corresponding FIR filter. Although IIR filters have nonlinear phase, data processing within MATLAB software is commonly

performed "offline," that is, the entire data sequence is available prior to filtering. This allows for a noncausal, zero-phase filtering approach (via the filtfilt function), which eliminates the nonlinear phase distortion of an IIR filter.

G) Classical IIR Filters

The classical IIR filters, Butterworth, Chebyshev Types I and II, elliptic, and Bessel, all approximate the ideal "brick wall" filter in different ways. This toolbox provides functions to create all these types of classical IIR filters in both the analog and digital domains (except Bessel, for which only the analog case is supported), and in lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandstop configurations. For most filter types, you can also find the lowest filter order that fits a given filter specification in terms of passband and stopband attenuation, and transition width(s).

a) The four standard IIR Filters: Low Pass Filter:

High Pass Filter:

Where: LPc=cut off frequncy LPs=stop band frequency

Band Pass Filter:

Stop Band Pass Filter:

Other IIR Filters

The direct filter design function yulewalk finds a filter with magnitude response approximating a desired function. This is one way to create a multiband bandpassfilter.You can also use the parametric modeling or system identification functions to design IIR filters. These functions are discussed in Parametric Modeling. The generalized Butterworth design function maxflat is discussed in the section Generalized Butterworth Filter Design.

H) Advantages of IIR filters

IIR filters are useful for high-speed designs because they typically require a lower number of multiplies compared to FIR filters. IIR filters can be designed to have a frequency response that is a discrete version of the frequency response of an analog filter.

IIR filters also are very sensitive to filter coefficient quantization errors that occur due tousing a finite number of bits to represent the filter coefficients.

I) Reference




d) erDesign.html


Signals and systems, Sanjay Sharma