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TEMPORAL FOSSA BOUNDARIES: Anterior: Zygomatic process of frontal bone + zygomatic bone Superior & Posterior: Temporal lines

laterally: Zygomatic arch Inferiorly: infratemporal crest Floor: pterion Roof: temporal fascia TEMPORAL FOSSA CONTENTS: Temporalis muscle Deep temporal nerve & vessels Superficial temporal vessels Auriculotemporal nerve

INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA BOUNDARIES: Superficial (lateral): Ramus of mandible Deep (medial): Lateral pterygoid plate Superior: Infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid Anterior: Tuberosity of maxilla Antly: post aspect of maxilla Postly: tympanic plate and mastoid and styloid process oof the temporal bone Inf: where the medial ptwerygoid m attaches to the mandible near the angle. INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA COMMUNICATIONS:

With temporal fossa: through a gap deep to zygomatic arch With cranial cavity: through foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, foramen lacerum With orbit: through inferior orbital fissure With pterygopalatine fossa: through pterygomaxillary fissure INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA CONTENTS: Lateral & medial pterygoid muscles Mandibular, inf alveolar, lingual, buccal, chorda tympani & Otic ganglion A part of maxillary nerve & 2 of its branches Pterygoid plexus of veins Inf part of temporal m TEMPORALIS ORIGIN: floor of temporal fossa & deep surface of temporal fasica INSERTION: the tendon passes deep to zygomatic arch to be inserted to all coronoid process (except its lateral surface) NERVE SUPPLY: 2 deep temporal nerves from anterior division of mandibular nerve ACTION: Elevation of mandible Its posterior fibers retract the mandible LATERAL PTERYGOID ORIGIN: Upper head: infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid Lower head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate INSERTION: pterygoid fovea (in front of neck of mandible) + capsule & articular disc of TMJ

NERVE SUPPLY: from anterior division of mandibular nerve ACTION: Pulls the condylar process forward to depress the mandible Protrusion of mandible (when muscles on both sides act together) Side-to-side movement (when muscles on both sides act alternatively)

MEDIAL PTERYGOID ORIGIN: Superficial head: tuberosity of maxilla Deep head: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate INSERTION: medial surface of ramus & angle of mandible NERVE SUPPLY: from trunk of mandibular nerve ACTION: Elevation of mandible Protrusion of mandible (when muscles on both sides act together) Side-to-side movement (when muscles on both sides act alternatively)

ALL MUSCLES OF MASTICATION Elevate mandible EXCEPT Lateral pterygoid

Protrude mandible EXCEPT Temporalis

Are supplied by anterior division of mandibular nerve EXCEPT Medial pterygoid MAXILLARY ARTERY

ORIGIN: It is the larger of the 2 terminal branches of external carotid artery, behind the neck of mandible (within parotid gland) COURSE: It is divided into 3 parts: First part (mandibular part): runs deep to neck of mandible (below auriculotemporal nerve) & emerges from the lower border of lateral pterygoid Second part (pterygoid part): ascends superficial (sometimes deep) to lower head of lateral pterygoid Third part (pterygopalatine part): passes between the 2 heads of lateral pterygoid then through pterygomaxillary fissure to reach pterygopalatine fossa where it terminates BRANCHES OF MAXILLARY ARTERY FROM SECOND PART: Muscular branches: to muscles of mastication Buccal artery: same course & distribution as buccal nerve (to the buccintor) Deep temporal arteries supply the temporal m

BRANCHES OF MAXILLARY ARTERY FROM THIRD PART: Infraorbital artery: supply inf eye lid, lacrimal sac, side of the nose& sup lip Posterior superior alveolar artery: supply maxillary molar & premolar teeth, the lining of maxillary sinus &the gingiva Greater palatine artery: passes through greater palatine canal & foramen to the palate, supplies hard palate & gums, gives lesser palatine artery supplying soft palate & tonsils Sphenopalatine artery: passes through sphenopalatine foramen to the nose, supplies nasal cavity & nasal septum, lat nasal wall

Artery of pterygoid canal: supplies auditory tube, tympanic cavity & pharynx Pharyngeal artery: supplies nasopharynx, sphenoidal air sinuses (roof or pharynx) Descending palatine a supply maxillary gingiva, palatine glands & the MM of the roof of the mouth. PTERYGOID PLEXUS OF VEINS SITE: It surrounds & lies in substance of lateral pterygoid muscle TRIBUTARIES: correspond to branches of maxillary artery TERMINATION: It forms the maxillary vein that passes deep to neck of mandible & unite with superficial temporal vein to form retromandibular vein (inside parotid gland) COMMUNICATIONS: With cavernous sinus: by emissary veins through foramen ovale & lacerum With facial vein: by deep facial vein With inferior ophthalmic vein: by communicating veins through inferior orbital fissure MANDIBULAR NERVE COMPOSITION: Formed of 2 roots: motor & sensory ORIGIN: Sensory root: peripheral processes of cells of trigeminal ganglion in the middle cranial fossa Motor root: axons of cells of motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve in pons MANDIBULAR NERVE COURSE: Both roots emerge separately through foramen ovale to infratemporal fossa

The 2 roots unite, below foramen ovale The nerve soon divides into a small anterior & a large posterior division