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EDIT KOMLSI assistant lecturer, University of Pannonia, Veszprm PhD student, University of Derby, UK The importance of hotel managers

emotional intelligence 1. Introduction Emotional intelligence abilities, traits or competences have become social capital in service industry. Tourism is still a growing and profitable sector thus employees emotional management will become an essential competitive asset. This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of hotel managers emotional intelligence in connection with performance and proposes research questions and a research model. keywords: emotional intelligence, competences, traits, abilities, work performance, hotel managers, emotional labor, TEIQue 2. The concept of emotional intelligence

Daniel Golemans publicity [1996] about emotional intelligence (EQ or EI) hit a sensitive but thought provoking area that slowly but firmly has influenced even the most realistic economic societies. The human factor in business has always been present, however its extreme influence on sustainable competitive advantage was only realised when in the late 90s researches showed significant evidence between the positive relation of emotional intelligence and performance [George, 2000; Lopes et al., 2006], customer satisfaction[Hochschild, 1983] and individual and organisational success[Blanchard et al., 2010]. However, the results of emotional intelligence researches reported before the 21st century were argued to have been based on anecdotal case descriptions rather than scientific measurements [Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000]. Fortunately researchers have found partners in competitive organisations whose managers realised that knowing and managing feelings is a tangible asset that must be paid attention to [Hill, 2010]. There is scope of terms defining emotional intelligence [Payne, 1986; Goleman, 1996; Cooper and Sawaf, 1997; Bar-On, 2006] but undoubtedly Salovey and Mayer were the first who gave a definition by stating that emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and action [Salovey and Mayer, 1990, p.189]. Todays definition of emotional intelligence depends heavily on the situation and needs as it has been developed to a complex, complicated and specific term. Social intelligence, intellectual intelligence personal intelligence or interpersonal intelligence are just a few to mention. Table1. provides a summary of the major theories, researchers and component elements of emotional intelligence. The summary is not complete as since 2001 more EQ theories and measurement have been developed but some of their validations are still being tested such as STEM and STEU (Austin, 2010). According to Goleman [1996] IQ contributes only 20 per cent to determine success in life the rest depends much on internal factors such as personality traits, emotion and other external factors. It certainly does not mean that emotional intelligence is more important then IQ. Goleman states that people with excellent combination of IQ and EQ are likely to be more successful in their work than those who have far above the ground IQ but not so developed EQ:
IQ and emotional intelligence are not opposing competences, but rather separate ones. We all mix intellect and emotional acuity; people with a high IQ, but low emotional intelligence (or a low IQ and high emotional intelligence) are, despite the stereotypes, relatively rare (Goleman, 1996 p.44).

However, it is not enough to know ones feelings the art is to handle them. Furthermore to have success in the society and at work the ability to sense and identify others emotions as well as react to their feelings accordingly are cardinal qualities.

1. Table: Essential Emotional Intelligence Theories Cooper & Sawaf Higgs &Dulewicz (1997) (1999) Petrides &Furnham (2001) well-being: optimism, happiness, self-esteem

Goleman (1995)

Mayer & Salovey (1997) preparation, appraisal and expression of emotion

Bar-On (1997)


drivers: emotional motivation, intarpersonal literacy intuitiveness


emotional facilitation of thinking understanding and analyzing emotion; employing emotional knowledge reflective regulation of emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth

sociability: emotional constrainers: management, conscientiousness, assertiveness, emotional emotional socialinterpersonal fitness resilience awareness emotionality: empathy, emotional perception, emotional expression, relationships self-control: emotional regulation, impulsiveness, stress management auxiliary facets: adaptability, selfmotivation



enablers: selfawareness, interpersonal emotional sensitivity, depth influence, trait


stress emotional management alchemy

handling relationships

general mood

Source: Adapting Prez, Petrides, Furnham [2005 pp.138-139] and Dulewicz and Higgs [2000 pp.352-354] tables


Emotional intelligence and competencies

Besides psychology and education emotional intelligence has gained interest in business life. Researchers have carried out studies to find connections between emotional intelligence,

leadership behaviours, individual- and organizational performance [George, 2000; Lopes et al., 2006; Koman and Wolff, 2008]. Feelings can not be neglected and excellent leaders have already recognised the benefits of the value of emotions, and the importance to develop and manage individuals behaviour and attitudes as Nick Zenuik, a former senior executive of Ford Motor Company said: Emotional intelligence is a hidden competitive advantage. If you take care of the soft stuff the hard stuff takes care of itself [Cooper, 1997 p.31]. The soft stuff relates to individual and job competences including individual traits, values and behaviours. Delamare Le Deist and Winterton [2005] after examining the French, UK, American, German and Austrian approaches to competences developed a holistic competence model. Figure 1. represents the four dimension of competences. Social, functional and cognitive dimensions are quite universal while meta-competence interlocks the other facilitating the acquisition of the other particular competences. The concept of the holistic model is based on Cheetham and Chivers (1996, 1998) competence framework which consists of five dimensions: cognitive, functional, personal, ethical and meta-competences [Delamare Le Deist and Winterton, 2005 p.35]. Concerning emotional intelligence personal competences which deals with know how to behave and ethical competences (appropriate values and ability to make judgements) seem the most significant.

Figure 1. Holistic competence model

Source: Delamare Le Deist, Winterton [2005. p.40]

Boyatzis defines job competences as underlying characteristic of a person in that it may be a motive, trait, skill, aspect of ones self-image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he or she uses [1982, p.21]. Meanwhile Spencer and Spencer [1993] believe that competencies are underlying characteristics which actually determines how people think, behave or act in a situation. According to them there are five types of competency characteristics: motives, traits, self-concept, knowledge and skill. Competences should include an intent without which there is no action. This intent is the motive or trait which predict skill behaviour actions which in turn predict job performance outcomes [Spencer and Spencer 1993, p.12]. Sparrow and Hiltrop [1994] make distinction between behavioural, core and managerial competences, the first being a the personal attitude people bring with themselves to work, the second relates to strategic competences that influence competitive advantage and the third includes those attitudes, skills and knowledge which are indispensable

for successful performance. In Hungary among others Forgcs [2002] defines competence as being able to adapt successfully to continuously social and work changes without any psychic impairment. Though this ability only leads to success if it is coupled with aptitude. Boyatzis [1982] compiled a theoretical and empirical clustering of competencies in the emotional intelligence model and latter based on Goleman theory and conceptions [1996] with Kenneth Rhee they [Boyatzis et al., 1999] developed the clusters as Table 2. presents. Table 2. Theoretical and Empirical Clustering of the Competencies in the EI Model Self Awareness Cluster: Self-Management Cluster: emotional self self-control awareness conscientiousness accurate self-awareness adoptability self-confidence achievement orientation initiative Social Awareness Cluster: Social Skills: empathy leadership organizational communication awareness influence service orientation change catalyst conflict management building bonds teamwork and collaboration developing others
Source: based on Boyatzis, Richard E; Goleman, Daniel; Rhee, Kenneth [1999. p.14]: Clustering Competence in Emotional Intelligence: Insights from The Emotional Competecies Inventory (ECI)

Nowadays regarding emotional intelligence researchers and literature fall into three groups: ability model, trait model and mixed model. Salovey and Grewal [2005] explain ability model that people with different abilities respond to and process emotional situations and to deal with social situation they consequence develop adaptive behaviours. The second group [Petrides, 2009] views emotional intelligence as being vitally different form traditional cognitive intelligence and regard emotional intelligence as trait. The mixed model can be best characterised by Goleman [1996] who believes emotional intelligence is a mix of mental ability, competences and skills and that EI is more important than IQ when success of life is considered therefore problems can be combated after completing trainings. 3. Emotional intelligence and work performance

According to Lopes et al. [2006] emotional intelligence endorses work performance by facilitating employees to seek beneficial relationship at work in general and especially in teamwork, and also enables them to control emotion to manage stress well and perform even under pressure. Blanchard et al. [2010] state that everyones energy is important in highperforming organisations where three bottom lines provider of choice, employer of choice and investment of choice differentiate excellently performing organisations from the average ones. High-performing organisations are enterprises that over time continue to produce outstanding results with the highest level of human satisfaction and commitment of success [Blanchard et al. 2010 p.9].

Based on the results of their research the HPO SCORES model was created to display the key factors witch altogether influence high performance. The acronym stands for six elements that are the followings: S = shared information and open communication C = compelling vision O = ongoing learning R = relentless focus on customers results E = energising systems and structures S = shared power and high involvement However, if the leader does not behave and act accordingly sand sticks into the cogwheel and the high-outcome is dubious. The leader is a key figure whose leadership style should rather be a coaching, involving, empowering and supporting. Goleman et al. [2002] also refer to effective executive leaders as coach or rather mentors who create secure atmosphere for employees to spread their wings, trying out new style and strengths [2002, p.212]. Furthermore they are convinced that as leaders work with their employees in teams, emotional intelligence is a key element for leadership effectiveness. Leaders motivate and challenge team members to be effective and accomplish high-performance, influence interaction, build trust in team members and encourage them to achieve the organisational vision. Wolf et al. (2002) in their research found that empathy was related to selection for leadership positions within self-aware teams, which might indicate that team members emotional intelligence levels also influence decision-making. Other important concepts they have found accountable for performance are self-management, creativity, positive personality and the ability to develop cohesive and supportive relationships with people. Jennifer M. George [2000 pp. 1039-1045] determined four aspects that help leaders to trigger both self and team effectiveness and result in high-performance: 1. development of a collective sense of goals and objectives and how to go about achieving them 2. instilling in others knowledge and appreciation of the importance of work activities and behaviours 3. generating and maintaining excitement, enthusiasm, confidence and optimism in an organization as well as cooperation and trust 4. encouraging flexibility in decision making and change

On the whole George [2000] states that emotional intelligence is a key factor both in private life where this ability enables individuals to be socially effective and at work where emotionally intelligent managers have effective social interactions with co-workers and customers. Managing people itself is an emotional process so managers should recognise employees emotional state and for efficient performance intervene accordingly. After studying 117 public service executive managers to investigate the relationship between effective performance, personality, ability based emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence Rosete and Ciarrochi [2005] found that managers with excellent business performance have

higher emotional intelligence and bear specific characteristics, such as high openness, furthermore they can manage emotions better. Donald Clark by reflecting on Thackaras [2005] book argues that the way Taylor regarded performance management is over, we shall go beyond the annual performance review and examine peoples daily development. They name four human sides of performance management that can influence employees to concentrate on operational and technical tasks better: learning, reframing, flowing and viscosity. Clacks Performance Typology Map [2011] in Figure 2. summarizes thoroughly the factors influencing work performance among which emotional intelligence triggers motivation, intention and engagement to complete a task. If each employees emotional intelligence is taken into consideration it can positively and negatively influence the organisational behaviour and climate. Ozcelik et al. [2008] research results confirmed that positive emotional climate have essential effects on organisational performance in strategic, customer, outcome growth.

Figure 2. Clarks Performance Typology Map

Source: Donald Clark [2011, used with permission from]

4. Hotel managers Tourism is one of the most determining sectors in all over the world. According to the ITB World Travel Trends Report [2010] in 2011 they expect a global 3-5% international tourism growth. The fonder of IPKs World Travel Monitor forum, Rolf Freitag declared that the worlds international travel industry is back and now even more dynamic [p. 5] after the global recession. More than 800 million people travel annually which makes tourism industry one of the leading employers providing every 12th person a job in this sector. In order to maintain growth a country must attract and keep visitors by providing outstanding quality service. Hotels have major role to positively advertise a country and keep regular

guest as well as attract new customers. Customers demand high-service, value for money entertainment but what is more important each of them wishes to be treated as a distinguished guest. To sense, understand and react to guests feelings quickly and appropriately is a competitive advantage to all businesses. In hotels, as in any other segments of the service industry there is a direct daily customer interaction which requires physical and verbal alertness. Being an emotional workplace hotel workers mental and emotional abilities are equally important for excellent performance results. Hotel managers (by manager I mean the head of each function or section of a hotel, e.g. front office manager) being intermediates between the manager director and subordinates play essential roles. Besides operational and strategic duties such as communicating the manager directors vision to the subordinates and the workers feedback to the superior managers need to handle behavioural, psychological and emotional phenomena. Managers with high emotional intelligence can deal with these incidents more successfully while less emotionally intelligence managers stress level increase in these situations especially if it is coupled with long work hours, unpredictable weekend and holiday work schedules [Cleveland et al., 2007]. Unusual demands on managers in hospitality industry are likely to cause stress and affect emotional and physical health. Johanson et al. [2008] after examining 211 American hotel managers most frequently reported stressors in 2008 comparing them with the 1998 results drew the following conclusion: while ten years ago holidays, business adjustment, outstanding personal achievement, vocation and change in responsibilities at work were the top five stress-factors in 2008 marriage, death of a close family member, worry about mortgage, vocation and holidays were indicated as prominent stress factors. Personal and family feelings influence work and vice versa therefore those working with people all the time must learn to understand and manage their own feelings to be less frustrated and lead a happily balance work and life. Hochschild [1983] first used the term emotional labor which requires one to induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others [Hochschild, 1983 p.7]. She puts emphasis on the challenges managers have to meet when present emotions for customers. Hospitality as a service industry has different segments (e.g. hotel, restaurants) and in the hotel segment the managers are responsible for the sections such as front office, housekeeping, food and beverage, finance, personnel or human resources, sales and marketing. A subtle harmony, a smooth operational work and excellent relationship between the sections result in excellent outcome. The engine of this can be the section managers on whose emotional intelligence levels not just the sections but the whole hotel performance depends.

5. Research search questions and future proposition Although recently several researches have been conducted to validate different different kinds of emotional intelligence tests or examine the effects of emotional intelligence the number of studies dealing with emotional intelligence in hospitality industry is little [ e.g. Scott-Halsell et al. 2008, Johanson et al. 2011 ]. My PhD research aim is to examine Hungarian and British hotel managers emotional intelligence in relation to performance. The research questions are the followings: 1. Is there a connection between hotel managers emotional intelligence and individual and/or organisational isational performance? 2. Do hotel managers emotional intelligence levels differ according to hotel classifications, types and categories? 3. Do section managers emotional intelligence levels differ from each other? (e.g. Are front office managers emotional intelligence levels higher than finance managers as the earlier deal with people (guests and co-workers) co continuously?) 4. Do hotel managers age, gender and lengths of time spent in the same position bear relation to the level of emotional intelligence? In Figure 3. the proposed Research Model summarises the research questions and outline the research process. After studying further Hungarian and international researches which examine the relationship between managers emotional intelligence and performance performance especially in the hospitality industry Hypotheses will be phrased and the appropriate research method(s) will be defined. At present the Hungarian validation of K.V. Petrides Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is in progress.
TEIQue 1.5 test: test self- and organisational performance measurement, accomplishing goals, competitive advantage well-being, being, sociability, emotionality, selfself control, auxiliary facets

managers' emotional intelligence performance

age, , gender, time spent in the he same position classification, type and category of the hotel

Figure 3. Research Model


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