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Handling Hesse Rationalization of Small workpiece feeding English Blue Digest

Handling Machining Assembly Control

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Hesse Rationalization of Small workpiece feeding


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Hesse Rationalization with handling technology

Handling Pneumatics

Stefan Hesse

Rationalization with Handling Technology

Blue Digest on Automation

Foreword

This book deals with the automatic handling of workpieces. It is a highly condensed version of the loose-leaf collection Compendium of Modern Handling Technology [1]. The handling of workpieces is an area that is associated with workpiece flow; workers are still required to perform strenuous, barely creative and sometimes even dangerous work in many parts of industry. What do we understand by handling technology? This term describes a technical area that deals with the manipulation of objects. Like many other disciplines, handling technology has produced its own world of terminology. Technical expressions are necessary for general understanding. They can be defined as follows: Handling technology comprises all means and processes that serve to handle geometrically-determined objectives (handling objects) in the immediate area of a workplace, especially mechanically [2]. Handling is the creating, defined changing or temporary maintaining of a prescribed spatial orientation of geometrically determined bodies in a reference coordination system. Geometrically undefined material cannot be oriented and thereby generally not be considered. Handling functions result when handling sequences are broken down into individual activities [3]. This is necessary for planning purposes. The representation of a handling sequence through solution-independent functions, is the first working step in solving a handling problem. Handling technology has many facets; simple magazines, complicated robots, workpiece carriers, vibrators, rotary bunkers, feeders, grippers, ... and is, above all, a connecting link between different workstations. Handling itself should run as automatically as possible, although this is often only possible in mass production and with materials suitable for handling. Flexible handling equipment creates new possibilities in this regard. Nevertheless, its use does not always fulfil every expectation and sometimes even creates considerable technical difficulties as, for example, in the handling of pliable parts.

Blue Digest on Automation 1999 by Festo AG & Co. Ruiter Strae 82 D-73734 Esslingen Tel. (0711) 347-0 Fax (0711) 347-2155 All rights reserved, including translation rights and in particular the right to apply for patents or to register designs. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Festo AG & Co. Any contravention to this effect will be subject to damages. Handling technology is ultimately also a cost factor. It is worth nothing, that it is not unusual for more than half of the total investment in production and assembly systems to be in respect of workpiece supply and interlinkage of equipment. This requires a comparison of alternatives and strict systematic planning of handling techniques. It is gradually being recognised that robots are not required for everything. A balance between conventional handling and high-tech equipment also offers a basis for viable automation solutions.

Handling devices can be classified from different points of view. Accordingly, expressions are used in accordance with the global functions that they have to fulfil, such as supply fixture, interlinking system, feed system, etc. Such terms do not clearly indicate their function. Terms which relate directly to the handling operations to be performed, such as bunker, feeder, magazine, etc. are better. Since the development of industrial robots, programmability has also become an important factor. Accordingly, a distinction is made between programmed, programmable (variable sequence devices) and freely programmable devices (axes, industrial robots). The automation of handling is not bound to particular branches of industry in any way, nor is it of importance only where it is possible to build new manufacturing lines. The need and potential exists in almost any company that processes loose parts, strips and band materials. In the automation of assembly processes, handling tasks can be seen in concentrated form, where many individual parts must be handled reliably at very short intervals, often with complicated arrangements. This is a task of considerable complexity. In general, the level of automation to be achieved must be defined and justified before commencing automation projects of this type, and evidence of the economic benefit needs to be prepared. There is a close relationship between workpiece design and independent workpiece flow, which requires a joint approach by product designers, planners and technologists. These considerations must therefore be taken into account when designing individual parts suitable for handling and also when making the correct selection of the technical handling tools. Handling equipment was first used in mass production. The first examples can be found in the previous century, as the following examples show: 1873 Spencer (USA) builds automatic lathes with magazine feeding 1880 Worley manufactures turret lathes with rod guides 1923 Morris Motors (Great Britain) commissions a mechanically-controlled indexing line for the machining of cylinder heads 1924 Rotary table machines with automatic part feed are introduced in the light bulb industry 1958 Development of the first industrial robot in the USA

It is a generally known fact today, that the handling process is a part of manufacturing which is just as important as the actual machining process of the workpiece itself. In particular, the unproductive waiting time during workpiece change can be reduced significantly through automatic handling. With the industrial robot, a technology was finally created, which was suitable for use in the manufacturing of small series, in assembly processes and for the guidance of tools. The conventional handling equipment has not been eliminated in any way. It will still be needed in the manufacture of medium and large series. In fact it is still gaining in importance, as feed devices of different kinds are often needed as peripherals in robot working cells. Without giving preference to certain areas, this book aims to present a crosssection of handling techniques. This is done, above all, from the design/planning point of view. For reasons of space, many points are kept brief and merely give a broad outline. This book should also serve as a means of reflection and reference. Patented solutions and details are not shown comprehensively. The reader may have to conduct his own research.

Plauen, November 1997

Dr. Stefan Hesse

Foreword Table of contents Table of contents

5 7

1 Functions and objects 2 Bin feed devices 3 Stack devices 4 Magazines 5 Sorting devices 6 Metering and dosing 7 Clamping 8 Output, alignment, branching 9 Feed devices 10 Handling systems 11 Grippers 12 Sensors 13 Further reading and list of sources 14 Glossary of technical terms

11 16 21 24 33 47 56 58 62 85 95 99 101 103

How can handling functions be represented? 1 Functions and objects Symbols are used to compile function charts. It is possible to specify only the characteristics functions of a sequence or also all installed functions, if appropriate broken down to elementary functions [3].

Symbols for functions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Orderly storage Partly orderly storage Random storage Division Combination Division and metering Metered outfeed Branching Amalgamation Sorting Turning Swiveling Shifting Orientation Positioning Orientation Guiding Forwarding Conveying Stopping Releasing Clamping Unclamping Checking Checking presence Checking identity Checking shape Checking size Checking color Checking weight Checking position Checking orientation Measuring Measuring position Measuring orientation Counting Handling Monitoring Production Shaping Changing shape Joining

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

Composition of functions 1 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 16 17 18 = n 20 = 36 + 4 = 6 + 18 = 18 + 4 + 18 = 18 + 5 + 18 = 26 + 8 = 11 + 13 = 32 + 11 = 31 + 13 = 14 + 15 = 32 + 8 + 17 + 19 = 20 + 18 = 13 + 11

1 Functions and objects

11

Distinguishing between objects on the basis of types of behavior.

How can we distinguish between workpieces? Workpieces can be classified on the basis of numerous criteria. The classification below is based on types of behavior. Classification of workpieces is particularly important in order to allow selection of suitable function devices for handling operations [4].

What typical behavior groups can be specified for round-section workpieces? Behavior groups, shown by the example of round-section workpieces Depending on its geometrical shape, size (mass), material and surface properties, every workpiece has certain rest and motion behavior and a certain stacking capacity. This is shown by examples of axially-symmetrical workpieces. These properties have an influence on the design of handling devices.

Complex workpieces are sometimes referred to as haystack workpieces, since they can tangle to form random combinations. Types of behavior can be further classified, for example on the basis of dimensional ratios. W~H~L W~H~L W~H~L W~H L/D 0.5 L/D 0.5 L/D 1 L/D ~ 1 L/D 2 L/D 2

No. Type of behavior

Examples

1 Complex workpieces

L/D > 1
2 Flat workpieces Free rest positions 3 Cylindrical workpieces

L/D < 1

L1, L2, D1, D2

4 Block-shaped workpieces Guided motion positions (rolling)

5 Conical workpieces

6 Pyramid-shaped workpieces

Guided motion positions (sliding)

7 Mushroom-shaped workpieces Creation of workpiece groups (axially parallel)

8 Hollow workpieces

9 Built-up shaped workpieces

10 Irregular solid workpieces

Creation of workpiece groups (coaxial)

11 Spherical workpieces

12 Bulk-length workpieces

Random order

12

1 Functions and objects

1 Functions and objects

13

Is it possible to handle flexible workpieces? Workpieces with unstable shapes The increased use today of innovative workpieces such as technical textiles, plastic sheeting, etc. means more hard-to-handle workpieces with unstable shapes. Experiments will generally be required to find a suitable handling method. Possible gripping methods include pairings of shapes, forces and materials. Force fields are generally the only option for large workpieces [5] to [7].
Sliding on an inclined plane e g h v R a w l Constant (2.718) Gravitational acceleration Height of fall Velocity at radius end R Path radius Path angle Radius angular pitch Coefficient of friction

How can we influence frictional behavior? The frictional behavior of workpieces is an important factor in situations where these workpieces are able to move freely and depends principally on the relevant coefficient of friction. Experiments will generally be required in order to identify this behavior. Frictional behavior can be influenced to a large degree by changing frictional pairings, for example by using air cushions.

Examples 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Flat complex shapes (2D) 2 1/2-D cut shapes Bellows, sleeves 3D shaped workpieces Strips, belts, cables Foil cut shapes 3D tubes/hoses Tubes/hoses with end reinforcements

1
Notes Avoid 3D shaping of rubber moldings if possible Create easy-to-handle ends (easy to grip and join) Create broad gripping areas to ensure low gripping pressure Produce cut shapes locally from roll material if possible Allow for folds in the design of gripper components Edge reinforcements are always an advantage, as are beads and mirror images Moldings can be made temporarily more rigid by cooling

Sliding on air-cushion trough 1 2 3 p t l G F H a m g s Compressed air supply Air nozzle Air film Pressure Time Coefficient of (air) friction ~ 10 4 Dynamic frictional force Weight force F=mg Static frictional force 1 ... 3 Mass Gravitational acceleration Gap

3 2 1

F G H

Handling methods Suction cups with widely-distributed suction openings Needle grippers with micro-needle arrays Combinations of suction cups and aerodynamic paradoxes Layer or drop of adhesive on gripper component Gripping by freezing to refrigerated sheets Electrostatic gripping Oversize flat or shaped gripper jaws

14

1 Functions and objects

1 Functions and objects

15

Can workpieces be sorted in a bin? 2 Bin feed devices In handling systems, bins are generally equipped with sorting or removal devices. The workpieces are aligned by the alignment edges of the removal devices. Scoop bins are particularly suitable for smaller workpieces.
Scoop segment design (dimensions in mm)

What is the best design for scoop segments? The scoop segment of a scoop bin must be designed to match the workpiece concerned. In the case of troughs, it must be ensured that dirt and chips can be discharged automatically, for example through side slots.

Scoop bins
n Double strokes per minute p Occupation coefficient (0.5 to 0.7), depends on filling level of bin B1 = (8 ... 10 L) B2 = (12 ... 15 L) L Workpiece length L1 = (7 ... 10 L) L1 Scoop component length v Sliding velocity to destination point in m/min. z Number of scoop components 20 ... 45

B1

B2

Some design tips: Segments should be made of wear-resistant material; surfaces should be hardchrome-plated if necessary Discharge openings should be provided for dirt Avoid V-slot abrasion with conical workpieces Protect segments against overload (adhering residues)

L1

l1 = l + 1 l2 = d + 1

l1 = R R = (0.60.7) d

l1 = 0.5 d l2 = b + 1

Q = n L1 p z/L in units/min. Drive rating N = 0.008 L1 in kW n = v/L1 p) in double strokes/min.

Delivery capacity

l1 = (0.51.0) l l2 = d + (12) l3 = d1 + (23)

l1 = l + (12) l2 = b + 1

l1 = l (12)

l1 = d1 + (12) l2 = d + (12)

l1 = l 0.6 = + 2

l1 = 1.1 d l2 = 0.1 d 0 3045 17

16

2 Bin feed devices

Bin feed devices

What may causes problems with scoop segment bins? Scoop segment bins Problem areas are the points of transfer from the bin to the scoop segment and from this to the output channel. In the first case, scraping and abrasion of stationary workpieces against the segment may lead to malfunctions, as may also result if several workpieces jam against the bin wall if half the bin width is 4x the length of the workpieces. There must be no collisions or jamming during output [8].
Sliding and rotary bins 1 Rodless pneumatic cylinder 2 Bin 3 Thrust rod 4 Sensor to detect ring slot 5 Output wheel for incorrectly-oriented workpieces 6 Thrust output for correctlyoriented workpieces 7 Solenoid actuator to index wheel 5 8 Workpiece (example) 1 2 3 4 Slide path Vibrator Rotary disc Workpiece Angle of inclination

What is a stack bin? Stack bins Stack bins contain workpieces which have degree of freedom 2 with regard to their position. For orderly feed to take place, they must be brought or sorted into a line. The appropriate motion can be executed either continuously or intermittently. Additional vibrators are generally also required in order to break up any bridge accumulations.

4 6

2 1 5 8

8
Friction bin

1
1 Bin 2 Roller, eccentricallypivoted 3 Conveyor belt 4 Rocker arm = 4 ... 6

Possible sources of faults in segment design Wrong Tilting and jamming at the outlet must be avoided.

Pipe feed bin 1 Bin 2 Stand 3 Drive shaft with overload coupling 4 Rotary metering device 5 Outlet 6 Flat to create vibrator effect

4 3 2 5

Right Spring-loaded components, sliding radii and push ejectors for sideways workpieces

18

2 Bin feed devices

2 Bin feed devices

19

Are multiple arrays of scoop segments advantageous? The principle of a scoop segment can be produced in a variety of designs, with both linear and arc motions, and in single and multiple configurations. The solution shown below is used to separate workpieces out of a bin and provide pre-orientation, or if required also full orientation. Further orientation devices can be used downstream.
Lifting-plate bins Outlet conveyor zone Linear vibrator Scoop segment Return path Bin Base frame Orientation zone Overhead transfer from top conveyor zone to orientation zone W, L Main dimensions of scoop segment, matched to workpiece class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 Stack devices

Can a stack be created and broken up by using the same principle in two different directions? The main problem with buffer concepts is integration. The way a buffer is filled is just as important as the way it is emptied. One suitable automation solution is to use steel-strip or fabric-belt troughs to create sack buffers.

Buffer system with steel-strip or fabric-belt trough

7 8

1 2 3

4 5

a) Loading station b) Loading; the buffer volume is continuously adjusted during filling to match the filling level c) Loading completed d) Pallet removed; transport can now be carried out e) Unloading station with filled pallet f ) Break-up of stack by stepwise shortening of trough strip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Feed zone Strip roll Frame Steel strip, chain, belt, cable Pallet Outlet zone Workpieces (pipes, shafts, rods, posts) Metering device

3 5

Motion phases of segments

8 6 7

Workpiece classes

Dimensions range Mass in kg Throughput in units/min.

1050 mm 0.05 1120

50100 mm 0.2 160

100300 mm 2 130

20

2 Bin feed devices

3 Stack devices

21

How can workpiece stacks be broken up? Long workpieces such as pipes, rods, boards and tree-trunks are often fed in bundles. The bundles are then broken up by feeding the workpieces stepwise into a line configuration. When breaking up stacks of sheet-metal workpieces, it is advantageous to use an intermediate setdown position in order to allow large distances to be bridged.
Example 1: Phases of operation of a stack trough Workpiece holder Support Pneumatic cylinder Pivot arm Workpieces Lowering unit Rolling track Metering device Tapered roller Lowering of workpiece holder B Opening of pivot arm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A Example 4: Stacking roller

How can small flat workpieces be stacked? Small flat workpieces can be stacked, for example as a preparation for packing, by using conveyor belts running at different speeds. The workpieces need to be stood on edge as they pass from one belt to the other. Stacking rollers and wheels can be used for this purpose.

1 4 5 2 6 3 7 8 9

Variant 1 1 Conveyor belt 2 Stacking wheels at left and right of conveyor belt 3 Setdown rail 4 Conveyor belt 5 Workpiece stack Variant 2 1 2 3 4 5 Sliding track Segmented roller Setdown zone Workpiece Workpiece stack

V1 V2 2 4 4 1 2 3 3 4

A
Example 2: Swivel-plate device 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Workpiece outfeed Outfeed track Lifting segment Fixed track Separator Rolling track Divider/metering device Workpiece Swivel plate Workpiece feed Hydraulic cylinder

8
Example 5: Stacking with stacking roller

1 V1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5

Infeed belt Metering device Stacking roller Vibrator conveyor Outfeed belt

V2 4 6 6 9
Example 6: Stacking with rotary brush

4 3 V1 1 2 4 5

Example 3: Destacking device for sheetmetal workpieces 1 Intermediate setdown position 2 Suction cup 3 Spreader magnet 4 Lifting unit 5 Arm guide 6 Frame 7 Ejector finger 8 Reserve stack 9 Supply trolley 10 Sub-frame

10 2 1 3 5 8 6 4 7 9 2

1 2 3 4 5

Infeed belt Sliding track Rotary brush Outfeed belt Workpiece stack

V2

V2 V1

11

22

3 Stack devices

3 Stack devices

23

How can workpieces be removed from stack magazines? 4 Magazines One frequently-used solution is indexed drums. Workpieces are output by being tipped into a channel. The indexing motion is generally provided by a control cam and lifter rod. It is important that the actuating stroke should be produced by spring force (to provide overload protection), with a direct linkage only for the return stroke.
Stack magazine 2 1 Multiple swivel metering device and pivoted lever 2 Pair of pivoted levers 3 Two-channel outlet and clockwise/counterclockwise rotor 4 Sickle metering device with modified outlet shape 5 Straight-walled bin and toggle lever 6 Counter-rotating brush Note

What is the best design for the workpieces outlets of stack magazines? These should be designed so as to avoid the risk of bridge formation, which can seriously impede the flow of workpieces. Moving components are thus fitted which interfere with the formation of workpiece arches. These components may be pivoted levers or lugs and rotary devices. If possible, bin walls should be straight and not inclined, and smooth rather than rough.

Stack magazine 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Magazine wall Ratchet Drive rod for ratchet Drive shaft Metering drum Workpiece Gravity shaft

6
Tool to aid rapid filling of magazine

5 4

Design measures should be taken to absorb the weight forces of upper layers of workpieces. S G Poor Good, better

6 3 7

A 3 4

Avoidance of bridge formation 1 Air-pressurized rubber diaphragm 2 Air injection point (L)

Output with slide metering device In the case of solution A, the upper side of the slide is ridged to generate motion in the workpieces and thus prevent the formation of bridges. In the case of solution B, the gripper arm is fed with a workpiece for further handling (machine feed).

5
G
1 L

A
2

24

4 Magazines

4 Magazines

25

When are special magazines used to hold supplies of workpieces? Emergency buffers Special magazines are used in response to special requirements, resulting either from the process concerned or the properties of the workpiece in question. The recirculating magazine shown here has been designed to store large quantities of small workpieces so that one filling will be sufficient for a complete shift. The chain is endless and runs in numerous convolutions. The box magazine is intended for reels of thread, fed in automatically. An interesting feature of this is the pin rake which engages periodically in the workpieces and, in a second motion phase, pushes a reel into the output shaft. The disc magazine in the third example can be reset quickly when required, since all storage positions can be adjusted in one operation.
A Recirculating magazine

What do we mean by buffering with direct or indirect feed? Workpieces can be fed directly or via magazine locations which allow an indefinite dwell time and whose contents are drawn on as a reserve only when required (recirculating buffers). The creation of buffers of this kind not only requires the solution of technical problems but must also be justified in economic terms. This will generally require an analysis of the reliability of the overall system concerned.
A Throughflow buffer In an emergency, the part of the device which is normally the empty return side of the chain can store a certain number of workpieces, depending in the length of the chain. B Throughflow buffer (plan view) The continuously-rotating disc is used as a linking device but can also act as a buffer for a small quantity of workpieces, depending on the size of the disc.

1
This is an active buffer. All workpieces are removed at the same point.

3
1 2 3 4 Control panel Drive motor Schematic chain run Frame

5
3

4 A
B Box magazine with metering device for reels of thread 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Infeed device Drive rod Reel in waiting position Slide for adjustment of outlet Reel magazine Rotary metering device Linkage bearing Make-up feed linkage Retaining pin Lifting linkage Drive for lifting linkage

C Recirculating buffer Workpieces can be buffered in a secondary stream. The workpieces must be fed in singly. D Recirculating buffer (plan view) Any temporary excess of workpieces can be buffered in tracks at right angles to the main conveyor direction. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Metering device Monitoring sensor Controllable output device Buffer disc Outfeed zone Indexing during filling Indexing during emptying

6 7

10

11

C Disc magazine with adjustable workpiece holders The left and right retaining jaws are connected to two separate rings a and b. The jaws are adjusted for different workpiece dimensions by turning the rings in opposite directions.

b C

26

4 Magazines

4 Magazines

27

What is the best design for rolling channels and sliding tracks? Many methods can be used to magazine and forward individual workpieces, pipes, bars and profiles. It is often possible to create channels using only a small number of standard components. The track width can easily be adapted, for example for bends, using spacer sleeves and washers.
Example 1: Rolling channels, sliding and roller tracks 1 Workpiece 2 Long material 3 Electronic components for SMT systems 4 Trough 5 Roller 6 Wire 7 Circuitry Important: Provide space to accommodate dirt deposits. Spring steel is a good material for rolling channels and adapts well to bends (provide elongated mounting holes instead of round ones). Straight-cut gear wheels will not roll if they are in contact with each other. V trough b b b B Half V angle = 45 for light workpieces = 60 for light workpieces = 0.8 D Example 2: Holder for straight-cut spur gears

When do we need special components to ensure a defined position and orientation? In general, we can say that with V-shaped workpieces we can always do without orientation aids, with axially symmetrical workpieces very often, particularly in devices used to feed machines. In automated assembly systems, on the other hand, it is often necessary for functional reasons to maintain a certain orientation, for example when meshing gear wheels (example 11). The examples below maintain position only:

1
1 2 3 4 Positioning mandrel Bar to prevent rotation Workpiece Pallet base

2 3 4

The feather-key slot of gearwheels can also often be used to prevent rotation. The most suitable type of workpiece holder will also depend on the type of gripper to be used.

Example 3: Holder for round workpieces 1 Compact inclined holder 2 Plug-in holder with drawn collar 3 Plug-in holder with pressed raised edge 4 Pallet base with support plate and template 5 Plug-in holder with turnedup raised edge 6 V strips for wave-shaped workpieces

U trough H = 0.33 D (sphere) H = 0.27 D (cylinder) H = 0.5 D (ring) d Workpiece diameter H Edge height

D B

28

4 Magazines

4 Magazines

29

When do we need special magazines? Special magazines are used to provide particular handling functions or meet certain process conditions. This type of magazine is generally not available off the shelf.

How do lifting magazines work? In the case of lifting magazines, workpieces are removed from the top. This type of magazine is thus very suitable for workpieces with sensitive surfaces which cannot be slid, for example workpieces with polished, coated or galvanized surfaces. The lifting function is provided by similar mechanisms to those used in drum magazines.
Example 7: Lifting magazine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D Workpiece Light barrier Magazine shaft Rotary plate Drive motor Lifting device Gear rack Relay Reference circle diameter, e.g. 150, 200 or 260 mm

Example 4: Shaft magazine with auxiliary rail for non-stackable workpieces 1 2 3 4 Magazine shaft Auxiliary rail Metering slide Workpiece

1 4 2 3

D 2 3 4 5 6 8 3 7 6 2 1

Example 5: Disc magazines 1 Input side 2 Removal side 3 Workpiece Inclined-axis magazines have the advantage that stored workpieces move to the edge of the magazine by gravity,

2 3

1 3

5 2 3 1 2 1

Drive systems for lifting devices Indirect drive Example 6: Magazine plate feed device 1 2 3 4 5 6 Feed arm Pivoted guide rail Plate Workpiece Edge Vibrator chute

6 1
1 Ratchet mechanism 2 Spindle/nut transmission 3 Rack-and-pinion transmission 4 Friction-wheel transmission 5 Gravity drive Direct drive 6 Lifting spring drive 7 Pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder 8 Rodless cylinder 9 Linear electric motor

2 3 5

30

4 Magazines

4 Magazines

31

How do climbing magazines work? Climbing magazines are shaft magazines equipped with lifting pistons which advance in a stepwise manner. The lifting pistons are self-locking and can be released to allow filling of the magazines. They can be driven economically by compressed-air pulses. The workpieces are always removed from the top of the magazines [9].
Example 8: Climbing magazines Workpiece stack Magazine shaft Bayonet lock Lifting piston Air supply Lifting-piston seal Pressure pin Pressure plate to transmit a load-dependent force to the internal pressure medium 9 Pressure-medium reservoir 10 Light barrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Should we also carry out orientation operations within a magazine? 5 Sorting devices It is often easier to fill a magazine with only partly sorted workpieces, particularly when these are filled by hand, and then eliminate the remaining undesired degree of freedom within the magazine. This can be carried out in free fall at turning points, or swivel turning devices can be used. In either case, signal processing and a controller are not required [10].

1 10 6 6 10 2 5 1 4 1 4 8 6 7 9 5 5 2
Climber

Sorting shouldered sleeves in a step magazine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Workpiece Step magazine Metering device Sorting channel Metering slide Helix guide slot Correctly oriented workpiece

1 3 6 4 2 3 5

6 2

Sorting cups in a shaft magazine 1 2 3 4 5 6 a b Magazine shaft Metering device Workpiece Carrier pin, operative if opening first Fall-through opening Swivel segment Operation in the case of incorrect orientation Operation in the case of correct orientation

5 4 6

Comparison of magazines Good Limited suitability Poor Interchangeability Type of magazine

Gravity shaft

Lifting magazine

Lifting piston

6 a b 1 2 3

Convertability Automatic filling capability

7
Sorting collared workpieces

4 6 5

Examples of parallel operation of climbing components 1 - 3 Guide rod 4 Workpiece 5 Magazine rod 6 Lifting mechanism 7 Support plate

7 6

1 Feed channel 2 Rotatable but non-driven core piece 3 Rotating outer ring with drop-in opening 4 Workpiece 5 Output channel a Operation in the case of incorrect orientation b Operation in the case of correct orientation

32

4 Magazines

5 Sorting devices

33

What principle can be used to sort transformer core stampings? If it is not possible to magazine stampings directly from the stamping tool, they must be sorted from a random accumulation. In many cases, step-by-step sorting will be advantageous or necessary. A sorting drum is first used to produce a string of single workpieces. The remaining degrees of freedom are then eliminated.
Sorting drums The workpieces are aligned by bead rings. Workpieces which have been aligned exit from the drum via slots in the drum shell. Separating unequal-leg stampings On the vibrator unit 7, the workpieces 4 are aligned according to their longer legs and thus pass from the rail 5 to the magazine rail 6. S Vibrations Suspension M-shaped stampings suspend themselves when they pass over the tilting edge 2 and reach the rails 3. The four possible orientations of L-shaped stampings Example 1: Orientated forwarding from a press 1 2 3 4 Press tool Material strip Guide channel Level monitoring

How can guidance and correctly-oriented buffering be combined? Ducts and channels can be used to link various workstations. The workpieces can be fed along these links either singly or in groups. Flat workpieces can generally be transferred using this method only in a continuous workpiece stream [13].

1 2 4 3

Example 2: Orientated forwarding to a flat pallet

5 4 1

4 S

5 6

1 Workpiece in working position 2 Rotary disc 3 Compressed-air nozzle 4 Guide channel 5 Flat pallet Example 3: Orientated output to a press

2 1 6 2 3

7
1 2 3 4 5 6 Cutting tool Rotary disc Magazine rail Rail mounting Workpiece Compressed air

4 4

1 4

Example 4: Orientated output from a stamping tool 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stamping tool Rotary disc Magazine bar Rail mounting Compressed air Workpiece

2 5 6

34

5 Sorting devices

5 Sorting devices

35

What workpiece features can be utilized for sorting ? The features of a workpiece and the selection of technical equipment for sorting are closely related. We will always attempt to utilize the features which can assure maximum reliability of the sorting process. The resulting solutions can often be surprisingly simple, as the example of air-jet sorting shows.
Sorting with air jets Two air jets ensure that incoming workpieces are sorted into two channels according to their orientation. D Compressed air

How can we describe the logical relationships involved in sorting with rotary and inverting devices? In order to determine the control functions required with a sorting device, we must study the logic relating to the rotation and inversion of workpieces present in random order. The example below assumes 4 possible positions. We first compile a function table with yes/no information (1/0). Workpieces which do not conform to any one of the 4 signal patterns will be declared as defective. The switching functions for inversion about x (Wx), inversion about z (Wz) and exclusion (F) are then simplified with the aid of Karnaugh diagrams. Finally, the signal circuit diagram is drawn [11].
Detecting shape with spot sensors
Y Z

Y 1 0 1 Z X 0 0 0 1 2 3 Position 1 A Position 2 Wz

Sorting pins A recirculating double wedge slide picks up randomlyordered workpieces and transports these to an output point.

D D

D
(Soll-Lage) Desired X

position

Workpiece Werkstck

A Stop S1 to S3 Sensors W Inversion

S2 S1 1 0 0 Wz 1 1 0

D
Sorting with a video system One workpiece at a time occupies the lowest position in a parabolic trough. The rotary motion is then halted precisely when the desired orientation is reached. Camera Monitored area Drive motor Support structure with vibrator S Vibration 1 2 3 4

Karnaugh diagram This is a graphical method of simplifying logical switching functions with several variables to find the shortest form.

1 2

Wx
S1 S2 Wx = S1 ^ S3

Wx Position 4 Wx Wz F & & & & & 1 37 S1 S2 S3

Position 3

3 S 4
S2

S3 S1

S3 S2 S1 Wx Wz F 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 Position 2 Position 3 Wrong Position 4 Wrong Position 1 Wrong Wrong

S3 S1 S2 Wz = S3 ^ S2

S3 F = (S2 ^ S3) v (S3 ^ S1) v (S2 ^ S1)

Function table

Signal circuit diagram

36

5 Sorting devices

5 Sorting devices

Is it possible to sort and check workpieces in a single device? Programmable sorting In applications involving the feed of mass workpieces, it is often desirable not only to ensure the correct orientation of workpieces but also to check important workpiece features. One way of doing this is to use classic feed systems but with the addition of an optoelectronic detection system. If this detection system can be programmed for small features, it can be used in a flexible sorting device (at least for workpiece families). The system can learn from master workpieces and can evaluate up to 2500 elements of the silhouette of workpieces.
A Complete system for sorting and checking B Sectional view of detection system (Rhein-NadelAutomation) 1 Controller and programmer 2 Lighting 3 Camera 4 Conveyor belt 5 Deflector for exclusion 6 Discharge belt 7 Preliminary bin 8 Helicoidal vibrating bin 9 Workpiece 10 Conveyor belt drive

What active components can be used for sorting? Sorting can be carried out using all kinds of components. A typical feature of sorting devices is that these components are required to provide continuous or intermittent motions. In the first example below, sorting is carried out in two stages orientation based on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece, followed by inversion of incorrectly-oriented workpieces detected by the design of their front faces. This process utilizes the eccentricity of the center of gravity. In the case of sorting in a magazine, an eccentric rotor turns the workpieces in steps until their electrode connections have reached a certain position. In the third example, an impaled workpiece is pulled out of the bin. An elastic wall piece prevents other workpieces from following.
A Sorting in a rotary bin 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pierced rotor Workpiece Bin Retaining plate Conveyor belt Outlet tube for sorted workpieces 7 Stop edge to invert workpieces

1 2

1 2 3

3 4 5 7 8 9 6

4 5

B Sorting in a magazine

C Programmable measurement criteria 1 Comparison of heights without determination of absolute measurement 2 Comparison of heights with absolute reference dimensions 3 Comparison of all measurement points (x, y values) 4 Precise determination of x dimension for workpieces with a recess 5 Measurement of workpiece height at any desired number of individually-definable points 6 Determination of the overall length of a workpiece

1 Workpiece (electronic component) 2 Shaft magazine 3 Rotor 4 Retaining plate

6 2 7 5 A

1
Measurement criteria C Sorting by picking from heap

2 3 4 10

1 2 3 4

Relative comparison Absolute comparison Contour Edge detection: Positive edge Negative edge

2
1 2 3 4 5 Bin Workpiece Elastic slotted wall piece Hook gripper Linear axes

3 1 2 3

5 6

Height measurement Length measurement

1 B C

4 5

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Sorting with shaped devices

What conveyor components can be used to aid mechanical sorting in a vibrating conveyor? Although there are only a few basic workpiece shapes, there are many different variants, for which the solutions are often surprisingly simple. Most variants will admittedly require refinement during the experimental stage before they work perfectly, but once this is done the resulting sorting mechanism is in most cases uncomplicated.

What workpiece features should be exploited for sorting? Every object has a wealth of features. For the purposes of sorting, we select the features which can be used to obtain a reliable result at minimum cost. Mechanical methods are usually cheap but inflexible. The greater the number of free workpiece motions involved, the more unreliable the sorting operation generally becomes. The answer in most cases is to provide more results monitoring.
Sorting using profile openings

A Toggle lever A toggle lever 2 oscillates along with the main system. If its motion is restricted as a workpiece 3 passes through on the helix 4, this causes a change in the reaction of the ejector lever 5. 1 Transmission lever

1 1 2
1 Vibrator chute 2 Wiper 3 Returned incorrectlyoriented workpieces 4 Vibratory motion 5 Correctly-oriented workpiece 6 Return track for incorrectly-oriented workpieces 7 Ejected workpiece 8 Profile openings for incorrectly-oriented workpieces (3 windows in succession) Angle (approx. 70)

B 6 2 7 8 6

1 3 5 A 4 2

B Tilting edge 1 Helicoidal vibrator 2 Workpiece in good position 3 Workpieces in bad position tilt over

3 B

C Suspension rail

1
1 Workpiece in good position is suspended 2 Helicoidal vibrator

AA 1 2
Sorting in a shaped trough This exploits the effect of the center of gravity. The workpieces gradually assume the correct position. Figs. I to IV show the orientation sequence.

BB

2
D Aligning post

3
1 Tube with profile opening in infeed 2 Post edge, operative only with incorrectly-aligned workpiece 3 Aligned workpiece 4 Vibrator attachment

II

III

IV

Sorting using a catch hook E Aligning post 1 Workpiece shapes 2 Tilting zone in helicoidal vibrator 3 Post edge 4 Aligned workpiece Incorrectly-oriented workpieces are impaled and rotate. 1 Correctly-oriented workpiece 2 Incorrectly-oriented workpiece 3 Discharge channel 4 Vibrator device 5 Catch hook

1 2

5 4 3

4 5 2

4 5 2

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How can chicanes be designed to provide a sorting function within vibrators? Sorting in a vibrator There are many ways of using workpiece features for sorting by making workpieces tilt, fall or align themselves. The example shows an unusual way of sorting open rings [12]. The workpieces pass from the flat track into a trough and are then impaled on a mandrel. Some of the rings rotate on the mandrel about their own axis until the annular gap in the rings lines up with the web plate.
A Standing cylinders on end 1 Workpiece 2 Edge to produce tipping against the outer wall 3 Helicoidal vibrator B Sorting right-angle workpieces with unequal-length sides 1 Workpiece 2 Retaining bracket 3 Inclined inversion track with aperture

How can a fuse-holder be sorted in a vibrator? A facility is provided for workpieces to hang in a slot 0.5 mm wide. Workpieces which fail to do this fall back into the bin. The workpieces are then picked up by a hanging ledge, followed by transfer to a slot magazine.
Example 1: Workpiece

3 2

1 2 3
0.4 mm

4 5
C Sorting open circlips 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Inclined helix Lower part of helix Retainer Hanging ledge Sorted workpiece Magazine exit Workpiece

B C 6 B C A A

4
1 2 3 4 5 Magazining mandrel Trough exit Web plate Vibrator Workpiece

1 2

Roughly 20% of conveyed components exit from the vibrator in a sorted state. Handling technology

D Sorting right-angle workpieces with equal-length sides 1 Helicoidal vibrator bin 2 Helicoidal zone produced by milling 3 Workpiece E Sorting tapered control knobs 1 Helicoidal vibrator bin 2 Sliding path matched to workpiece 3 Correctly-oriented workpiece

Deflector

3
Notch

2 2 3 3
Hanging ledge Slot Incorrectlyoriented workpieces

7 6

Slot magazine

Section A A

Section B B

Section C C

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How can a suspendable workpiece be sorted? The success of the sorting operation depends on two factors the workpiece reaching a state of lying on its back, and the subsequent longitudinal orientation. Following this, there are two possible orientations bushing at the front, or bushing at the rear. Uniform orientation is achieved as the workpieces are suspended in a slot.
Example 3: Example 2: Workpiece Workpiece

What sorting components can be used with small surface features? For the stamping shown below and similar workpieces, guide edges can be provided against which lugs, projections, hooks, etc. can align themselves. Incorrectly-oriented workpieces must then be removed via a separate guide track in order to obtain uniform orientation at the exit.

5 4 1 3 B C

4
1 Notch 2 Workpiece 3 Guide slot to allow exit of incorrectly-oriented workpieces 4 Inclined support surface 5 Curved guide to achieve stud-first orientation 6 Covered slide track 7 Vertical wiper 8 Cover plate 9 Stop edge for stud

D A
1 Lateral slot to allow exit of workpieces with incorrect bushing orientation 2 Ramp to stand workpieces on edge 3 Flange 4 Slot

B A B C

2 1 7

Handling technology

C
Handling technology

2
Deflector
Deflector

8 9

Notch

Notch

D
Lateral slot

Guide slot

3 Section A A
Guidance

Suspended workpieces

Section B B

Section C C

Ramp

Incorrectlyoriented workpieces

Curved guide

Suspended workpieces

Section A A

Section B B

Section C C

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How do we carry out sorting in scoop bins? A typical feature of this is that workpieces are drawn directly from a heaped configuration. This can be achieved through linear or rotary motions of the active components. The scoop components may be mandrels, troughs, cups or strips. Scoop bins are particularly suitable for feeding small workpieces to automatic machine tools.
Example 4: Scoop bin 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bin Workpiece Discharge track Scoop segment Scoop mandrel Release tube, relative motion after ejection position is reached 7 Shaft magazine

6 Metering and dosing

Does the motion sequence have an effect on the reliability of a metering device? The motion of a metering device (start and end) may comprise a step change, may be jerky, jerk-free but non-linear or jerk-free and linear. We must decide on the basis of the active forces what motion function can be accepted.

Motion sequences with metering function

s
a s t v Acceleration Distance Time Velocity

t 3 1 2 4 t a 8 a v v

t v

t a

1 t 7
Jerk at start and end Jerk-free but non-linear motion Motion jerk-free and linear

2
Examples Brake motor Switching cam Drive crank Shaft magazine Workpiece Metering slide Metering chain Rotary metering device with Archimedian screw 9 Rotary table with roller crown 10 Swivel-segment metering device 11 Roller metering device 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 4 5 5

4 9

6 5
Example 5: Scoop-wheel bin 1 2 3 4 Bin Scoop wheel Gravity shaft Workpiece

10 1 11 2 4 4 8 4 5 6 2 7

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How should metering devices be designed for heavy or undercut workpieces? In the case of heavy workpieces, the workpiece to be metered should be freed of the weight forces of the other workpieces in the magazine. This can be achieved by using single-acting, double-acting, mechanically- or pneumatically-controlled workpiece barriers. These not only relieve weight but provide stepwise release of the next workpiece.
Example 1: Metering device with barrier 1 2 3 4 Magazine shaft Barrier Metering bar Workpieces

Does the workpiece shape influence the design of the metering device? Metering devices must often be specially matched to a particular workpiece and pick-up direction. The illustrations below show two typical phases of a metering operation.
Example 4: Metering flat workpieces 1 2 3 4 Metering slide Swivel segment Slide for feed to machine Workpiece

1 4 2

Example 5: Metering of ball bearings from a bar magazine, removal from above by an industrial robot 1 2 3 4 5 Spring-loaded segment Workpiece stop plate Workpiece Spring cap Spring

2 3

Example 2: Metering slide with double barrier 1 2 3 4 Magazine shaft Metering slide Workpiece Barrier in lock configuration 5 Clamping point

3 1

4 5 3

4 2 5
Example 6: Metering of pipe fittings (T pieces) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Spring-loaded detent Housing Drive yoke Workpiece Return stroke Metering stroke

Example 3: Metering device for undercut workpieces 1 2 3 4 5 Magazine shaft Metering slide Barrier Pneumatic cylinder Gripper for workpiece transfer

5 5 2

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What special points must be noted regarding distribution? In the case of the rotary distributor A, the driver compartment is designed to provide a reliable pick-up function while ejecting excess workpieces. This is carried out using compressed air while one workpiece at a time is held by vacuum. Wherever possible, use should be made in distribution of the workpiece shape, as shown in example B. Workpieces with an almost symmetrical center of gravity tend to overturn when they impact on the distributor slide. A diagonal distributor channel D avoids hard impacts [15].
A Rotary metering device 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Workpiece held in position Compressed air channel Suction air channel Workpiece to be ejected Magazined workpieces Stack magazine Rotor

How can thin stampings, foils, metal and paper sheets and textiles be separated? Thin workpieces can be separated and metered by pairings of force, shape or material. This is especially difficult with two-dimensional textile workpieces.
Separating thin stampings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Electrostatic Air suction Velcro Freezing Needle grippers Aerostatic paradox Suction air and silk-paper separator Staggered setdown and gripper Push-off with ratcheted roller Roller pull-off Air suction roller Adhesive roller Spring-loaded press-on suction cup Local cutting instead of metering Magnetic roller conveyor

1 2 3

4 2 1
9 10 11 12 13 14

B Slide metering device 1 Metering slide 2 Workpiece with shape features

5 6 7 A B

15

C Double metering device 1 2 3 4 v Shaft magazine Driver cam Roller chain Slide Metering speed = Chain speed

2 4 3 v 10 11 12

D Inclined channel metering device 1 Feed track 2 Metering slide with diagonal channel 3 Workpiece which overturned during metering and was then wrongly machined 4 Correctly machined workpiece

13

14

15

1 2

3 4

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How can we assist the metering of thin flat materials? Separating flat workpieces It is difficult to separate thin materials and workpieces, since these may stick together. Separating can be improved by using various aids, for example by blowing compressed air between the upper layers, by creating different pressure zones, or generating repulsion forces with spreader magnets. Among the mechanical devices which can be used are precision exit apertures and stop edges. Separating paper layers

How can layers of paper be separated? Particularly in industrial bookbinding, there is a need to separate and compile single and folded paper sheets. Some remarkable cycle times are achieved for example, 250 to 350 workpieces per minute with rotary systems. The gripper drums do not, however, rotate at a constant speed this is reduced at the moment of gripping. The collector bins generally pass through numerous metering units until a book block has been compiled [14].

A Separating thin plates Air can be blown in by several nozzles all round the workpiece. 1 Suction cup 2 Air nozzle 3 Pallet lifting device B Pneumatic separator 1 Gripper head 2 Flat textile 3 Compressed-air supply 4 Exiting air 5 Impermeable table 6 Vacuum zone 7 Atmospheric pressure area C Spreader magnets as separator aid 1 Suction cup 2 Top floating workpiece (ferrous sheet) 3 Spreader magnet 4 Stack of sheets D Rotary brush as separator aid 1 Rotary brush 2 Textile stack 3 Counterholder bar 4 Table surface E Magazine and separator for solder contacts 1 Magazine 2 Metering slide 3 Retainer 4 Workpiece F Separating cards 1 Belt 2 Guide roller 3 Pressure roller 4 Knife edge as retainer 5 Card stack 6 Lifting device 7 Air suction

1 2 7

1 2

A Metering and assembly using translatory components

5 3

1 Stack in magazine 2 Pivoted suction cup used to separate bottom layer from stack 3 Movable stack support 4 Tongs gripper 5 Monitoring of closing operation (check for no workpiece/double workpiece) 6 Driver 7 Collector channel 8 Conveyor chain in collector 9 Gripper arm 10 Collector bin

1 2

3 4 5

3 4 9

1 2

10 8

7 8 A

1 2 3

1 3 2

4 4 C D

B Metering and assembly using rotary components 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stack in magazine Pivoted suction cup Movable stack support Clamp gripper No workpiece/double workpiece monitoring Gripper drum Separator worm drive Driver pin Conveyor chain Collector channel

3 4

1 2

1 2 7 4 6

1 2 3

1 2 7 5 3 4 4 6

5 6 9 8 10

10 9 B

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What are the problems associated with the separation of thin cut workpieces? Separating thin cut workpieces Often, the only effective way to separate thin cut workpieces is by using friction; the main problem is then to hold back the subsequent workpieces in a stack. Highly-developed devices have been produced in this area for the automatic feed of punched cards. These solutions can be used today for other purposes in a similar or modified form.
Example 1: Mass metering 1 2 3 4 5 Bin Screw conveyor Stirrer Switch-off device Shut-off flap

What physical variable is used as the basis for dosing? Dosing is carried out on the basis of mass, volume or number of units [16]. Mass dosing takes the form of a direct comparison of mass on weighing devices, volume dosing measures out a certain volume (mass = volume x density, assuming that density is a constant), while unit dosing counts out a certain number of units (mass = number of units x unit mass).

A Separating by friction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Driven roller for forwarding Guide plate Pull-off roller Metering roller Counterrotating wiper belt Lifting magazine Held-back second workpiece

3 1 3

2 2 4 5 3 5

6
Example 2: Volumetric metering

5 A
B Combination separation 1 Suction trough 2 Perforated conveyor belt (permeable to suction air) 3 Suction air connection 4 Cam to pull off top workpiece 5 Held-back workpiece 6 Lifting magazine 7 Retrodirective belt 8 Suspension mounting for retrodirective belt

1 Suction phase: Piston dosing device 2 Ejection phase 3 Drop piston 4 Level-controlled shut-off

3 B

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What basic clamping methods are available? 7 Clamping Clamping is an operation which is of particular importance in jig construction. It involves the temporary securing of a material object in a specified orientation and position by the application of a clamping force by mechanical (springs), fluidic, electromechanical or electromagnetic means. Mechanical clamping grippers incorporate a large number of lever transmission systems. Avoidance of incorrectly-oriented workpieces in clamping devices

How can we protect clamping points against the input of incorrect workpieces? Incorrect or incorrectly-oriented workpieces may cause serious damage to a feed or machining operation. Monitoring is therefore always advantageous. In many cases, even simple technical means will be sufficient to prevent an incorrect input. In all the examples below, salient points of the workpiece are sensed. If the contour is incorrect, the device refuses to accept the workpiece in question. Monitoring devices of this kind are particularly advisable when magazines are filled manually.

Theoretical possibilities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 V-jaw clamp Pressure plate Double clamp Spring clamp Clamp pin Clamp lever Clamping against fixed corner Centering action Hold-down clamp Clamping against centering jaw Leaf-spring clamp Permanent-magnet clamp Spindle-driven jaws Pneumatically-driven jaws

A Protection for a clamping device Incorrectly-oriented workpieces cannot be inserted. 1 Clamping device 2 Spacer bracket 3 Workpiece

B Protection for a feed channel 1 Workpiece 2 Uncontrolled sensor lever which engages in the slot in the workpiece 3 Sliding channel

P Compressed air M Permanent magnet

C Protection for a rolling channel

1 2

1 2

1 Workpiece 2 Sensor roller with mirrorimage profile of workpiece 3 Rolling channel

3 B C

D Protection for magazine input

M
An insertion template allows only correctly-oriented workpieces to be inserted.

1 2

1 2

10

11

12

1 Magazine tube or shaft 2 Adjustable or fixed contour-checking component, template 3 Workpiece

P 3 D 13 14 3

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7 Clamping

7 Clamping

57

8 Output, alignment, branching

What physical effects can be exploited during the output of workpieces from clamping devices? It takes little equipment to blow workpieces out of clamps using compressed air or allow these to fall by gravity. The major disadvantage of this, however, is that the orientation of the workpiece is lost. The first examples below show the use of magnetic force. In example C, as the book block is released, it is stood on edge and its direction of motion is changed. In the fourth example, the output operation controls itself by mechanical means.

How can we split a workpiece flow? Branching Branching is required particularly when we wish to feed workpieces to parallel coupled machines or store these in buffers. In most cases, workpieces are required to arrive singly and must thus be separated beforehand. The technical means used to achieve this are controlled deflectors and multiple metering devices.
Example 1: Track multiplier 1 2 3 4 5 Feed track Pivoted lever Pneumatic cylinder Workpiece Output track

A Magnetic extractor 1 Electromagnet 2 Ferritic rail 3 Brass wedge to increase air gap and allow detachment of workpiece 4 Inclined track B Magnetic gripper 1 Magnetic gripper housing with appropriately-shaped pole pieces 2 Coil 3 Ferromagnetic workpiece 4 Workpiece holder C Output and alignment 1 Sliding track 2 Output workpiece, in this case a book block 3 Rotary turning device 4 Spring-loaded output device, yoke-shaped

1 2

1 2 3 3 4 4

5 4

1 2 3

Example 2: Deflector 1 2 3 4 5 Rolling track Workpiece Stop Controlled deflector Output track

3 1 4 5 1 2 3 4 2

1 2 3
Example 3: Metering slide 1 2 3 4 5 Shaft magazine Workpiece Slide Pneumatic cylinder Output shaft

D Self-controlling output device 1 V support with drilled bushing 2 Workpiece 3 Output trough 4 Spring-loaded yoke-shaped output device 5 V clamp = Metering device 6 Feed zone

4 1 2 4 3 C

1
Example 4: Track distributor

2 4 5

6
1 2 3 4 5 Feed track Track distributor Pneumatic cylinder Workpiece Output track

5 D

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59

How can we branch flows of material? Alignment There are numerous reasons why it may be necessary in automated systems to branch bulk materials or small workpieces to distribute material, such as powder, to the production machines currently operating, to divert material because of a malfunction, and to distribute material to several workstations within an installation, such as bolts from a feed unit to several bolt fitting points. Pipe switches are often used to route flows of bulk materials. The rotor should always be driven via a slipper clutch. Devices of this kind are also known as twoway distributors. In the second example, the skilful use of an air jet allows the outward transfer of workpieces made necessary by a workpiece jam. The bypass is activated automatically whenever a jam occurs. Even an ordinary gripper can be used as a distributor.
Example 5: Pipe switch Piping systems are very suitable for the pneumatic conveyance of bulk materials. 1 Distributor housing 2 Rotor 3 Pipe connection Example 6: Pneumatic switch If a workpiece jam occurs, the thrust of the air jet is deflected, causing subsequent workpieces to be fed into the bypass channel. In order to achieve this, the distance a is defined as an appropriate multiple of the workpiece length. 1 Compressed-air nozzle 2 Conveyor channel Example 7: Mechanical switch The basic component of this is a parallel-jaw gripper. Both sides of the switch and connected tubing are moved at the same time. The distance by which they are moved is the gripper stroke. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Supply tube Retainer Gripper Gripper jaw Bolt Outlet tube

When is it necessary to align workpieces and how is this done? It is often necessary to align workpieces before they are transferred and packed or before they enter the feed zone of a processing machine or machine tool. In the simplest case, inclined conveyors are used, on which the workpieces align themselves by gravity. The examples show solutions for powered alignment in the center of a conveyor belt. Alignment is, however, also possible using fixed guides or template end stops (bends, V-shapes), particularly when workpieces are to be picked up in this position. Alignment should be regarded as a special type of orientation.
Example 1: Alignment using a gripper 1 2 3 4 Diffuse sensor Alignment plate Conveyor belt Parallel-jaw gripper

1 2

1 2

Example 2: Alignment in stack 1 2 3 4 Guide plates Conveyor belts Lifting cylinder Rack-and-pinion mechanism

4 3 1 4

1 2

a 2
Example 3: Alignment with guide components 1 2 3 4 5 6 Workpiece Trigger cam Stop bracket Conveyor belt Guide plate Pick-up position for robot handling

1 2

1 2 3 4 5

5 4
Example 4: Alignment with template 1 Workpiece 2 Conveyor belt 3 Template; V-shape also possible 4 Pick-up position for handling device

1 2

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61

What feed systems are used with grinding machines? 9 Feed devices In view of the need to grind large quantities of standard components, the feed systems used for this have long since been automated. The solutions concerned are simple and reliable and provide a good example of dedicated feed systems. Feed for automatic machines

What feed methods are often used with automatic machines? There are various feed devices, such as continuously vibrating and rotating systems, rotors which hold workpieces during their motion, and also lever mechanisms for infeed and outfeed.

Feed for grinding machines


Example 1: Rolling track 1 2 3 4 5 6 Infeed track Workpiece Metering device Input/output device Outfeed track Grinding disc

Example 5: Feed of small workpieces to an automatic packing machine

1 2 5

1 Bin 2 Vibrator 3 Rotary table with driver pockets 4 Conveyor chain with driver 5 Transfer position

6
Example 2: Chain 1 2 3 4 5 Chain buffer Rotary feed device Workpiece Grinding disc Outfeed track

4 3 4 1
Example 6: Feed of workpieces to an automatic lathe 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shaft magazine Input device Separator Drive cylinder Workpiece removal device Quadruple chain

2 4

1 3

2 5
Example 3: Conveyor belt 1 2 3 4 Magazine Conveyor belt Pair of rollers Pair of surface-grinding discs 5 Outfeed track

4 2 3 4 5

Example 7: Feed of workpieces to an automatic grinding machine 1 2 3 4 5 Workpiece Metering device Measuring/control device Regulating device Workpiece output

6 1 2 3

Example 4: Feed chute 1 2 3 4 5 Drum bin Vibratory feed chute Grinding disc Vibratory storage bin Vibrator drive

5 4 4

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63

Can particular workpiece properties be exploited in feed devices? Solutions which exploit particular workpiece properties generally produce welldesigned feed systems. These properties may be ferromagnetism, surface resilience (wood) or particular frictional and rolling characteristics.
Example 8: Feed and fitting of pins 1 Bin 2 Pivoted lever 3 Permanently-magnetic carrier wheel 4 Bracket 5 Feed tube 6 Lift cam for pivoted lever 7 Press-fitting cylinder 8 Metering device 9 Workpiece 10 Metering device drive 11 Base 12 Non-ferrous metal or plastic 13 Permanent magnet Example 10: Magnetic gripper roller

How can circular blanks be fed by electromagnetic means? There are numerous possible methods, generally involving an electromagnet which picks the workpiece up. If this method is used with a stack, however, several workpieces may stick together. In the example below, a gripper roller is used to remove the workpieces from a magazine and place these on a roller conveyor [17].

9 10 1 2

1
1 2 3 4 5 6 Power cylinder Output roller conveyor Castor Roller conveyor Magnetic roller Circular blank, metal stamping 7 Slide track for empty pallets 8 Drive for magnetic roller rotation 9 Pallet with compartments

3 5

4 8

7 11 7 12 13
Example 9: Feed device for profile milling machine 1 Magazine 2 Workpiece 3 Sensor for start of metering device 4 Roller feed device 5 Milling station 6 Metering slide 7 Start pushbutton 8 Roller lever valve 9 Cam valve for return stroke 10 Directional control valve Design of magnetic roller 1 2 3 4 5 N S Slip ring for power supply Non-magnetic steel sleeve Ferromagnetic pole pieces Solenoid coil Axis North pole South pole

1 2 3 4 5

Sequence of gripping operation 1 2 3 4 Approach to pallet Lifting out a workpiece Tilting onto roller conveyor Rolling away

9 6

8 10 7 3 4

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How can spinning tubes be fed automatically? Ring spinning tubes are collected after use and must then be cleaned, sorted and magazined. The tubes are 220 to 310 mm long and have diameters of up to 38 mm. They are conical. Sorting is carried out in two stages. A conveyor belt is used to align the tubes by their longitudinal axis. A second stage is then used to produce a uniform small/large diameter orientation (Brouwer & Co.).
Example 11: Feed of conical workpieces Detailed view of a tube handling station 1 Lifting device 2 Collector bin in emptying position 3 Trough bin 4 Internal conveyor belt 5 Buffer store 6 Sleeve sorting station (Cleaning station not shown)

How can we separate long thin rods? It is difficult to remove long thin rods or pipes, plastic rails and similar workpieces from a trough, since the workpieces may be intertwined and there is no guarantee that they will be in a partly-sorted state. One patented solution [18] uses the principle of picking up one end of a workpiece and then running rotating arms below this point. This gradually raise the rod from the bin. Once the bar is fully raised, the arms are tilted to allow the workpiece to roll off. Different methods are used to separate large rigid pipes.
Example 12: Pipe separation and feed

2 5 3 1 4 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Support arm Holding trough Gripper Partially raised workpiece Pulling device (chain) Frame Workpiece Swiveling device Lifting device Support arm in tilted position Tilting angle

Sorting operation A The workpieces are brought by a conveyor belt to the tipping point. B The sleeves are still just held by the belt.

Ways of separating pipes a Pressure gripping and pulling out b Pushing out c Magnetic holding and lifting

4 3 3

A
C The end with the smaller diameter is released first and is able to fall. A fastrunning conveyor belt moves the falling workpiece onwards, always with the smaller diameter leading (v2 v1).

10 4 1

1 2 7 6 9 8

10

66

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67

What methods can be used to feed bar materials? Because of their length, bar materials require special storage and feed systems. One solution can be to use large swiveling yokes to fill and empty special pallets. In the example below, bar material is transferred from and to a tapered roller conveyor.
Example 13: Feeding and buffering of long workpieces 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ejector lever Tapered roller conveyor Rolling track Frame Lifting yoke Transport beam Special pallet Workpiece Pallet stacking location

What do we mean by derivative feed motions? Every motion within a feed sequence needs a drive and must be controlled. We therefore attempt to derive, or directly couple, any necessary feed motions to other operations which are required in any case. This has been achieved in an ideal way in the automatic knurling machine shown below. Skilful design has made it possible to derive all the necessary feed motions from the pressing operation.
Example 15: Feed system for an automatic knurling machine 1 Knurling wheel 2 Workpiece, e.g. rotor shaft of electric motor 3 Lifting and press-fitting unit 4 Outfeed rolling track 5 Stop lug 6 Finished workpiece 7 Support rollers in lifting Vee 8 Metering device 9 Tension spring 10 Feed track

4 9 A

A Transfer of bar material for magazining B Transfer of bar material from buffer to roller conveyor Example 14: Feeding glass flasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 Swivel magazine Magazine rail Yoke carrier in feed chain Glass flask Rotary axis Swivel motion for reloading 7 Filling zone

9
A The knurling operation begins. Contact pressure approx. 50 to 60 bar. B The lifting Vee is lowered and sets the finished workpiece down on the back of the stop lug. Simultaneously, the metering device releases the next workpiece. There is no need for a special controller for this. C The new workpiece rolls up to the stop lug. The finished workpiece rolls away to the left. During the subsequent stroke of the Vee, the workpiece is picked up and then lies on the support rollers.

B 7

10 B

1
2 4

5 6

3 4 5

7 C

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69

What methods can we use to feed long cylindrical components? There are probably more solutions for the feed of cylindrical components than for anything else, since this application is very common. Example 17 shows a solution in which a stack magazine is used as a buffer store from which workpieces can be output again. A special gripper is required in order to pick up workpieces from a stack at an angle (example 18).
Example 16: Feed of workpieces for thread rolling 1 Workpiece 2 Output device, self-swiveling 3 Input device 4 Metering device 5 Rolling track magazine 6 Examples of workpieces Example 19: Feed from a stack magazine Moving half of magazine Lever vibrator Ball bearing Detent pin Rotary metering device Cover plate Workpiece output Metering device form for workpiece diameters 6 mm, 60 to 200 mm long b For workpiece diameters 6 mm I Rotor with vibrator cam II Rotor with multple cells for metering, vibrating and locking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a

What are the points to note when feeding workpieces from a stack magazine? The main problem is to ensure a constant flow of workpieces to the metering device. Interruptions may occur due to bridge formation; to counteract this, many types of vibrator devices are used. In the case of the magazine filling device in example 20, a conveyor belt running against the outlet of the stack bin is used to ensure a continuous flow of workpieces from this.

1 2 6

1 2

5
Example 17: Feeding or buffering of workpieces 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Deflector Roller conveyor Workpiece Thrust insertion device Return feed device Metering device, barrier Stack magazine

3 4 5

1 2 7 6 3 4 5

6 7

Workpiece diameters: 10 to 30 mm Cycle time: 5 s

1 2 3
Example 18: Feed of heavy bar sections

II

6 7

Example 20: Magazine filling device 1 Stack magazine 2 Deflector belt 3 Metering wheel, running synchronously with covneyor chain 4 Conveyor chain 5 Workpiece 6 Magazine 7 Light barrier as level monitor 8 Metering device 9 Feed to machine tool

4
Handling device Gantry carriage Gantry support Gripper Roller conveyor as infeed or outfeed device 6 Workpiece 7 Transport pallet Angle, 60 1 2 3 4 5

3 4

4 5 6 7

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What is a good way of feeding light shaped workpieces? Light shaped workpieces, such as cans, tubs and lids, need to be fed with short cycle times in processign and packing systems. The first example shows the cleaning of cans, using a magnetic conveyor belt. The other examples show further types of covneyors as alternatives to a vibrator. These exploit a centrifugal conveyor principle. Sorting is generally carried out by other downstream devices.
Example 21: Handling cans 1 Magnetic conveyor belt 2 Workpiece (can open at top) 3 Inward transfer track 4 Output of cleaned cans 5 Guide plate 6 Rotary output device 7 Spray nozzle 8 Feed zone 9 Input side

Are special devices necessary to handle glass? (1) Glass items are mass-produced, with smelt temperature always a factor. The special parameters with glass are thus primarily the effects of heat and the high volume of production, rather than the shape of the workpieces. This is shown in the examples. In the first example, glass tubes are lifted to transport them from one pair of rollers to the next. They rotate on the rollers, which allows their ends to be shaped, for example to be fusion-sealed. The second example shows a feed system which is able to operate either cyclically or continuously.
Example 24: Cyclical advance of glass tubes (after Loewinger) 1 Output track 2 V-shaped bar for lifting and advance 3 Workpiece 4 Support roller or disc 5 L-shaped lever for motion transmission 6 Parallelogram lever 7 Roller lever 8 Cam for lifting motion 9 Motion for longitudinal transfer 10 Return spring

5 6 7 8 9

4 5

Example 22: Inclined-disc bin 1 Adjustable suspension mounting of bin 2 Workpiece already on output track 3 Bin lining 4 Inclined disc, continuously rotating

7 10 1 2 3
Example 25: Continuous feed of glass tubes 1 Driver pin 2 Roller chain, double or multiple running in parallel 3 Sprocket 4 Bulk bin 5 Stack magazine 6 Workpiece (glass tube) 7 Chain tensioner

8 9

A 5 6

1 2 3

Example 23: Conical disc centrifugal conveyor 1 2 3 4 5 Output track Bin Rotating conical disc Base of bin Motor with gear unit

A 7 4 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

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Are special devices necessary to handle glass? (2) Heating and cooling are major factors in the production of glass workpieces. Cooling must take place slowly and is carried out in cooling or tempering zones. Handling devices are required to re-orient the workpieces. The upper example shows hollow glass workpieces being stood on end, while the second example shows the handling of bottles. In order to prepare the bottles to pass through an optical test machine, they must be formed into a string one workpiece wide. This function is provided by the fast-running center outfeed belt.
Pneumatic feed Example 26: Re-orienting glass workpieces A - C Phases of feed operation 1 Workpiece 2 Openings 3 Feed tube lw Workpiece length l Distance to holder disc m Workpiece mass p Pressure in pneumatic line v Peripheral velocity F Thrust force produced by a vibrator FR Frictional force H Resulting force k Coefficient making allowance for the frictional force between the workpiece and pipe wall s Minimum clearance between workpiece and hole in holder

Are pneumatic feed systems feasible? Piece goods can also be transported on the principle of a pneumatic tube system. One particularly important factor is the transfer of workpieces into the system. Pneumatics can also be used for the final phase of the motion insertion into a workpiece holder. Endless threads or ribbons can also be transported in this way. Here the axial air flow exerts a force on the belt, which is moving more slowly due to air friction. This force conveys the ribbon continuously [19].

4
Workpieces which arrive in a horizontal position need to be stood on end for feed to the next machine. The workpieces are gripped at the top by their blowing heads. 1 2 3 4 5 Hollow glass workpiece Stop bar Conveyor belt Sprocket chain Feed belt, v1 = v2

v1

1 2 3 4 5

v A p lw

v2

F FR v F H B p

Example 27: Formation of bottles into a workpiece string (plan view). Throughputs are achieved of up to 10,000 units per shift 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cooling zone, hinged chain Workpiece, e.g. bottle Conveyor belt Guide plate Center outfeed belt Feed to test machine Counterrotating belt for excess workpieces 8 Guide plate 9 Guide web, fixed, v1 v2 2 3 4 5

Pneumatic conveyance of a piston motor valve 1 Pipe run 2 Compressed air at velocity v 3 Workpiece at velocity c

C 2 3

v 1

9 8 7

v2 v2 v1

Pneumatic conveyance of ribbons and threads 1 2 3 4 Pipe run Compressed air flow Handling material Injector with annular gap

s 2 3 4 v c 1
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How can flat pallets be handled automatically? Automatic pallet handling can be necessary for two reasons to activate a passive pallet in order to be able to work with simple handling devices (point access), or to create large buffer stores upstream of or between machines. The technical solutions used range from simple switching-cam rollers to complex pallet stores.
Pallet indexing device 1 2 3 4 5 Pallet frame Indexing stop Switching roller Cam Double cylinder to produce 3 switching positions (stop 1, stop 2, runthrough without stops) l Step width during indexing

How can blanks be fed to shaping machines? The process of feeding cutting and bending machines with circular or other blanks is determined by one factor in particular the distance between the magazine and the point of action of the machine. For constructional reasons, magazines cannot be positioned directly adjacent to this point.
Handling small blanks 1 Metering slide, single-acting 2 Magazine shaft 3 Gravity shaft 4 Deep-drawing tool Feed in mm Strokes per min. 20 150 20 40 100 120

2 4 1

2 4 3 5
l

Tapered-slide metering device

5
1 Metering slide, double-acting 2 Taper drive 3 Drawing tool 4 Cutting tool 5 Clamping pin Feed in mm Strokes per min. 20 150 20 40 100 120

4 2 1 3

Stacking/destacking unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Full pallet stack Handling device Empty pallet stack Stacking unit Destacking unit Lateral slide

2 3

6 4 5
1 2 3 4 E Magazine shaft Metering slide Pneumatic cylinder Punch tool Limit switch Metering slide with pneumatic drive

1 4 E E 2 3 1

Shaft buffer unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shaft with guides Flat pallet, crate, etc. Retainer Roller conveyor Lifting/lowering device Stop device

1 2 3 4 6

Feed in mm Strokes per min. 50 250 30 60 Metering slide driven by press ram 1 Magazine shaft 2 Angle lever 3 Metering slide

Feed in mm Strokes per min. 20 140 20 50 100 120

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Can all types of bolts be fed equally easily? The answer is no! Bolt feed devices must take into account the behavior of the bolts during feeding. The major factors are the position of the center of gravity, the length, the shape of the bolt head, the ratio of diameter to length and the presence of surface coatings. Bottom-heavy bolts will hang on rails and can also be fed effectively using chutes. Top-heavy bolts, on the other hand, must be prevented from falling over. These can be fed effectively in profile tubes and rails. Difficulties will be experienced with all bolts whose heads have a tendency to lock together, tangle or slide one inside the other.
A Feeding bottom-heavy bolts A Transfer of cans 1 Transfer gripper device of a gang press (output side) 2 Workpiece, hollow sheetmetal with base uppermost 3 Handling device 4 Multiple suction cups 5 Permanent magnet 6 Switchable electromagnet 7 Conveyor belt 8 Collector conveyor belt

Do transfer devices need to be matched to materials? Automatic transfer from one machine to the next is vital in high-throughput installations. In these cases, an optimum solution can be achieved only if handling devices are closely matched to the properties of the workpieces concerned. In the case of cans, for example, these are first formed into groups and then gripped as a block. If the cans were handling individually, this would lead to very short cycle times. The second example, too, has been specially designed to deal with pipe or bar material and uses a custom-made metering disc to transfer workpieces from the rolling track to the longitudinal conveyor. The shape of the driver compartments eliminates the need for any further retaining plates or similar.

1 2 3 4

A
1 Angle rail 2 Covered parallel rail 3 Feed pipe or tube B Feeding top-heavy bolts

6 7

8 2 A

1 U rail 2 Profile tube 3 Turning by inverter rail after conveyance from vibrator 4 Turning by turning unit

B Transfer of pipes 1 Metering disc 2 Driven tapered roller of a longitudinal conveyor zone 3 Step stop 4 Rolling path with or without steps to align rolling pipes 5 Workpiece, pipe or bar

3 1 2

C Difficult bolt shapes Flat-head bolts can overlap, small-head bolts may tilt in the rail, and combination bolts may lock together head to head. st

4 5

B C

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How can workpiece damage be avoided during handling? (1) Soft contact surfaces Workpieces are not improved by constant handling. Impacts, jolts, abrasion, dirt, etc, cannot be avoided but can be reduced. Speeds of motion can be cut, and drop heights made smaller. The use of air-cushion troughs for transfer avoids direct contact between workpieces and guide components. Plastic liners can also often be useful. Dirt slots ensure that particles are swept away from contact surfaces.
Typical workpiece damage resulting from handling In the case of sensitive workpieces, we must determine what possible damage may occur and then select suitable technical means of avoiding this.The table lists the main factors. Solid black = Pronounced effect White = No or low-level damage Example: Case 2.5 = Damage resulting from accumulation impact damage during transfer. Remedy: Reduced speed, provision of shock absorbers and braking devices. Handling operation Workpiece damage Abrasion marks, scoring, groves Accumulation impact damage Corner-to-corner impact damage Plastic deformation, dents Micro-scoring on surfaces, scratches Deposits of foreign matter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B Tandem brake 1 Roller with elastomer ring coating able to absorbs energy through deformation 2 Roller conveyor 3 Workpiece, container C 1 2 3 4 5 6 D 1 2 3 Rolling-track shock absorber Heavy shaft Rolling track Destination position for workpiece Stop lever Brake arm Shock absorber Pneumatic braking device [22] Workpiece Feed tube Compressed-air connection Controlled pressure chamber Elastomer component Steel sleeve Overtravelable shock absorber Adjustable plate Workpiece Rolling track frame Rotary cam Shock absorber Rotary shock absorber Sliding track Workpiece Impact roller Rotary shock absorber 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

How can workpiece damage be avoided during handling? (2) Braking devices and shock absorbers An important way to reducing workpiece damage is to incorporate braking devices into the workpiece flow. This applies in particular to cases where workpieces can move freely. In the case of heavy workpieces, braking devices are also necessary in order to protect equipment, while in the case of bulk containers, braking device protect the contents of these. It is therefore necessary during the planning stage to specify all the points at which workpieces or workpiece carriers are to be brought to defined speeds.

A 1 2 3 4

Overtravelable brake Package, container Small-roller conveyor Impact lever Shock absorber

2 3 4

A 1 3 4

B 5

1 2

Brush conveyors A Vertical conveyance with arched brush array B Vertical conveyance with vibrator C Conveyance with brush belt D Gentle conveyance of brush conveyor E Horizontal conveyance on double brush conveyor 1 2 3 4 5 Brush array Vibrator Workpiece Infeed ram Conveyor belt

1 2

1 3

3 4 5 2 6 C 1 2 D 6

3 4 A B 3 1 1 3

2 5 3 1 C
E

4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 F

5 5

1 2 3 4

3 E

1 2 3 4

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Should we check features in the main workpiece flow? (1) If this were done in cases where the proportion of defective workpieces to be eliminated was relatively high, this would mean turning a handling unit into a test machine. This would not be correct. It would be better in these cases to install test stations upstream. If, on the other hand, faults occur relatively seldom, it is often possible to incorporate very simple mechanical checks, particularly of geometrical properties. Each incorrect workpiece, however, means an interruption in the workpiece flow and generally requires a manual intervention [15].
A Checking a welded assembly Base components without welded-on pins are eliminated. 1 Complete assembly 2 Base component

Should we check features in the main workpiece flow? (2) 9 Feed devices Incorrectly-oriented workpieces can cause feed mechanisms to jam, particularly when the workpieces are asymmetrical. Simple monitoring devices are highly advisable in order to protect machines and equipment. The automatic elimination of incorrectly-oriented workpieces is effectively the same as sorting workpieces and can thus utilize several of the same principles.

A Hook spring The hook engages in the slot of incorrectly-oriented workpieces and pulls the workpiece concerned off the track.

B Slide track with opening Incorrectly-oriented workpieces do not lie on the suspension rail and fall through the opening. Condition: a b

B Check of progress of machining Workpieces without a machined recess will not fit into the shape-monitoring magazine (left). 1 Correctly-machined workpiece 2 Incorrectly-machined workpiece

1 1 A 2 B

C Profile check The set screws in the feed trough are adjusted to match the profile of a correctlyoriented workpiece.

C Check of diameter Workpiece All workpieces deviating from the check dimension = 0.5 (D+d) are held back. 1 Roller diameter D 2 Pivot diameter d Good workpiece Bad workpiece

1 2

C
D Checking brush assemblies Workpieces with a brush insert missing on one side slide crookedly and are held back by a monitoring lug. D Slide track with lifting ramp [15]

1
1 Workpiece (brush assembly) 2 Slide trough Good workpiece Bad workpiece

If blanks which are too long are accidentally inserted into the feed track, they are raised and, for example, ejected upwards by an air jet. a = h 1 mm

1 2 3 4 a D
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How can we guard against two workpieces being fed at once? Monitoring for double sheet-metal workpieces Accidental feed of two workpieces at once occurs particularly with flat workpieces; this interrupts the flow of work and may lead to serious damage to stamping tools. Safety devices must therefore be provided. In example A, a second workpiece is pulled away by a magnet as it travels over this at a distance h. In the case of solution B, each flat workpiece is fed through a template before being inserted into the tool. The third example also includes a facility for checking thickness. 10 Handling systems

What are the typical forms in which industrial robots are produced? By form we mean the configuration of the modules of a machine. This is the result of a process of adapting the robot for a certain handling task, taking into account operating conditions and other restrictions and the basic design parameters of the robot in question (structure).

Industrial robots
Designs 1 2 3, 4 5 Column form C-frame column form Column forms Column form with traveling axis 6 Gantry form with wall mounting 7, 8 Gantry form with one or two columns 9 Special form with double arm 10, 11 Special forms

A Magnetic suction 1 Handling device 2 Gripper (magnetic or suction) 3 Ferromagnetic workpiece 4 Magnet over which workpiece must travel at precisely defined height h

1 2 3

4 1 A
B Panel handling (Englert) The thickness templates 4 swivel upwards after the checking operation in order not to impede the insertion of a panel into a workpiece. 1 2 3 4 Industrial robot Hand joint Linear slide unit Adjustable thickness gauge 5 Gripped metal panel 6 Suction cups

Basic design Sequence of rotary and pusher units with defined position or direction created by guide mechanism of an industrial robot. The basic design reflects the kinematic structure of the main axes; one major parameter is the presence of floor- or gantry-based travel units.

4 5 6 B 7 8

C Monitoring within tool The workpiece thickness is monitored via the ram guide plate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ram retaining plate Electrical contact Contact lever Adjusting screw Ram guide plate Workpiece (cut sheet metal)

1 2 3 4 5 6

10

11

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In what different versions are positioning units available? Linear drives A wealth of well-proven standard components, such as those by Festo, are available for controlled positioning. The drives used include electric motors and hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders. Motions can be programmed by means of end stops or free positioning.
Swivel drives Systems may include components such as: Translatory units Short-stroke units Grippers Carriages Lateral carriages Gantries 1 Servo drives with levers 2 Servo piston with rackand-pinion mechanism

How do rotary fluid-power units work? Fluid-power units are used in large quantities to move handling objects. These units provide linear motions and also swivel and rotary functions.

Each module is generally available in a range of sizes. Other modules may include rotary or swivel units. Rotary drives 1 2 3 4 5 6 Axial-piston motor Gear motor Vane motor Radial-piston motor Roots motor Turbine motor

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What are the advantages of modular systems for industrial robots? Industrial robots Modular solutions exploit the possibility of using a given range of modules, each with defined sub-functions, assembled in various ways to create numerous systems with different overall functions (Mecana).
Modular systems These systems may comprise the following: Horizontal linear units Vertical linear units Short-stroke units Gantry motion units Gantry beams Gantry columns Gantry cross-motion units Rotary units for angles 360 Rotary units for angles 360 Swivel units Floor motion units Hand-joint rotary units Base units with rotary axes Grippers Gripper-changing systems Gripper stores Sensor units Workpiece carrier units Controllers Monitoring units Protective systems Software modules Programming units Modular construction This is a method of creating technical products with certain functions using one or a small number of standardized modules (assemblies) in such a way as to make it possible with these modules to produce either a limited or unlimited range of different devices within a product line. Modular systems Modular solutions can be described in terms of the following characteristics: Working space (shape, volume) Working range of arm Mobility Mobility range Momentary path velocities Momentary path acceleration values Travel times Positional deviations Orientational deviations Path errors Rigidity Efficiency Price/performance ratio Scope of control facilities (flexibility within the context of the application) Re-usability of modules Interfaces for power and data

How do we ensure that modules can be combined together? Industrial robots Especially important are uniform connections and good module centering systems to allow modules to be centered one to another (by means of pins, ring inserts, slot nuts, etc.). Good connectivity must also be ensured for power and data by means of suitable interfaces (Mecana).

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89

Are special application-specific handling units better? Pick and place devices It is not possible to give a general answer to this question. Even if an application-specific handling unit is considered necessary, this should be based on standard modules. The first example shows the feed of large bolts. In the second example, the handling unit is very simple but requires a magazine which can move up as necessary.
Large-bolt feed (Hitachi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Linear unit Controller Parallel-jaw gripper Partly-sorted bolts Bin Feed chute Linear vibrator Presence monitoring device 9 Base frame

What are the advantages of mechanically-controlled pick and place devices? Mechanically-controlled pick and place devices have proved valuable in all applications where simple insertion and removal motions are required, with no need for resetting. These devices are fast and operate free of jerks and non-linearities, since the motion sequence can be optimized and stored in a control cam. There are no drift effects even after long periods of operation. The cams generally operate in an oil bath. The noise level is low. The use of modular construction means that user-specific solutions can be produced cost-effectively.
Lifting/turning loading device (Ferguson) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Loading arm Gripper Lifting/turning unit Gear unit Electric motor Pneumatic linear unit used in place of a fixed arm 7 Straight guide

1 3 4 5 2

2 3 4

Flat-workpiece feed device 1 2 3 4 5 6 Magazine wall Workpiece Lifting cylinder Parallelogram guide suction cup Pneumatic cylinder for swivel or clamping motion 7 Machining system 8 Geneva movement

Examples of possible motion patterns H Stopping point

1 6 7

7 8 9
2 1
H

Equipment variant (Ferguson)

3 1 2 4 5 6

7 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Outfeed belt Machine tool Finished workpiece Linkage for arm drive Lifting/turning loading device Electrical motor Feed belt Blank workpiece Linear unit

4 5 6

The rotary motion of the lifting/turning loading device shown above is used as the mechanical drive for two linear units. One loader is thus sufficient for a complete infeed and outfeed operation. A Unloading operation B Loading operation 90
10 Handling systems 10 Handling systems

91

What advantages do rodless pneumatic cylinders offer in handling devices? Planning Rodless cylinders are highly reliable and occupy much less space in the direction of motion in handling devices in comparison with other designs of cylinders. They are thus very suitable for simple multi-axis handling devices. They also save a great deal of space with infeed, removal and transfer functions. There is no need to protect the piston against torsion.
Multi-axis handling device (Origa) 1 Boom arm 2 Rodless power cylinder 3 Gripper, suction cup 4 Linear guide 5 Rack 6 Cable guide chain Stroke lengths: Up to 12,000 mm Cylinder diameters: 10 to 32 mm Combination of rodless cylinder and integrated guide

What are the major steps involved in planning handling systems?

Overall procedure A handling system is all the technical equipment used at a workstation for handling (generally automatic handling). This equipment may include industrial robots, grippers, drives, sensors, controllers, programming systems, clamping devices within machines and peripheral feed devices.

Analysis of given situation Concretization of planning objectives

Planning preparation Rough planning

1 2 6

Rough planning

Fine planning System installation System operation 2

Detailed planning Implementation

Workpiece analysis

Planning of required handling devices Workpiece flow concept Planning optimization

4 5

Documentation Project coordination

Scope and type of handling functions

Infeed device 1 Rod-type power cylinder 2 Infeed cam 3 Workpiece 4 Guide rod 5 Sliding surface 6 Rodless power cylinder h1, l1 Installation space with piston rod h2, l2 Installation space without piston rod

Evaluation 1 2 3 Control system concept h1

Drafting of handling system

Integration into system

l1

4 3 5 The process moves from general planning to detailed planning. Optimization of planning is achieved by running through the procedure shown above several times and refining the results of previous planning steps, discarding details if necessary and devising substitutes. Planning should always be carried out on the basis of several variants which should then be compared to determine the most suitable solution for the given application [23].

h2

l2

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What data do we use to describe a handling application? Planning There will always be a number of important basic requirements which determine the major features of a handling system. This data can be used to make an initial selection. 11 Grippers

How can we achieve flexible designs of gripper jaws? The increasing demands for flexibility in production systems also require grippers which in particular are able to deal with differently-shaped workpieces. There are many possible technical solutions to this problem, some of which, however, are not ideal for harsh industrial environments. The most common solution is reversible gripper jaws, frequently equipped with numerous mechanical or special features [24, 25, 29].

Classification system
Specification Number of workpieces per unit time The specification for a handling system is made up of three parts: Requirements regarding process changes Requirements regarding object changes Requirements regarding handling system The requirements are made up of fixed requirements, minimum requirements and desirables. Workpiece types and variants Batch size Suitability of workpieces for automatic handling Sliding capability Rolling capability Suspension capability Stacking capability Dimensional stability Robustness State at start of handling process: Degree of orientation/positioning State at end of handling process: Orientation/positioning after setdown Y Z Major handling sub-functions: Example 1: Adjustable-shape grippers The most importance factor in a classification system is a description of the way contact is made between the gripper object and the gripper jaws. In cases where force fields are used (vacuum, magnetism), conditions are somewhat different. It is also important to define what we mean by flexibility.

Ways of achieving flexibility with gripper jaws


Fixed active area Variable active area

Choice of slots

Interchangeable

Reversible

Non-reversible

Motion axes X s v

4
A B C A The gripper jaws are composed of adjustable metal leaves. B The jaws consist of hollow bodies filled with powder and made rigid by the application of vacuum. 1 Gripper finger 2 Adjustable metal leaves 3 Clamp screw 4 Workpiece 5 Elastic bag 6 Powder or granulate filling 7 Vacuum connection Example 2: Jaws filled with kneading mass The gripper jaws are filled with silicone mass (soft) or kneading mass (liquid aluminum) (1). This is used to take an impression of the workpiece shape (2) and is then allowed to harden (3) (Sommer).

1 2

7 1 5 6

U s v

3 4 A B

F Distances s and angles j of positions to be approached in a three-dimensional coordinate system. Intermediate points (e.g. to bypass obstacles). Approach and dwell times Number and sequence of positions to be approached Permissible positioning errors Dimensions of possible gripping areas on object Required load-bearing capacity Preferred power source Number of control signal inputs/outputs

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How can we grip free-formed workpieces? (1) Free-formed workpieces are frequently encountered in the automobile industry, the construction of lighting fittings, etc. These workpieces can be gripped easily using adapted suction grippers. Special modular systems have been created for this purpose which allow suction cups to be distributed over an area and interchanged rapidly. The systems shown below are patented and have been taken from [26]. Particular emphasis has been placed on a relatively large degree of flexibility regarding applications. 4 5 1 2 3 6
Combination of suction and clamping modules 1 Clamping gripper module 2 Quick-action clamping device 3 Robot hand joint 4 Workpiece 5 Suction-cup module with integrated venturi system B Vacuum control system Example 4: Shaped-workpiece gripper A Large-area gripper

How can we grip free-formed workpieces? (2) The efficiency of large-area grippers depends largely on the vacuum-management system used. Modern systems offer good facilities for optimization [28]. For example, the compressed-air supply to the vacuum generator is switched back on only when the vacuum level falls below a threshold value. Controllable ejector systems, integrated into suction cups, ensure the fast release of workpieces, which is particularly important in the handling of fragile or very light workpieces. Example B shows a 20-second handling sequence.

Example 3: Grippers for sheet-metal workpieces A Large-area suction cup array 1 Sheet-metal workpiece 2 Boom arm 3 Suction cup module 4 Robot arm 5 Coupling 6 Oval suction cup B Suction-cup module 1 Compressed-air connection 2 Suction-cup changing button 3 Support arm 4 Ball joint 5 Silencer 7 Ejector device 8 Suction cup C Large-area suction cup array (plan view) 1 Electrical plug 2 Connector adapter 3 Boom arm 4 Clamping gripper module 5 Ball-joint connection 6 Extension piece 7 Suction cup module Clamping gripper module 1 2 3 4 Mounting component Gripper Gripper finger Sheet-metal clamp pins

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

1
1 Control signal for vacuum on/off 2 Automatic regulation of vacuum to compensate for leakage losses 3 Sensor signal (workpiece present) 4 Control signal for vacuum regulation 5 Controlled ejection of workpiece from suction cup 0/1 Off/on t Time in s C Pneumatic circuit 1 t 0 0 5 10 15 20

3
1 t 0 0 5 10 15 20

4 2
P 0 0 5 10 15 20 1 t

B 1 2

5
1 0 0 5 10 15 20 t 0 0 5 10 15 20 t

B 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Directional control valve Pressure adjustment Compressed-air line Venturi nozzle Silencer Suction air line Ejector line Suction cup Workpiece

1 2

2 3 4

6 7 8 9 C

6 7 C

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In what forms are electromagnetic grippers used in handling systems? The main variable in the design of electromagnetic grippers is the way the pole pieces are matched to the workpiece. In examples A and B, the electromagnet is spring-loaded. Once a workpiece has been picked up and the magnet has been switched on, the workpiece holder is also locked magnetically. During setdown, the springs act as a workpiece wiper.
Example 5: Electromagnetic gripper A External electromagnetic gripper B Internal electromagnetic gripper C Electromagnet with centering pin D Pole-piece design for round workpieces E Magnetic pin gripper F Combination magnetic/suction gripper; the workpiece is picked up by suction and held by magnetic force during the hand motion G Magnetic gripper with pin to produce arching effect and guard against picking up 2 workpieces at a time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gripper arm Spring Electromagnet coil Workpiece holder Workpiece Suction air Sealing ring Power cylinder

What are sensors and how can we classify these? 12 Sensors Sensors react to conditions by generating signals in a form which can be processed by a control system. Internal sensors measure distances, angles and forces in the components and joints of handling devices. External sensors react to workpiece features and provide information on conditions in the environment of a handling device [27]. Sensors for handling devices

Classification of sensors

1 2 3 4 5 A B

1 2 3 4 5 Electrical and pneumatic contacts and microswitches Piezoresistive sensors for enhanced sensitivity (largearea configuration for object detection) Electrical, magnetic, acoustic, optical, fluidic and in particular pneumatic sensors (jet sensors) Electrical sensors (straingauges, etc., chiefly in grippers and had joints for force feedback), pneumatic sensors (chiefly in auxiliary devices to measure weights and joining forces) Workpiececontact sensors Proximity sensors Force and torque sensors Internal sensors External sensors

5 C D

5 E
Examples Internal sensors

6 3 7

1 2 3 4

Potentiometer Inductosyn Incremental encoder Orifice disc

5 200 mm F G

External sensors 1 2 3 4 5 Row camera Strain gauge Reflex sensor Nozzle baffle Resistor

98

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99

When is it necessary to monitor workpiece ejection? Checking for output Particularly in stamping and injection-molding processes, there are cases in which the failure of workpieces to be ejected may result in serious damage to tooling. It is then necessary to provide monitoring to ensure that a complete workpiece has been ejected before the next working stroke is triggered. This will furthermore make it possible to check the workpiece flow. The method used may be optical, inductive or tactile sensing or even weighing. This last method also provides an indication that the ejected workpiece is complete. 13 Further reading and list of sources

A Inductive method (plan view) 1 Workpiece from press 2 Slide plate 3 Induction coil

B Pivoted plate as check weigher 1 2 3 4 5 Adjusting screw Return spring Limit switch Baffle Pivoted plate

4 5 1 2 3 1 2 3

C Optical method Workpiece ejection is monitored within the tooling. 1 Cutter insert 2 Workpiece 3 Light barrier

D Monitoring within tooling 1 2 3 4 Drawing ring Workpiece, bowl Lower part of tooling Induction coil

1 2 3

1 2 4 3

E Light barrier The workpiece path is monitored at two points during output. 1 Light barrier to monitor whether workpiece has been gripped 2 Handling device 3 Light barrier to monitor setdown on conveyor belt

1 2 3

3 4 5

F Inductive proximity sensor 1 2 3 4 5 Ejector Bending tool Workpiece Baffle Proximity sensor

[1] Hesse, S.: Atlas der modernen Handhabungstechnik, published in German by Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden 1995 [2] Hesse, S.: Lexikon Handhabungstechnik und Industrierobotik (Lexicon of Handling Technology and Industrial Robotics), published in German by expert Verlag, Renningen 1995 [3] VDI Guideline 2860: Handling and Assembly Technology: Handling Functions, Handling Devices: Terminology, Definitions, Symbols, published in German by Beuth Verlag, Berlin 1990 [4] Frank, H.-E.: Handhabungseinrichtungen (Handling Devices), published in German by Krausskopf-Verlag, Mainz 1975 [5] Frankenhauser, B.: Montage von Schluchen mit Industrierobotern (Assembly of Hoses Using Industrial Robots), published in German by Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg etc. 1988 [6] Schlaich, G.: Kabelbaummontage mit Industrierobotern (Assembly of Wiring Looms Using Industrial Robots), from the series IPA-IAO Research and Practice, Volume 118, published in German by Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg etc. 1988 [7] Braun, D.: Industrieroboter: Auslegung von pneumatischen Flchengreifern (Industrial Robots: Design of Pneumatic Large-Area Grippers), published in German by Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne 1989 [8] Hesse, S., Mittag, G.: Handhabetechnik. Technische Lsungen fr Konstrukteure (Handling Technology: Technical Solutions for Designers), published in German by Verlag Technik, Berlin 1989 and Hthig-Verlag, Heidelberg 1989 [9] Kleest, P.; Reibke, H.: Flexible Magazine fr die automatische Montage (Flexible Magazines for Automatic Assembly, article in German in Feingertetechnik (Precision Engineering) magazine, Berlin, No. 39 (1990) 9, pp. 393-398 [10] Hesse, S.: Montagemaschinen (Assembly Machines), published in German by Vogel Buchverlag, Wrzburg, 1992 [11] Nist, G. et alia: Steuern und Regeln im Maschinenbau (Open- and ClosedLoop Control in Mechanical Engineering), published in German by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan-Gruiten 1989 [12] Serkiz, O.R.; Gnativ, I.M.; Gavrilschenko, A.B.: Automation of Feed Operations on Assembly Lines and Robot Cells, published in Russian by Lwov University Press 1985 [13] Romanowski, W.P.: Handbuch der Stanzereitechnik (Manual of Stamping Technology), published in German by Verlag Technik, Berlin 1965 [14] Lehrbuch der industriellen Buchbinderei (Manual of Industrial Bookbinding), published in German by Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1987 [15] Hirano, H.: Poka-Yoke, Landsberg, published in German by Verlag Moderne Industrie 1992 [16] Trnkner, G. (ed.): Taschenbuch Maschinenbau (Pocket Guide to Mechanical Engineering), Vol. 3/11, 3rd edition, Berlin, published in German by Verlag Technik 1980

100

12 Sensors

13 Further reading and list of sources

101

[17] Schevzov, Ju. A.: Einrichtung mit rotierendem elektromagnetischen Greifer (Device With Rotating Electromagnetic Gripper), article in Russian in Production Mechanization and Automation magazine, Moscow, No. 42 (1989) 5, p. 20 [18] Bltmann, M.: Maschine zum Vereinzeln von in einer Mulde gestapelten Rohren (Stangen) (Machine to Separate Pipes or Bar Material Stacked in a Trough), German Disclosure Publication 3900201, Class B65G, Group 1/07 1989 [19] Siegel, W.: Pneumatische Frderung (Pneumatic Conveyor Systems), published in German by Vogel Buchverlag, Wrzburg 1991 [20] VDI Guideline 3246, Zubringeeinrichtungen frBlechkleinteile in der Blechverarbeitung (Feed Devices for Small Sheet-Metal Workpieces), 1965 [21] Groberndt, H.: Automatische Montage erfordert verbesserte Schraubenqualitt (Automated Assembly Demands Bolts of Better Quality), VDI Magazine, Dsseldorf 127 (1985), No. 19, pp. 107 to 115 [22] Drexel, P. et alia: Neue Handhabungssysteme als technische Hilfen fr den Arbeitsproze (New Handling Systems as Technical Aids to Work Processes), Research Report HA 82-002, Federal German Ministry of Research and Technology 1982 [23] Konold, P.; Reger, H.: Angewandte Montagetechnik (Applied Assembly Technology), published in German by Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden 1997 [24] Hesse, S.: Gripper Technology, published in English by Festo Esslingen, 1997 [25] Hesse, S.: Greifer-Praxis (Gripper Technology), published in German by Vogel Buchverlag, Wrzburg 1991 [26] Modulares Greifsystem Grip-Lok (Grip-Lok Modular Gripper System), article in German in company magazine of ISI Automation GmbH, Wiesbaden 1992 [27] Hesse, S.: Lexikon Sensoren in Fertigung und Betrieb (Lexicon of Sensors for Production and Other Industrial Purposes), published in German by expert Verlag, Renningen 1996 [28] Hesse, S.: Praxiswissen Handhabungstechnik in 36 Lektionen (Practical Handling in 36 Lessons), published in German by expert Verlag, Renningen 1996 [29] VDI Guideline 2740 Sheet 1 (Draft): Mechanical Automation Equipment; Grippers for Handling Devices and Industrial Robots, published in German by Beuth Verlag, Berlin 1991

A 14 Glossary of technical terms

Adjustable-shape grippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air jets, Air-jet sorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-cushion trough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Align workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 73 36 15 61

Behavior groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Bolt shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Box magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Braking devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Branching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Bridge accumulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Bridge formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25,71 Brush conveyors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Cans, handling of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Carrier wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Centrifugal conveyor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Chain buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Check of features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Check of diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Clamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Clamping device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Clamping gripper module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Climbing magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Collector conveyor belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Components to ensure a defined position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Cylindrical components, feed of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Deflector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Destacking unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Disc magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,30 Double clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Double metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Electromagnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic gripper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 98 11 27

Feed chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Feed channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 57 Feed chute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Feed methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 103

102

13 Further reading and list of sources

14 Glossary of technical terms

Feed of cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Feed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 69 Feed tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Feeding small workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Flat workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Flat-workpiece feed device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Friction bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Frictional behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 G Grippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Gripper jaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Gripper roller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Handling cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Handling device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Handling functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Handling technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Handling units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Hanging ledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Helicoidal vibrating bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 42 Helicoidal vibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Inclined channel metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclined-disc bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incorrectly-oriented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infeed device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 72 83 85 92

Mass metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 47, 48, 69 Metering operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Metering slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 59, 64, 77 Modular construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Modular systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Monitoring for double sheet-metal workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Multiple metering devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 O P Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Pallet handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Pallet indexing device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Panel handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Pick and place devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Pipe feed bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Pipe separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Pipe switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Positioning units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Profile check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Profile tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Protection for magazine input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Proximity sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Re-orienting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Recirculating buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Recirculating magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Rodless cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Roller metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Roller pull-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Rolling channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 57 Rolling path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Rolling track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Rolling-track shock-absorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Rotary bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 39 Rotary brush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Rotary drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Rotary metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 50 Rotary shock absorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Rotary table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Rotary turning devic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Rubber moldings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Sack buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Scoop bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 46 Scoop segment, Scoop segment design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Scoop-wheel bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Separating paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 105

K L

Karnaugh diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Large-area suction cup array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Large-bolt feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Lever vibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Lifting device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Lifting magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Lifting Vee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Lifting-plate bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Lifting/turning loading device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Light barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Long workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 S Magazine filling device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magazine plate feed device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic gripper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic roller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 30 30 58 65

104

14 Glossary of technical terms

14 Glossary of technical terms

Separating thin cut workpieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Separating thin plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Shaft buffer unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Shaft magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 32, 33, 39, 63 Shock absorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Sleeve sorting station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Slide metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 50 Sliding tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Small workpieces, feeding of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Sorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 39, 66 Sorting device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Sorting drums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Spot sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Spreader magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Stack bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Stack magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 70 Stack trough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Stacking roller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Step magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Suction grippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Suction-cup module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Swivel drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Swivel-plate device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Swivel-segment metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Symbols vor functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 T Tapered-slide metering device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Throughflow buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Track distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Track multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-way distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-jaw clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vibrator chute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volumetric metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 82 27 59 59 79 60 12 56 97 41 36 55

Blue Digest on Automation

The technical paperback series from Festo provides technical knowledge which is topical, concise, clear, short and to the point! Blue Digest on Automation publishes technical knowledge from the field of automation in a condensed form: As a compendium of available technical titles, such as the Manufacturing Assembly Handbook, or trend-orieted, with basic knowledge about the development of new innovative industry segments, such as in the field of pneumatic handling. Bruno Lotter Manufacturing Assembly Handbook, 100 pages Order No. 054 119 GB Dr. Stefan Hesse Gripper technology dictionary, 120 pages Order No. 053 214 GB Dr. Stefan Hesse Grippers and their applications, 116 pages Order No. 053 435 GB

Workpiece barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Workpiece damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Workpiece ejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Workpieces with unstable shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Festo AG & Co. Postfach D-73726 Esslingen Tel. 0711/347-0 Fax 0711/347-2155 www.festo.com

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14 Glossary of technical terms