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Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

By C. Barnes Gallagher June 22, 2010; Revised on April 12, 2013 Author of wayward LOCHES, Pirouetting Spheres, Arising Ode

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

Table of Contents
Abstract..........................................................................................................................................................................3 Description ................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 4 I. Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective: Learning Outcomes ...............................................................................5 1. Recognize aesthetical and cultural qualities of literature. ......................................................................................5 2. Apply approaches to their reading and critical analyses of rhetorical, literary, and aesthetical issues of numerous genres. .......................................................................................................................................................5 3. Synthesize understanding for progressive education in respect to integrated aesthetical values within cultural contexts. .....................................................................................................................................................................5 4. Demonstrate competency in respect to literary genre, philosophic foundation, and literary form ........................6 5. Consider and write about analytical characteristics of the psyche in terms of characterization, plot dynamics, conflict, and aesthetic ................................................................................................................................................6 6. Objectively and persuasively combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description that demonstrates a command of standard English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies of Writing Standard 1.0 (ICAS, 2002, 70). .............................................................................................. 7 7. Recognize and validate the language acquisition device associated with linguistic universals and transformational grammar. ........................................................................................................................................7 8. Demonstrate understanding of the innate knowledge of universals, linguistic experience, and idiosyncratic, language-particular properties of a target languagethe language of the mind--from a psycholinguistic approach (Radford, 1989, 37). ........................................................................................................7 9. Demonstrate an ability to critique diction and syntax to the purpose of oral communication and the impact of words, and to analyze the technique used in media passages and to evaluate their effectiveness (ICAS, 2002, 76). .............................................................................................................................................................................7 10. Recognize instances of subconscious, conscious, unconscious, and subliminal associative thought ..................8 II. Exercises Involving the Classic Prose of Confucius .................................................................................................8 III. Exercises Involving the Classic Work of the Gilgamesh Epic ................................................................................9 IV. Exercises Involving the Classic Work of Homer.....................................................................................................9 V. Exercises Involving the Work of Christopher Marlow ........................................................................................... 10 VI. Exercises Involving the Classics of William Shakespeare .................................................................................... 10 VII. Exercises Involving the Work of Ben Jonson ...................................................................................................... 11 IIX. Exercises Involving the Work of James Joyce ..................................................................................................... 11 IX. Exercises Involving the Work of Dylan Thomas................................................................................................... 11 References ................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Appendix A: Literary Terms ....................................................................................................................................... 14 Appendix B: Syntactic Terms Essential to Universal Grammar .................................................................................. 14 Appendix C: Syntax Review ....................................................................................................................................... 14 1. Expletive Patterns ................................................................................................................................................ 14 2. Parallelism ........................................................................................................................................................... 15 Appendix D ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

Abstract Aesthetics directly correspond with the study of ethical values, progressive philosophical values between cultures, and developmental foundations of grammar. Involving truth, beauty, symmetry, and ethical values that continue to merge across cultures, aesthetical qualities influence semantics at all levels as specific groups of languages evolve and coalesce into a coherent universal communicative system. Through an introduction to literary aesthetics, the perceptive learner will realize that words have evoked progressive and even contradictory meanings since their origin; and that linguistic and aesthetic components are integrated into the theories and ongoing history of all academic subjects. Of foremost importance, they become conscious of the need to select words with great care.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective Description

Aesthetics integrates values and progressive philosophy within all literature. Including concepts that are important to linguistics and literature in cultural ways, aesthetics relates to democratic universality of perception and insight that writers and speakers often convey in a dramatic and creative unique style. Universality is the integral component that expands sympathy and compassion across cultures, and the universal grammatical device essential to transformational grammar and the translation of one language to another. Aesthetics and Universality introduces learners to important concepts that have initiated and sustained academic schools since esoteric times of the ancients. The influence of Confucius, hieroglyphs, the Gilgamesh epic, the Homeric epic and ode, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Christopher Marlow, James Joyce, and Dylan Thomas serve as precedents in a tradition or inspiration of dramatic, politically inspiring, and philanthropic literature. The psyche of the oppressed, the horrors of combat, and the sovereign mind serve as interesting case studies and models. Before adult students can read aloud or silently profound and dramatic prose, and before they can discuss the contents of such monumental literature, they should have an opportunity to learn of the epic and dramatic history in the terms of Shakespeares influences such as Seneca and Euripides, for example, and the causes that compelled such work. Overview In respect to the rapid integration of diverse cultures, aesthetics, viscerally moving literature, and universal grammar function in unison. Due to the transparent communication of interactive online structures, the concept of aesthetics in literature is important to the progressive development of every learner. As infrastructures and linguistic patterns continue to coalesce into a universal language that is readily distinguishable to every viable individual of the functional work dynamic, adult learners must remain perceptive and knowledgeable to progressive change of semantic and literary components. This project focuses on these integral systems. Introduction As they read aloud passages of dramatic works both of Confucius and of Renaissance writers, for example, adult learners have an opportunity to participate in a kind of role play as they identify with authors, subjects, characters, cultural dynamics, atmosphere, conflict, and aesthetics of uniquely different times and lands. Upon delivery of the dramatic presentations noted here, the lesson and the glossaries noted in Appendix A and Appendix B serve as important guidelines toward reflection about the examples and the open-ended questions that follow about culture and aesthetics. This is an introduction to questions about ancient and precedential works, including the Ode--the vision, observations, and perspectives of todays combatant--a literary work that must be preceded by a study in aesthetical literary issues. The instruction, which includes open-ended questions, is an introduction to the mission that caused the divisions of the Latin, Hellenic, Balto-Slavic, and Chinese languages throughout the trade routes of the Mediterranean, the Ukraine, and the Baltic Peninsula. By analyzing psycho-linguistic influences of the ancient philosopher or literary voice, the learner may derive problem-solving strategies and compassion required to foresee and to prevent abnormal struggle and hostility, because the analysis of combat requires a psychoanalytic review of motives. Learning-experience contexts include further research and reading that pertain to aesthetics in

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective literature, psychology, social sciences, progressive learning environments, and collaboration of further adult-learner instruction (Barnes Gallagher, 2010). Appendices of glossaries and reading material are included to assist in the understanding and analyzing of the dynamics of dramatic prose, which augment studies of Confucius and words such as patriotism, pidginization, diaspora, and semantics, which evoke different connotations among languages. Extra reading material is included that will influence the objectives of the project, and that will enhance the reading experience of the adult learner. As they read aloud dramatic classics, learners will be motivated to explore and to share aesthetics from an authentic but universal domain as they identify with the authors voice. I. Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective: Learning Outcomes In respect to the competencies set forth by the Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates (2002), adult learners will:

1. Recognize aesthetical and cultural qualities of literature. Associated with axiology, aesthetics involves the study of ethical values and value judgments that involve form, truth, beauty, and symmetry. Innovators of aesthetical literature tend to treat universal problems through patriotic associations of pride, melancholy and/or defeat, and through a universal quest for divine awarenessconcepts that are not consistent in meaning throughout nations, religions, and generations. Aestheticism that scholars have learned to recognize since the 18th Century does involve the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), who taught lart pour lart (art for arts sake). Philosophers and critics of all art forms, both literary and visual, attempt to define the properties of rational understanding. Kant did recognize that the concept of beauty and of normality varied from culture to culture (Barnes Gallagher, 2011). Walter Pater (1839-1894) later influenced the European definition of aestheticism with the idea that artistic style and moral effect must expand sympathies and compassion across cultures (See Appendix A). 2. Apply approaches to their reading and critical analyses of rhetorical, literary, and aesthetical issues of numerous genres. Ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle had written that an object either does or does not possess a quality such as beauty with no regard to the culture of the objects observer. At last, David Hume (1711-1776) taught that specific qualities of an object, such as beauty and symmetry, were subjectivethe qualities represented the perspective of the observer or beholder (Barnes Gallagher, 2010). The viewpoint of Kant resolves the conflict regarding cultural diversitiesKantian philosophy involves aesthetics as subjective views that may be universally valid. These concepts are presented in poetry, political treatises, biographies, histories, and in both fiction and nonfiction, for example, and they also relate to words that evoke numerous meanings across culture and profession. 3. Synthesize understanding for progressive education in respect to integrated aesthetical values within cultural contexts. Reflecting on cultural distinctions, one may note unique aesthetic variables across specific contexts that for thousands of years have remained the same, aesthetic variables that, through transparent interest and communication, are becoming subjective and universal.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

Accumulative perceptions as introduced by Hume refer to the impressions of physical influences, the perceptions which relate to the concept of universal form that is independent of specific material qualities. Language and images that evoke perception and that goad the senses relate to aesthetics, because aesthetics cannot prefer one culture over another for causes that reflect unsound or inhumane judgment, discrimination that contradicts conditioned values and preferencesaesthetics is oriented not about the physical but about the conditioning of cultural impression. In fact, aesthetics nurtures compassion through constructivist impressions and insight rather than through the physical form alone. 4. Demonstrate competency in respect to literary genre, philosophic foundation, and literary form. Chinese aesthetics include impressions to diverse influential reactions: To Confucius, the humanities of musical and poetic literature expanded etiquette, the li of humanity; to Mozi, musical and artistic literature were classist and harmful to common people. Associated with the Yin and Yang, concepts of virtue, and the defined family-role in government, all of which influence literary genre, philosophic foundation, and literary form, Confucianism and the Chou dynasty impress us even today. Indian aesthetics include kavya, which can refer to procedures, symbols, detailed spiritual states, and rasa aesthetics, the universal bliss of the self. These are concepts that contribute to our understanding of aesthetics and universality. 5. Consider and write about analytical characteristics of the psyche in terms of characterization, plot dynamics, conflict, and aesthetic. Reflecting on cultural distinctions within the multicultural domains of the internet, one may note unique aesthetic variables across specific contexts that for thousands of years have remained the same, aesthetic variables that, through transparent interest and communication, are becoming subjective and universal. Accumulative perceptions as introduced by Hume refer to the impressions of physical influences, the perceptions which relate to the concept of universal form that is independent of specific material qualities. Language and images that evoke perception and that goad the senses relate to aesthetics because aesthetics cannot prefer one culture over another for causes that reflect unsound or inhumane judgment which contradicts conditioned values and preferencesaesthetics is oriented not about the physical but about the conditioning of cultural impression. In fact, aesthetics nurtures compassion through constructivist impressions and insight rather than through the physical form alone. For example, the Chinese did for many years attribute very small feet as a feminine quality while other cultures have regarded voluptuousness as a sign of femininity. Some cultures advocate for effective diplomatic relations and peace-keeping while others through history advocate for highest military competencies. Some cultures emphasize the value of purity and compassion; others, fire and the dragon. These cultural dimensions and affects are integrated with the learning of learner, attributes that the progressive teaching philosophy continues to refine through aesthetics, a subject that universal language and philosophy involvethe scope of my project.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

6. Objectively and persuasively combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description that demonstrates a command of standard English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies of Writing Standard 1.0 (ICAS, 2002, 70). Relating to the focus and development of a constructive, transparently universal language, a progressive philosophy merges from aesthetical impressions, qualities that are instructive and that are part of the process of learner-centered education. The progressive philosophy of education also is part of interdisciplinary studies that evoke an expansive inquiry into cultural values, the conceptual and historical foundations of contemporary studies in literature (Singer & Dunn, 2000, 3). Involving theoretical and analytical relevance of the humanities, the sciences, the creative arts, and language, overt qualities of aesthetics are influenced by culture. However, they relate to the aesthetic value of a literary text, teachers and critics assume that relative treatment to be as an autonomous object isolated from non-literary values and disciplines (Singer & Dunn, 2000, 3). These issues evoke an expansive inquiry into cultural and aesthetic values for an inherent language that is universally motivated. 7. Recognize and validate the language acquisition device associated with linguistic universals and transformational grammar. Aesthetics involves subjective views that are acquired through the individuals incipient need to relate with environmental associations toward survival and development. That need generates incentive required to sustain the self and to relate with environmental components toward the achievement of such vital functions. This incipient individual need to relate with environmental associations is a survival instinct and a universal grammar that N. Chomsky describes as an innate tendency of a genetically preprogrammedLanguage Faculty which provides some genetic blueprint of the range of possible languages (Radford, 1989, 36). 8. Demonstrate understanding of the innate knowledge of universals, linguistic experience, and idiosyncratic, language-particular properties of a target language the language of the mind--from a psycholinguistic approach (Radford, 1989, 37). Involving the linguistic universals of Universal Grammar with no a priori basis, the genetic blueprint is associated with a language acquisition device (LAD) by which a child or a developing language learner is endowed. As language learners discount some potential rules as linguistically impossible, Chomskys structure-dependence principle is clear. He recognizes a dependency on structure-dependent operations that are predetermined by a restrictive initial schematic toward linguistic competency, linguistic universals that include basic universal syntactic structure also from one language to another (Radford, 1989, 35). This concept regarding the language acquisition device and universal grammar recognized by Chomsky are part of the aesthetical perception that learner-centered education and progressive philosophy of education influence, especially from the diverse cultural internal environment. 9. Demonstrate an ability to critique diction and syntax to the purpose of oral communication and the impact of words, and to analyze the technique used in media passages and to evaluate their effectiveness (ICAS, 2002, 76).

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

The deep structure of sentences is defined by the standard theory that Radford and Chomsky refer to as generative grammar. English existential statements include there is. In Spanish, one will note Hay; in French, Il y a, and in German, forms of haber preceded by a pronoun or proper noun. When the existential form is overused, the impact of words and of meaning becomes hazy if not lost altogether (See Appendix B, Appendix C). 10. Recognize instances of subconscious, conscious, unconscious, and subliminal associative thought. Conditioning begins while an individual is an infant, and the process is most complex by the time an individual becomes an adult; however, some adults are more objective than others, and some are able to substantiate their aptitudes and their open-mindedness as they are able to control their environment and the expectations imposed by authoritative figures. Some parents, one must bear in mind, are more universally minded and objective than other parents. For more information regarding this subject, please refer to Steven Paglieranis coverage (Paglierani, 2005). The succeeding exercises involve concepts that have influenced aesthetical values and principles of universality since not only the ancients but now. II. Exercises Involving the Classic Prose of Confucius Acquainted with literary terms, aesthetical qualities, and linguistic components, the individual will consider and meaningfully respond to simple exercises in respect to a review of Confucius and related teachings that align with Benjamin Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Pyramid Table, "the six levels of the Cognitive Process" (Forehand, 2005) para. 12). Remember that, with its origin in the Chou dynasty (1027-256 B.C.), Confucianism is a teaching and official Chinese creed that recognizes Confucius (551?-479 B.C.) as an exemplary writer. Although many of his works have vanished, he remains a universal model whose name does call to our attention his work as an Imperial University and as an evaluating system by which governmental employees do maintain its powerful influence. Distinct from Buddhism and Taoism that one may understand through its important relationship with jen (humanity), its reverence for ancient sages, moral instruction, personal virtue within government, and its holistic rational philosophy, Confucianism has influenced universal aesthetics, philosophy, and social domains. The first set of learning exercises should encourage the adult learner to continue to develop original responses about Confucius work in respect to the example provided in Appendix D: Remember--Describe the environment or place in which the literary or artistic work takes place: An example of a relevant response may include reference to Confucius as a focus on the domain of a sage (the wise), the distinct recognized role of family and social relationships, the Yin and Yang theory, or neo-Confucianisma metaphysical system that also influenced Japan. Understand--Summarize the meaning, moral lesson, intention, and figurative speech (rhetoric, aesthetics, and universality) of the writer or artist: An example of a relevant response may include reference to Confucius contemplation of wisdom and justice in terms of government. Apply--Derive a theory as to why the writer or artist addressed the meaning or moral lesson of a work: An example of a relevant response may include reference to Confucius

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

admonishing of everyone who reads or hears his work to consider the rights and needs of others. Analyze--Differentiate between the main scene or dynamics and the way you would construct the main scene or dynamics: An example of a relevant response may include reference to a current civil case such as that of Oscar Grant so as to compel, in parallel to Confucius, the sympathy and compassion from the reader or audience required to advocate for wisdom and for the wise jurisdiction of government. Evaluate--Assess whether or not the meaning or moral lesson is completely achieved how it may be practical and attainable or idealistic, visionary, and explorative: An example of a relevant response may include reference to a further uncontrolled act of injustice that does compel concern to focus on wisdom and government as per the message of Confucius work. Create: Compose lyrics, dramatic prose, or a poem to convey the same meaning or moral lesson in a new structured form. An example of a relevant response may include the sharing of a newly written poem or song that includes Confucian qualities. III. Exercises Involving the Classic Work of the Gilgamesh Epic

A major literary work inscribed into tablets during about 2000 B.C., those Assyrian hieroglyphs that were originally preserved in clay tablets were discovered in the library of AssurBani-Pal between 668-626 B.C. as noted in the link provided to the Epic in the References Section (Assyrian International News Agency, n.d.). An example of a relevant response about the Epic may include the (1) remembering of the Sumerian King, a mortal seeking immortality, subjects of mythology. One may (2) understand and (3) apply the need to escape a disaster with the relevant reference to another flood, national disaster, or major accident by living in spacecraft. One may (4) analyze the dynamics with a relevant response pertaining to the relationship of viability and sustainability. An example of a relevant (5) evaluation of the epic could include a reference to a figure such as Ponce de Leon who sought the fountain of youth. An example of a relevant analogy, or fictitious or original story could serve as a learning (6) creation about mortal struggle in quest of eternal dimensions, a concept of universal proportions and aesthetic significance.

IV. Exercises Involving the Classic Work of Homer


Although The Battle of the Frogs and Mice, the Homeric Hymns, and some of the Epic Cycle works are accredited by contemporary scholars to Homer (900-800 B.C.), one may provide a relevant response to the recollection of Homers work by (1) remembering these works as original legends that some Unitarians believe are compilations of several transcribers. One may relevantly learn also by (2) understanding that the Trojan War of the Iliad and the Odyssey occurred over 400 years, and that collections of history, folk stories, and legends of the literary works were maintained by rhapsodes and bards for many generations (Fox, 2006). Further understanding is important regarding the rebuttals over the Illiad as a work that represents the style indicative of only one intelligence source. To (3) apply this dramatic history, one may consider the analytic school and arrange for consideration a practical verse for recitation, (4) analyzing the relevancy to contemporary and progressive events and issues in respect to diplomatic relations, justice, health, industry, and commerce. One may (5) evaluate the work

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective

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with a relevant response about the affect of the work through responses and commentary of the audience, (6) creating important notes about flashback, parallel dynamic lines, and analysis as components of the writing portfolio that enhance the learning, instructional, and assessment cycles. These exercises involve concepts that have influenced aesthetical values and principles of universality since the ancients. V. Exercises Involving the Work of Christopher Marlow Visionary colossal creatures that defy every convention, and that only the minde may move, the characters and concepts of Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) evoke the classical mythological muse. His immortal invocations are effected by Circes wand, and the nectar of the Roman god Jove (short for Jupiter, the god of light, sky, weather, the state, welfare, and laws) (University of Oxford, 1999, 73-74). Marlowe animated the conventionally Elizabethan academic tragedy even before Shakespeare. Examples of relevant (1) remembering of Marlowe include the evoking of or reference to The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, the visceral stoic times of Seneca (4-65: Roman statesman, dramatist, and philosopher), and the mortal combat of the times of emperors, Persian Xerxes, Caesars, Holy Wars, and Viking-Pirate conquests. To (2) understand Marlowe is to ponder the fiercest consequences of mere fantasy that can compel an emperor to order war and unjust execution, paralyzing tribulations that impressed the original Renaissance drama for which Marlowe is accredited. Immortal beauty and passion that one may (3) apply as a reference to the immortality, powerful eternal sovereignty that may be (4) analyzed as a search for universal wholeness and eternal consciousness, the exploration for justice and longevity. As one (5) evaluates Marlowe, one can sense his rapport with Shakespeare and Thomas Nashe (1567-1601) over superhuman powers of several mutually functional characters rather than of one main character. To create (6) a drama or another literary work with the magnificent compassion of Marlowe is to recall moments like those of Leander whose quivering breastbreathless spoke something, and sighed out the rest (University of Oxford, 1999, 74). VI. Exercises Involving the Classics of William Shakespeare Envisioning and debating ethereal dimensions and downfalls through the Elizabethan and early Jacobean perspective, literary conceits (fanciful or startling analogies), perception, sensuality, and expressions of William Shakespeare (1564-1616) remains a profound literary influence. One might (1) remember him for his references to the Ides of March and Epiphanies, for example, in MacBeth and Twelfth Night, respectively. To understand (2) the Renaissance contemplation and celebration of the pardonable or condemned psyche, one might share Shakespeares poem The Phoenix and the Turtle, for example (University of Oxford, 1999, p. 78-81). Why does he refer to a bird that is resolved but to ashes? This (3) application of Renaissance tradition may encourage one to (4) analyze the Elizabethan psyche that bears every foule tyrant wing [to] save the Eagle feathred King so strict (University of Oxford, 1999, p. 79) in terms of dramatic oppression in need of philanthropic assistance. As one (5) evaluates the Renaissance nature through Shakespeare, one may detect an anathema for the conflicts of the common individual suffering hardship imposed by monarchial or sovereign forces. One may (6) create important artifact notes, analogies, and new work in reference to Shakespeares orientation about universal concepts.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective VII. Exercises Involving the Work of Ben Jonson

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To (1) remember Ben Jonson (1573-1637) is to recall the consequences of massive barbarism and bloodshed recalled by the stage, the masque, fervent praise, poetry, lyricism, and the encomium. To (2) understand Jonsons masque, one must envision the pantomimes, dances, costumes, and theatrical masks that thespians and playwrights might port to royal courts so as to garnish support, dress styles and performances that one may a (3) apply in a practical skit before an audience or classroom. To (4) analyze Jonsons work, one must consider the masques golden age, a quest for lyrical grace and sumptuous royal splendor, in addition to the interlude which in the comic antimasque parodied the predominant plot in mesmerizing yet taunting words. For example: Deaths selfe is sorrywhen Fates turnd cruell; Yet three filld Zodiackes work had he beeneThe stages jewell (University of Oxford, 1999). An (5) evaluation of Jonson reveals his study and following of Seneca, a penchant for the adamant passion for the extension of drama even since Marlowe and Seneca, the adamant need for a supportive audience. To Jonsons Memory of my beloved Master William, one is profoundly impressed by the superhuman mind that is as he terms, the soul of the age. Jonsons encomium to Shakespeare is most striking. To Jonson, not even Chaucer, Spenser, or Beaumont can match Shakespeares outstanding dedication as a playwright and poet. To (6) create notes about lasting words such as Jonsons can truly be an asset to the writers portfolio. Shakespeare as a monument ever living without a tomb that can shake forever the stagemore so than Latin or Greek, thundring Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, Pacuvius, Acciusprofoundest minds are immortal (Shakespeare, 1991, xiv-xivi). IIX. Exercises Involving the Work of James Joyce To remember (1) James Joyce, one must ponder the revolutionary and innovating literary style, such as the stream of consciousness. To (2) understand this concept, one might consider William James who coined the term in his Principles of Psychology (1890) to describe the inner flow of experience. To (3) apply the description to Joyce about the psychological process of thought and sensations that flow through a persona for no rational cause, one may analyze the conception and consciousness of a character such as Stephen Hero. As Joyce had adapted the interior monologue through published French works, he influenced other twentieth century authors such as Virginia Wolfe and William Faulkner who also enabled thought and impressions of characters to flow as from a well through spontaneous sometimes immature syntax. One may (4) analyze this style for inherent supernatural powers. Such a propensity to search the psyche certainly must reflect the authors quest for universality in the terms of an inherent consciousness or immortal dimension is a subject that one might (5) evaluate through the authors biography. Joyces aesthetics includes a balance between his discontent with Irish nationality and with Jesuit Catholicism in an ironic manner. The author expresses an adventurous yearning for the innovative evocation of insight, the sudden spiritual manifestation (epiphany) of The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and an original version of the classic Ulysses. One might create (6) a work in this style to add to ones writing portfolio. IX. Exercises Involving the Work of Dylan Thomas As concerns regarding aesthetics that are culturally and ethically influenced and that must coalesce fairly to form the perspectives of that which constitutes beauty (for example, symmetry

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versus asymmetry; landscape versus gardening preferences; masculine versus feminine preferences, etc.), aesthetics influence literature, art, philosophy, and psychology. Aesthetical values about incongruous effects also influence art, literature, film, and theatre through unnatural combinations and juxtapositions, all which we consider in respect to Dylan Thomas (1914-1953). Values that compel the ideals, principles, or practice of creating fantastic or asymmetric imagery are also associated with the aesthetics, therefore, that one may (1) remember in respect to Thomas. Influenced by Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889), Thomas surrealist lyrical qualities evoke a supernatural world that encompasses and imbues the perceptive atmosphere of his work. As one (2) understands the force that through the green fuse compels and gives physical form that also rescinds, one can also sense another realm that drives the water through the rocks and also his bloodthat drives the mouthing streams, turning his blood to wax (University of Oxford, 1999, 621). One might (3) apply the powerful surrealist light and power of Thomas to visual images such as a painting of Salvador Dali (1904-1989) or the sudden flash of light through a window that persists as an extended metaphor, the limit of the globes, as daylights the bonewhen logics die (University of Oxford, 1999, 622). As one (4) analyzes Thomas powerful light, one may detect that Thomas does not believe that life must succumb to the physical world, a value system expressed even in his titles alone, such as And death shall have no dominion. As one (5) evaluates the imagery and surrealism of Thomas, one detects his use of religious but analytical qualities that are psychoanalytic as per the definition and practice set forth by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Pondering Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night, one might create (6) a sketch of a shepherd and a staff, or a sketch or description of a star overhead beaming effulgence where only darkness should be. These are further concepts that comprise our understanding of aesthetics and universalitybeauty from a light of another or eternal world; one culture, social, or individual group seeking and fulfilling a mission for victory, success, or amnesty.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective References Assyrian International News Agency (n.d.). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Retrieved from http://www.aina.org/books/eog/eog.pdf Confucius, K. F. (2010). Qufu. Retrieved July 8, 2010, from http://community.travelchinaguide.com/forum2.asp?i=468

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Dunn, A., & Singer, A. (2000). Literary aesthetics: a reader. Oxford UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy: Original and revised. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved July 5, 2010, from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy Fox, R. L. (2006). The classical work: An epic history from Homer. New York: Basic Books--A Member of the Perseus Books Group. Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates (ICAS) (Spring, 2002). Academic literacy: A statement of competencies expected of students entering California public colleges and universities. Sacramento, CA: ICAS. Retrieved from http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/reports/acadlit.pdf Paglierani, S. (2005). The conscious, subconscious, and unconscious--A new look at an old metaphor. Retrieved from http://theemergencesite.com/Theory/ConsciousnessSubconsciousness-2.htm New Directions Publishing Corporation (1964). Confucius to Cummings: An anthology of poetry. New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation. Radford, A. (1989). Transformational grammar. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Shakespeare, W. (1991). William Shakespeare--The complete works (2nd ed.). Oxford OX2 6DP: Oxford University Press. University of Oxford (1999). The Oxford book of English verse (Christopher Ricks, Ed.). Great Clarendon, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective Appendix A: Literary Terms Before reading the literary work, please consider the literary terms which I include in my own instructional web as per the following: http://www.ancientskybridge.com/rosetta_stone_poem,_lit_review.htm Appendix B: Syntactic Terms Essential to Universal Grammar Before proceeding with the reading of Confucius and the exercises pertaining thereto, please consider the syntactic terms essential to Universal Grammar that I include in my own instructional web as per the following: http://www.ancientskybridge.com/webquest.htm Appendix C: Syntax Review 1. Expletive Patterns

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a) It patterns Please note that the expletive it is frequently overused when alternate wording and syntactic form would produce a strong and emphatic focus at the beginning of the sentence. For example It was Christopher who offered invaluable relief. Functioning as the anticipatory subject of a phrase or clause that is in a succeeding place in the sentence, the frequently used it produces obscure and muddy focus; thus, the sentence is not easily read or understood. The following example of the it pattern should typically be avoided: It is indeed obvious to anyone that our educational system is directed poorly by the Board of Education. b) There patterns The overuse of expletive patterns also results in poorly focused sentences. Sentences beginning with there are called existential sentencesas Quirk and Greenbaum write, when unstressed, there is followed by a form of the verb be, the clause that expresses the notion of existence. There is simply means there exists, and if the main idea of the sentence is not the simple one of existence, alternate syntactic construction should be used: There are numerous flaws here = Numerous flaws exist here. Despite its inappropriateness, inexperienced writers tend to begin sentences with there. The tendency appears in numerous forms; however, the most common are similar to the following two examples: 1. In high crime regions, there should be more security officers appointed to patrol the streets after dark. Or There is more trouble stewing that they could not foresee. 2. There are legitimate concerns among educators regarding the quality of instruction that our teachers are receiving. Once we translate the first kind of sentences into sentences based on the verb exist, the problem is clear: 1. More security officers should exist appointed to patrol the streets after dark.

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2. More trouble exists stewing that they could not expect. Clearly, the writers of these sentences did bear in mind not the idea of existence but the idea of actionsin the first, the action of security officers being assigned; in the second, the action of more trouble (that is) stewing. The sentences should be written as follows: 1. More security officers should be appointed to patrol the streets after dark. 2. More trouble is stewing that they could not expect. We may discover the inappropriateness of the there beginnings through an important clue in the original sentences which we observe to be the presence of the verbalsappointed and stewing--that exist after the subjects of the sentences. When constructed in this manner, the there invariably should be eliminated, and the verbal should be changed into a finite verb. The second there problem is different. As we reread the sentence, we discover no verbal following the subject concerns. If we change this sentence into one based on exist, the result is an improved syntactic structure, one with a focus that is not hazed by unnecessary verbals: Legitimate concerns exist among educators Although a concern may exist, when one states that it exists among some group of people, one is not focusing on the group but simply on its concern. The sentence should be written: Educators are legitimately concerned about the quality of instruction that our teachers are receiving. 2. Parallelism Parallel structure (parallelism) is important to syntax. Many sentences include lists of two, three, or more words, phrases or clauses separated by commas. These compound nouns, phrases, or clauses should be listed in parallel. These linked components should be in the same grammatical form. Commonly involving the coordinating conjunction and, they may also involve other coordinating conjunctionsor, but, or yet. The rule of parallel structure is that these conjunctions should connect similar grammatical units used in the same way. For example, two or more nouns used as subjects of a sentence, or two or more nouns used as objects of the same verb or of the same preposition, or two or more prepositional phrases modifying the same noun or the same verb, and so on. Usage may be to some degree permissive about this rule at times; however, when deviation exists, the function of the units is more important than grammatical form. For instance, the following sentences are typically considered to be correct even though they are exceptions to the standard rule: She hates dogs, cats, and whatever is eating her plants (a noun clause). Martha is fascinated (a complement) by all sports but a devotee (a complement) of baseball. George did the work speedily (adverb) and with an eye to our convenience (adverbial). The first example includes a conjunction that links a series of two nouns and a noun clause; all three of the linked series function as direct objects of hates. The second sentence includes the conjunction that joins the adjective, fascinated, with a noun, devotee; both are complements of Martha. In the third example, the conjunction joins the adverb speedily, with the prepositional phrase, with an eye to our convenience, but the prepositional phrase is adverbial, modifying did in the same manner that speedily does. These are three exceptions to the rule as they do not exemplify that structure always takes precedence over grammatical form. As the parallel structure rule indicates, both structure and grammatical form usually must be the same. Parallel structure requires that the component which follows the conjunction is like some structure that precedes the conjunction. If one writes a simple noun + verb + direct object as a

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sentence, for example, and utilizes the conjunction and, one could complete the sentences in only three ways: John bit the cat and the dog. (parallel direct objects). John bit the cat and kicked the dog. (parallel verb phrases) John bit the cat, and Mary kicked the dog. (parallel sentences) Appendix D

In reference Confucius work as translated by Ezra Pound, the title included in the References Section is published by New Directions Publishing Company (NDPC, 1964, pp. 6-8)
Baroness Mu impeded in her wish to help famine victims in Wei I wanted to harness and go Share woe in Wei I would have made Tsao my first halt, It was never my fault That a deputy went to my brother Across grass and water Could he carry my grief? Without your visa I could not go, I cannot honour your act Nor retract. My sympathy was real, yours the offence If I cannot carry my condolence, Wrongly you wrought. If I cannot stifle my thought I climb the cornered hill seeking hearts ease If sorrow be real, let heart with sorrows load Go its sole road (without your visa, does honour requite it so?! Nor was my thought wrong in this You would not approve. I cannot take home my condolence, If thus wrongly you wrought The H crowds vulgar cry Sounds out presumptuously I wanted to go to the plains Where the thick grain is. I would have asked aid of great states Their kings and great potentates; Some would deny, some do their most, But I would have had no blame. All your hundred plans come to naught, None matched my thought Qufu (from Confucius, 2010, 1) Where Confucius

Aesthetics and Universality in Perspective Lived and died Study, not worship. In the quiet woods A crane resides Cypress, pine and flower. A sage lived here once And lives here still Wise words and rectitude. Known as poet, too, He balanced infinitudes Joining heaven and earth. Seven-five generations ago And now a muddy town Tempe, gate and home. Worlds away The heart flies true The right angle of virtue

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