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POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE

By

V . SRINIVASA RAO AM

Efficiency of any plant or equipment is the ratio of output to its input expressed as percentage . output and input are expressed in same physical units. The output is the electrical energy sent out to the grid and input is the heat energy of the fuels fired in boiler. This is normally termed as overall station efficiency.
Thus Over all station efficiency = (Output of ation/Input of station) X 100 = Energy sent out(KW) X 100 Fuel burnt (kg) X GCV fuel (Kcal / Kg)

( 1KW = 860 Kcal = 3600 KJ)

Energy sent out Fuel burnt calorific value of fuel

= = =

12,50,940 KWH 1156 MT 3000 Kcal/Kg

Over all station efficiency


= Energy sent out (KW) X 100 Fuel burnt (kg) X GCV of fuel (Kcal / Kg) 1250940 X 860 X 100 1156 x 1000 x 3000

31.02 %.

Heat Rate:
Heat rate is more usual way of defining and expressing overall turbo- alternator efficiency. Heat Rate = Heat added to steam in boiler (Kcal) Electrical energy sent out (kwhr) Unit of heat rate is thus Kcal/Kwhr

Heat rate is the heat input to turbine needed to produce 1Kwh of electricity.

Efficiency =
=

output Input
1kwh Input

kwh = 860 kcal


So efficiency = 860 Heat rate x 100

Example for 50 MW turbine


Heat rate = 2330 kcal/kwh Efficiency = 860 2330 x 100

= 36.91%

Consider a regenerative cycle with single feed water heater.


1kg h1 A

C
Turbine B

(1-m) kg
h3

BOILER

m kg h2
1kg hf2
F.P

C condenser

FP

hf3
(1-m)kg

The steam (at pressure p1) enters the turbine at point A. Let a small amount of wet steam(say m kg) after partial expansion (at pressure p2 ) be drained from the turbine at point B and enters the feed water heater. The remaining steam ( at pressure p2) is further expanded in the turbine and leaves at point C . This steam is then condensed in the condenser. The condensate from the condenser, is pumped into the feed water heater, where it mixes up with the steam extracted from the turbine. The proportion of the steam extracted is just sufficient to cause the steam leaving the feed water heater to be saturated.

Now consider 1 kg of steam entering the turbine at point A.

Let h1 = Enthalpy or total heat of steam entering the turbine at A, h2 = Enthalpy or total heat of bled steam, h3 = Enthalpy or total heat of steam leaving the turbine at C hf2 = Enthalpy or sensible heat of feed water leaving the feed water heater hf3 = Enthalpy or sensible heat of steam leaving the condenser, and m = Amount of bled steam per kg of steam supplied

We know that heat lost by bled steam = Heat gained by feed water

m(h2-hf2) = (1-m)(hf2-hf3) mh2-mhf2 = hf2-hf3-mhf2+mhf3 Therefore m = (hf2-hf3)/ (h2-hf3) We know that mass of steam in the turbine, per kg of feed water, between A and B is 1 kg. Therefore work done in the turbine per kg of feed water between A and B = (h1-h2)

mass of steam in the turbine per kg of feed water

between B and C= (1-m) kg


Therefore, Work done in the turbine between B and C = (1-m) (h2-h3) Total work done = (h1-h2)+(1-m)(h2-h3) And total heat supplied per kg of feed water = h1-hf2 Therefore, Efficiency of the cycle including the effect of bleeding, = Total work done / Total heat supplied = ((h1-h2) + (1-m)(h2-h3))/h1-hf2

NOTE:
If there had been no regenerative feed heating (or in other words, m=1),then the efficiency of the cycle will be the same, as that of rankine cycle. In this case, Rankine efficiency,

Efficiency

= (h1-h3)/(h1-hf3)

Problem : In

a regenerative cycle, having one feed water, the dry saturated steam is supplied from the boiler at a pressure of 30 kg/cm2 and the condenser pressure is 1 kg/cm2. The steam is bled at a pressure of 5 5kg/cm2. Determine the amount of bled steam per kg of steam supplied and the efficiency of the cycle. What would be the efficiency without regenerative feed heating ? Also determine the percentage increase in efficiency due to regeneration.

Given: p1 = 30 kg/cm2 , P2 = 5 kg/cm2 , P3 =1 kg/cm2 Enthalpy of steam at 30 kg/cm2, h1 = 670 kcal/kg Enthalpy of steam at 5 kg/cm2, h2 = 588 kcal/kg Enthalpy of steam at 1 kg/cm2, h3 = 531 kcal/kg From steam tables, enthalpy or sensible heat of water at 5 kg/cm2 ,hf2 = 153 kcal/kg

And enthalpy or sensible heat of water at 1 bar, hf3 = 100kcal/kg Amount of bled steam per kg of steam supplied We know that amount of bled steam per kg of steam supplied m = (hf2-hf3) / (h2-hf3) = ( 153 - 100)/ (588-100) = 0.11 kgs. EFFICIENCY OF THE CYCLE We know that efficiency of the cycle, = (h1-h2)+(1-m)(h2-h3))/(h1-hf2) x100 =(670-588) + (1-0.11)(588-531)/(670-153) x100 =(82 + 0.89x57)/ 517 x100 = 25.67%.

EFFICIENCY OF THE CYCLE WITHOUT REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING

We know that efficiency of the cycle, = (h1-h3)/(h1-hf3) x100 = (670-531)/(670-100) x100

= 139/570 x100
= 0.243 OR 24.3 %

PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY DUE TO REGENARATION

percentage increase in efficiency due to regeneration = (0.257-0.243)/0.243 = 0.0535 or 5.35 %

Consider a regenerative cycle with two feed water heater.


1kg h1 A

C
Turbine B

(1-m1-m2) kg
h4

B1

BOILER

m1 h2
1kg FP hf2 1 hf3 2

h3 m2

condenser

hf4
F.P

(1-m1-m2)kg

In this case, the steam is removed from the turbine at two points B and B1.It is then fed into two open feed water heaters 1 and 2 The steam (at pressure p1) enters the turbine at point A. Let a small amount of steam (say m kg) after partial expansion (at pressure p2 ) be drained from the turbine at point B and enter the feed water heater 1.similarly,let another small amount of steam (say m2 kg ) after further expansion (at pressure p3 ) be drained from the turbine at point B1 and enter the feed water heater 2. The remaining steam equal to (1-m1m2) kg (at pressure p4) is further expanded in turbine, and leaves it at point C .

The steam is then condensed in the condenser . The condensate from the condenser is pumped into the feed water heater , where it mixes up with the steam extracted from the turbine. Now consider 1 kg of steam entering into the turbine at A .
Let,
h1 = Enthalpy of steam entering the turbine at A

h2 = Enthalpy of steam bled at B


h3 = Enthalpy of steam bled at B1

h4 = Enthalpy of steam leaving the turbine at C


hf2 = Enthalpy of feed water leaving the feed water heater 1 hf3 = Enthalpy of feed water leaving the feed water heater 2

hf4 = Enthalpy of feed water leaving the condenser m1 = Amount of steam bled at B per kg of steam supplied, and m2 = Amount of steam bled at B1 per kg of steam supplied As the that heat lost by bled steam at B = Heat gained by feed water m1 (h2-hf2) = (1-m1) (hf2-hf3) m1h2-m1hf2 = hf2-hf3-m1hf2+m1hf3 m1 = (hf2-hf3) / (h2-hf3) Similarly, heat lost by bled steam at B1 =Heat gained by feed water m2 (h3-hf3) = (1-m1-m2) (hf3-hf4) m2h3-m2hf3 = hf3-hf4-m1hf3+m1hf4m2hf3+m2hf4

m2 = ((1-m1) (hf3-hf4) / (h3-hf4) We know that the mass of steam in the turbine per kg of feed water between A and B is 1 kg.

Work done in the turbine per kg of feed water between A and B = h1-h2 And mass of steam in the turbine per kg of feed water between B and B1 = (1-m1) kg Work done in the turbine between B and B1 = (1-m1) (h2-h3) Similarly, mass of steam in the turbine per kg of feed water between B1 and C = (1-m1-m2) kg Work done in the turbine between B1 and C = (1-m1-m2) (h3-h4)

Thus total work done per kg of feed water = (h1-h2) + (1-m1) (h2-h3) + (1-m1-m2) (h3-h4) And total heat supplied per kg of feed water = h1-hf2

Efficiency of the plant including the effect of bleeding,


Efficiency = Total work done/Total heat supplied = (h1-h2) + (1-m1) (h2-h3) + (1-m1-m2) (h3-h4) h1-hf2

NOTE: When the bleeding takes place at more than two points, the efficiency of the plant may be obtained by proceeding in the same way as explained above.

In a steam turbine plant the steam is generated and supplied to the turbine at 50 kg/cm2 and 370deg C, the condenser pressure is 0.1kg/cm2 . Two feed heaters are used, the steam in the heaters bled at 5kg/cm2 and 0.5kg/cm2. In Each heater the feed water is heated to saturation temperature of the bled steam. The condensate is also pumped at this temperature into the feed line immediately after the heater. Find the masses of the steam bled in the turbine per 1kg of steam entering the turbine. calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle SOLUTION: Given: P1 = 50 kg/cm2 , P2 = 5 kg/cm2 , P3 = 0.5 kg/cm2, P4= 0.1 kg/cm2, T1= 370C Enthalpy of steam at 50 kg/cm2, h1 = 742.77kcal/kg Enthalpy of steam at 5 kg/cm2, h2 = 663.95 kcal/kg

Enthalpy of steam at 0.5 kg/cm2, h3 = 599.47kcal/kg Enthalpy of steam at 0.1 kg/cm2, h4 = 561.26 kcal/kg hf2 = 152.87 kcal/kg(at 5kg/cm2) hf3 = 81.34 kcal/kg(at 0.5 kg/cm2) hf4 = 45.80 kcal/kg(at 0.1 kg/cm2) Mass of steam bled in turbine: We know that mass of steam bled at B, m1 = (hf2-hf3) / (h2-hf3) = (152.87 81.34) / (561.26-81.34) = 0.123 kgs.

And mass of steam bled at B1, m2 = (1-m1)(hf3-hf4) / h3-hf4 = (1-0.123)(81.34-45.8) / (59.47-45.8) = 0.056 kg

Thermal Efficiency of the Cycle:


We know the work done from A to B per kg of feed water = h1-h2 = 742.77-663.95 = 78.81 kcal/kg

Similarly work done from B to B1 per kg of feed water = (1-m1)(h2-h3)

= (1-0.123)(663.95-599.47)
= 56.55 kcal /kg And work done from B1 to C per kg of feed water = (1-m1-m2)(h3-h4) = (1-0.123-0.056)(599.47-561.26)

= 31.38 kcal/kg

Therefore total work done = A to B + B to B1 + B1 to C = 78.81+ 56.55+ 31.38 = 166.74 kcal/kg Heat supplied = h1-hf2

= 742.77- 152.87
= 589.9 kcal/kg

Therefore, work done thermal efficiency of the cycle = -------------x100 Heat Supplied

166.74 = ------------ x 100 589.9


= 28 %

50 MW Turbine efficiency calculation

MS flow MS enthalpy HP:6 Extraction flow HP:6 Extraction enthalpy

= 1kg = 823.7 kcal = 0.02kg = 767.0 kcal

HP:5 Extraction flow HP:5 Extraction enthalpy

= 0.07kg = 737.8 kcal

Deaerator Extraction flow = 0.02 kg Deaerator Extraction enthalpy = 718.3 kcal LP:4 Extraction flow LP:4 Extraction enthalpy = 0.04 kg = 676.4 kcal

LP:3 Extraction flow LP:3 Extraction enthalpy


LP:2 Extraction flow LP:2 Extraction enthalpy LP:1 Extraction flow LP:1 Extraction enthalpy

= 0.04 kg = 649.7 kcal


= 0.02 kg = 617.7 kcal = 0.02 kg = 49.6 kcal

Work done between turbine inlet and HP-6 Extrn = 1(Enthalpy of steam at turbine inlet - Enthalpy of steam at HP-6 Extrn) = 1( 823.7-767.0) = 56.7 kcal/kg ---------------------------(1) Work done between HP-6 Extrn point and HP-5 Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow)(Enthalpy of steam at HP-6 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at HP-5 Extrn) =(1-0.02)( 767.0 737.8) = 0.98 x 29.2 = 28.62 kcal/kg ---------------------------(2)

Work done between HP-5 Extrn point and Dtr Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow )(Enthalpy of steam at HP-5 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at Dtr Extrn) =(1-0.02-0.07)(737.8 718.3) = 0.91 x 19.5 = 17.75 kcal/kg --------------------------(3)

Work done between Dtr Extrn point and LP-4 Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow -Dtr Extrn flow )(Enthalpy of steam at Dtr Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at LP-4 Extrn) =(1-0.02-0.07-0.02)( 718.3 676.4) = 0.89 x 41.9 = 37.29 kcal/kg ---------------------------- (4)
Work done between LP-4 Extrn point and LP-3 Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow -Dtr Extrn flow LP-4 Extrn flow)(Enthalpy of steam at LP-4 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at LP- 3 Extrn) =(1-0.02-0.07-0.02- 0.04)( 676.4 649.7) = 0.85 x 26.7 = 22.70 kcal/kg-----------------------------( 5) Work done between LP-3 Extrn point and LP-2 Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow -Dtr Extrn flow LP-4 Extrn flow- LP-3 Extraction flow)(Enthalpy of steam at LP-3 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at LP- 2 Extrn) =(1-0.02-0.07-0.02- 0.04 0.04)( 649.7 617.7) = 0.81 x 32 =25.92 kcal/kg ------------------------------ (6)

Work done between LP-2 Extrn point and LP-1 Extrn point = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow -Dtr Extrn flow LP-4 Extrn flow- LP-3 Extraction flow LP-2 Extraction flow )(Enthalpy of steam at LP- 2 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at LP- 1 Extrn) =(1-0.02-0.07-0.02- 0.04 0.04 0.02)( 617.7 598.4) = 0.79 x 19.3 =15.25 kcal/kg ------------------------------- (7)
Work done between LP-1 Extrn point and last stage of turbine = (1- HP-6 Extrn flow- HP-5 Extrn flow -Dtr Extrn flow LP-4 Extrn flow- LP-3 Extraction flow LP-2 Extraction flow LP-1 Extraction flow)(Enthalpy of steam at LP-1 Extrn - Enthalpy of steam at last stage of turbine) =(1-0.02-0.07-0.02- 0.04 0.04 0.02-0.02)( 598.4 556.4) = 0.77 x 42 = 32.34 kcal/kg ------------------------------ (8) Total work done = (1) + (2) + (3) + (4) +(5) +(6) +(7)+(8)

= 56.7 + 28.62 + 17.75 + 37.29 + 22.70 + 25.92 + 15.25 + 32.34 = 236.57 kcal/kg

Heat supplied = Enthalpy of main steam enthalpy of feed water after HP-5
= (823.7- 214.74) kcal/kg = 608.96 kcal/kg

Efficiency = Total work done Heat input

x 100

Efficiency =

236.57 608.96

x 100

38.84 %