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Section A Bahagian A [60 marks] [60 markah] Answer all questions in this section.

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini. 1 The following diagram shows a flow chart that identifies the cation and anion of an unknown compound. Gambar rajah yang berikut menunjukkan sebuah carta yang mengenal pasti kation dan anion suatu sebatian X.

(a)

(i)

The preliminary examination of compound X shows that it is a

green crystalline solid. Name two metal ions that are green. Pemeriksaan awal sebatian X menunjukkan bahawa ia adalah pepejal hijau. Namakan dua ion logam yang berwarna hijau. . [1 mark] [1 markah] Compound X dissolves in water to produce a green solution. What inference can be made with regards to the anion of compound X? Sebatian X dilarutkan ke dalam air untuk menghasilkan larutan hijau. Apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat dengan merujuk kepada anion sebatian X? . [1 mark] [1 markah] When dilute sodium hydroxide is added to solution X, a green precipitate is formed which is insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. What inference can be made about the cation in compound X? Apabila natrium hidroksida cair ditambahkan ke dalam larutan X, satu mendakan hijau terbentuk dan ia tak larut dalam larutan nartrium hidroksida berlebihan. Apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat tentang kation sebatian X? . [1 mark] [1 markah] The test is repeated with dilute ammonia solution, a green precipitate is formed which is also insoluble in excess ammonia solution. What inference can be made about the cation in compound X? Ujian tersebut diulangi dengan larutan ammonia cair, mendakan hijau terbentuk dan ia juga tak larut dalam larutan ammonia cair berlebihan. Apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat tentang kation dalam sebatian X?

(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

. [1 mark] [1 markah] Describe one confirmatory test for the cation in compound X. Gambarkan satu ujian pengesahan bagi kation dalam sebatian X.

(d)

(i)

[2 marks] [2 markah] When dilute nitric acid is added to solution X, no effervescence is observed. What inference can be made from the observation? Apabila asid nitrik cair ditambah ke larutan Y, tiada pembuakan diperhatikan. Apakah inferens yang oleh dibuat berdasarkan pemerhatian tersebut? . [1 mark] [1 markah] A white precipitate is produced when silver nitrate solution is added to the mixture of solution X and nitric acid. What inference can be made from the reaction? Satu mendakan putih telah dihasilkan apabila larutan argentum nitrat telah dicampurkan dengan campuran larutan X dan asid nitrik. Apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat daripada tindak balas tersebut? . [1 mark] [1 markah] The test is repeated with barium nitrate solution. No precipitate is formed. What inference can be made for the observation? Ujian tersebut diulangi dengan larutan barium nitrat. Tiada mendakan yang terbentuk. Apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat daripada pemerhatian tersebut?

(ii)

(iii)

(e)

. [1 mark] [1 markah] Name compound X. Namakan sebatian X. [1 mark] [1 markah]

Two experiments is conducted to investigate the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is as shown below. Dua eksperimen dijalankan untuk menyiasat tentang kadar penguraian hidrogen peroksida seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah. Experiment I Eksperimen I

20 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm3 hydrogen peroxide is put into a conical flask and 3 g of manganese(IV) oxide is added. 20 cm3 hidrogen peroksida 0.1 mol dm3 diletakkan ke dalam kelalang kon dan 3 g mangan(IV) oksida ditambahkan ke dalamnya. Experiment II Eksperimen II 20 cm3 of 0.4 mol dm3 hydrogen peroxide is put into a conical flask and 3 g of manganese(IV) oxide is added. 20 cm3 hidrogen peroksida 0.4 mol dm3 diletakkan ke dalam kelalang kon dan 3 g mangan(IV)oksida ditambahkan ke dalamnya. (a) Suggest one method of collecting the volume of gas given out for the two experiments. Cadangkan satu kaedah untuk mengumpulkan isi padu gas yang telah dibebaskan bagi kedua-dua eksperimen berkenaan. . . [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Draw the set-up of the apparatus used to collect the released gas. Lukiskan susunan radas yang digunakan untuk pengumpulan gas tersebut.

[2 marks] [2 markah] (c) Write an equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Tuliskan satu persamaan bagi penguraian hidrogen peroksida. .. [1 mark] [1 markah] (d) From the experiments, which experiment has a higher rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide? Daripada eksperimen-eksperimen di atas, eksperimen yang manakah menpunyai kadar penguraian hidrogen peroksida yang lebih tinggi?

(e)

........... [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer in (d). Jelaskan jawapan anda di (d). ........... [1 mark] [1 markah] What is the function of manganese(IV) oxide in the experiments? Apakah fungsi mangan(IV) oksida di dalam eksperimen? ........... [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain the role of manganese(IV) oxide in raising the rate of reaction, according to the theory of collision of particle. Jelaskan peranan mangan(IV) oksida dalam meningkatkan kadar tindak balas dengan berpandukan teori perlanggaran zarah. ........... [1 mark] [1 markah] Sketch the graph of volume of oxygen gas collected against the time for the two experiments using the same axis given below. Lakarkan graf isi padu gas oksigen yang telah dikumpulkan lawan masa bagi kedua-dua eksperimen dengan menggunakan paksi sama seperti di bawah.

(f)

(g)

(h)

[2 marks] [2 markah] 3 Three experiments were carried out to investigate the factors affecting the rates of reactions. The following table shows the material used and the time taken to accumulate 25 cm3 of gas released from each experiment. Tiga eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menyiasat faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bahan yang digunakan dan masa Experiment Material Time/s Eksperimen Bahan Masa/s I 25.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid + 40 5.0 g of magnesium ribbon 25.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm3 + 5.0 g reben magnesium II 25.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid + 30 5.0 g of magnesium ribbon + 3 drops of copper(II) sulphate solution 25.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm3 + 5.0 g reben magnesium + 3 titis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat III 25.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm3 sulphuric acid + 20 5.0 g of magnesium ribbon 25.0 cm3 larutan asid sulfurik 0.1 mol dm3 + 5.0 g reben magnesium yang diambil untuk mengumpulkan 25 cm3 gas yang dibebaskan dari setiap eksperimen.

(a)

Sketch the graphs for the three experiments that show the effervescence of 25.0 cm3 of gas on the axes given below. Lakarkan graf untuk ketiga-tiga eksperimen yang menunjukkan pembuakan 25.0 cm3 gas di atas paksi yang telah diberikan di bawah.

(b)

[3 marks] [3 markah] Why is the time taken to collect 25.0 cm3 of gas in Experiment I is longer than Experiment II? Mengapakah masa yang diambil untuk mengumpulkan 25.0 cm3 gas di Eksperimen I lebih lama berbanding dengan Eksperimen II? ... [1 mark] [1 markah] Based on the collision theory, explain why the time taken to collect 25 cm3 of gas in Experiment III is shorter than in Experiment I. Berdasasrkan teori perlanggaran, jelaskan mengapa masa yang diambil untuk mengumpulkan 25 cm3 dalam Eksperimen III lebih cepat berbanding dengan Eksperimen I. ... ... [2 marks] [2 markah] Calculate the mass of magnesium needed [1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm 3 at room temperature and pressure; Relative atomic mass: Mg = 24, H = 1, S = 32, O = 16] Hitungkan jumlah magnesium yang diperlukan [1 mol gas memenuhi 24 dm 3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik; Jisim atom relatif: Mg = 24, H = 1, S = 32, O = 16] (i) to react with hydrochloric acid to produce 2.88 cm3 of gas in Experiment I untuk bertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik bagi menghasilkan

(c)

(d)

2.88 cm3 gas di dalam Eksperimen I.

[2 marks] [2 markah] (ii) to react with sulphuric acid to produce 5.86 cm3 of gas in Experiment III untuk bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik bagi menghasilkan 5.86 cm3 gas di dalam Eksperimen III.

[2 marks] [2 markah] 4 The following diagram shows the apparatus set-up of a simple voltaic cell. Gambar rajah berikut menunjukkan radas sebuah sel ringkas.

(a)

Identify the following: Kenal pasti yang berikut: (i) Positive terminal: Terminal positif: . Negative terminal: Terminal negatif: . [2 marks] [2 markah]

(ii)

(b) Name the electrolyte used in: Namakan elektrolit yang digunakan dalam: (i) Beaker A:

Bikar A: . Beaker B: Bikar B: . [2 marks] [2 markah] (c) (i) What is the function of the salt bridge? Apakah fungsi titian garam? . Name one solution used as the salt bridge. Namakan satu larutan yang digunakan sebagai titian garam. . [2 marks] [2 markah] (d) (i) Write a half-equation for the reaction that took place at the positive terminal. Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di terminal positif. . [2 marks] [2 markah] Write an overall equation for the cell reaction. Tuliskan suatu persamaan keseluruhan bagi tindak balas sel tersebut. . [2 marks] [2 markah] (e) Give two differences between the voltaic cell and the electrolytic cell. Berikan dua perbezaan di antara sel voltan dan sel elektrolisis.

(ii)

(ii)

(ii)

[2 marks] [2 markah] 5 An experiment is carried out to investigate the rate of reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. The result obtained is as shown in the table below. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menyiasat kadar tindak balas antara zink dan asid hidroklorik. Keputusan yang diperolehi adalah seperti yang di bawah. Time/s Burette reading/cm3 Volume of gas/cm3 Masa/s Bacaan buret/cm Isi padu gas/cm 0 50 0 30 64 14.0 60 70 20.0 90 76.5 26.5 120 80 30 150 84 34.0 180 86.5 36.5 210 88.5 38.5 240 90.5 40.5 270 92 42 300 93.5 43.5 330 95 45 360 96 46 390 96 46 420 96 46 (a) Plot a graph of the volume of gas released against time on the graph paper provided below. Plotkan graf isi padu gas yang dibebaskan lawan masa di atas kertas graf yang telah disediakan di bawah.

[2 marks] [2 markah] (b) How does the slope of the curve relate to the rate of reaction? Bagaimanakah cerun graf tersebut boleh dikaitkan dengan kadar tindak balas? ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] Write out the chemical equation for the reaction. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas tersebut. ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] How does the rate of reaction change with time?

(c)

(d)

Bagaimanakah kadar tindak balas berubah dengan masa? ........ ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer in (d). Jelaskan jawapan anda di (d). ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain why the volume of gas obtained at the end of the experiment is the same? Jelaskan mengapa isi padu gas yang diperolehi di akhir eksperimen tersebut adalah sama? ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] Determine the rate of reaction at the 60th second. Tentukan kadar tindak balas pada saat yang ke-60. ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] th Determine the average rate of reaction in the 120 second. Tentukan purata kadar tindak balas pada saat ke-120. ........ [1 mark] [1 markah] Determine the average rate of reaction for the whole reaction. Tentukan purata kadar tindak balas bagi keseluruhan tindak balas tersebut. ........ ........

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

[1 mark] [1 markah] 6 An experiment is carried out to study the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid. The set-up of the apparatus is as shown in the following diagram. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji perubahan suhu terhadap kadar tindak balas di antara natrium tiosulfat dan asid hidroklorik 2 mol dm3. Susunan radas adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan di dalam gambar rajah di bawah.

The time needed for the X to disappear is recorded with the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate increased. The data obtained is recorded as shown in the following table. Masa yang diperlukan bagi X untuk hilang dicatatkan bersama-sama dengan peningkatan suhu natrium tiosulfat. Maklumat yang diperolehi dicatatkan seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah.
Temperature/oC

28

30

40

50

60

70

80

Suhu/C Time taken for X to disappear/s Masa yang diambil bagi X untuk hilang/s /s1

60

53

33

23

17

13

11

/s1

(a)

Plot a graph of the increase in temperature against time on the graph paper provided below. Plotkan satu graf peningkatan suhu lawan masa di atas kertas graf yang telah disediakan.

[2 marks]

(b)

[2 markah] Based on the result obtained what inference can be made on the rate of reaction? Berdasarkan keputusan yang diperolehi, apakah inferens yang boleh dibuat daripada kadar tindak balas? .. [1 mark] [1 markah] What caused the X on the filter paper to disappear? Apakah yang menyebabkan X hilang daripada kertas turas? .. [1 mark] [1 markah] Based on the curve obtained, what is the temperature of sodium thiosulphate when is the rate of reaction is the highest? Berdasarkan graf yang diperolehi, bilakah kadar tindak balas adalah yang paling tinggi? .. [1 mark] [1 markah] Based on the collision theory, explain how does the temperature affect the rate of reaction. Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, jelaskan bagaimana suhu mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. .. [2 marks] [2 markah]

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f) Fill up the space provided for in table above. dalam jadual di atas. [1 mark] [1 markah]

Isikan tempat kosong yang disediakan bagi

(g) What is the relationship between Apakah hubungan di antara and rate of reaction? dan kadar tindak balas?

.. [1 mark] [1 markah] (g) What is the relationship between Apakah hubungan di antara and rate of reaction? dan kadar tindak balas?

(h)

.. [1 mark] [1 markah] Give an application of temperature on the rate of reaction in our daily life. Berikan satu aplikasi suhu terhadap kadar tindak balas dalam kehidupan seharian kita. [1 mark] [1 markah]

An experiment is carried to determine the rate of reaction between 50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 0.2 mol dm-3and excess calcium carbonate chips. The volume of gas released during the reaction is recorded every 20 seconds as shown in the table below. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kadar tindak balas antara 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm3 dan serpihan kalsium karbonat yang berlebihan. Isi padu gas yang berubah ketika tindak balas tersebut dicatatkan setiap 20 saat seperti yang ditunjukkan di jadual di bawah. (b) State one method to verify the gas released? Nyatakan satu cara untuk mengesahkan gas yang telah dibebaskan? [1 mark] [1 markah] Plot the graph for the volume of gas released against the time taken for the reaction on the graph paper provided. Plotkan graf isi padu gas yang dibebaskan lawan masa yang diambil bagi

(c)

kadar tindak balas di kertas graf di bawah.

[2 marks] [2 markah] (d) Calculate the average rate of reaction for the reaction. Hitungkan purata kadar tindak balas bagi tindak balas tersebut. [1 mark] [1 markah] If hydrochloric acid is replaced with sulphuric acid, predict the volume of the gas released. Jika asid hidroklorik digantikan dengan asid sulfuric, ramalkan isi padu gas yang telah dibebaskan. [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer in (e). Jelaskan jawapan anda di (e).

(e)

(f)

(g)

[1 mark] [1 markah] Sketch on the same axes the curve for the reaction if the calcium carbonate chips are replaced with calcium carbonate powder. Lakarkan di atas paksi yang sama, graf bagi tindak balas yang berlaku jikalau serpihan kalsium karbonat digantikan dengan serbuk kalsium karbonat.

(h)

[1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer for the difference of the curves plotted in (g) as compared to (c). Jelaskan jawapan anda bagi perbezaan antara graf-graf yang telah diplotkan di (g) dengan (c).

[2 marks] [2 markah]

Section B Bahagian B [20 marks] [20 markah] Answer any one question from this section. Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini. 8 (a) Give the definition for catalyst. [2 marks] Berikan takrifan mangkin. [2 markah] (b) State five characteristics of a catalyst. [5 marks] Nyatakan lima ciri-ciri mangkin. (c) [5 markah] A group of students carried out two experiments to investigate the factors affecting the rate of reaction. The table below shows information about the reactants used in each experiment. Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan dua eksperimen bagi menyiasat faktorfaktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. Experiment Reactants

Eksperimen Bahan tindak balas I 10 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide II 10 cm3 hidrogen peroksida 10 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide + 2 g of manganese(IV) oxide 10 cm3 hidrogen peroksida + 2 g mangan(IV) oksida

(i)

(d)

Based on the information given on the reactants used, sketch two graphs for the volume of oxygen released against the time on the same axes. [4 marks] Berdasarkan maklumat yang telah diberikan tentang bahan tindak balas yang digunakan, lakarkan dua graf untuk isi padu oksigen yang dibebaskan kepada masa di atas paksi yang sama. [4 markah] (ii) Based on the collision theory, explain the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction. [6 marks] Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, jelaskan kesan mangkin terhadap kadar tindak balas. [6 markah] Explain why industry will consider using catalyst even though it will increase the cost of production. [3 marks] Jelaskan kenapa industri akan mempertimbangkan untuk menggunakan mangkin walau pun ia akan menaikkan kos pengeluaran. [3 markah]

9 (a)

(b)

On a very hot day, the food left on the dining table will turn bad faster than on a rainy day. Explain why. [2 marks] Pada hari yang panas, makanan yang ditinggalkan di atas meja makan akan basi lebih cepat berbanding dengan hari hujan. Jelaskan kenapa. [2 markah] An experiment is carried out to study the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction as shown in the diagram below. The sodium thiosulphate is heated and then poured into the hydrochloric acid and the time taken for the X to disappear is recorded as the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate used is increased. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan suhu ke atas kadar tindak balas seperti yang ditunjukkan di dalam gambar rajah di bawah. Natrium tiosulfat telah dipanaskan dan kemudian dituangkan ke dalam asid hidroklorik, dan masa yang diambil bagi tanda X untuk hilang sementara suhu natrium tiosulfat yang digunakan bertambah dicatatkan.

Based on the experiment, a graph is plotted. Explain how the rate of reaction varies at room temperature as compared to the increase in the temperature. Berdasarkan eksperimen, sebuah graf telah diplotkan. Jelaskan bagaimana kadar tindak balas berbeza pada suhu bilik berbanding dengan apabila ia mengalami peningkatan suhu. (i) Calculate the average rate of reaction for the experiment. [2 marks] Hitungkan purata kadar tindak balas bagi eksperimen tersebut. [2 markah] (ii) Write out the chemical equation for the reaction. [2 marks] Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas tersebut. [2 markah] 3 (iii) If 0.1 mol of 20 cm of sodium thiosulphate as well as hydrochloric acid is used in the experiment, calculate the maximum of sulphur formed during the experiment. [Relative atomic mass: S = 32, Na = 23, O = 16, Cl = 35, H = 1] [2 marks] Jika 0.1 mol natrium tiosulfat yang mempunyai isi padu sebanyak 20 cm3, dan asid hidroklorik digunakan di dalam eksperimen berkenaan, hitungkan jumlah sulfur yang terbentuk semasa eksperimen tersebut. [Jisim atom relatif: S = 32, Na = 23, O = 16, Cl = 35, H = 1] [2 markah] (iv) Based on the collision theory, explain how the temperature will affect the rate of reaction. [6 marks]

(v)

Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, jelaskan bagimana suhu boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. [6 markah] If now the manipulated variable is the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate, how should we alter the original experiment? Explain how this will affect the rate of reaction. [6 marks] Jikalau sekarang pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan ialah kepekatan natrium tiosulfat, bagaimanakah seharusnya kita mengubah eksperimen yang asal? Jelaskan bagaimana keadaan ini boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. [6 markah]

Section C Bahagian C [20 marks] [20 markah] Answer any one question from this section. Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini. 10 Three experiments were carried out in a laboratory to investigate the factors affecting the rate of reaction. The table below shows the formation for the three experiments. Tiga eksperimen telah dijalankan di dalam makmal bagi untuk menyiasat faktorfaktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan pembentukan bagi ketiga-tiga eksperimen tersebut. Experiment Reactants

Eksperimen Bahan tindak balas I Excess pieces of zinc is added to 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid Kepingan zink yang berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 100 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.5 mol dm3 Excess zinc powder is added to 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid Serbuk zink yang berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 100 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.5 mol dm3 Excess pieces of zinc is added to 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm3

II

III

sulphuric acid Kepingan zink yang berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 100 cm3 asid sulfurik 0.5 mol dm3

(a)

Define the rate of reaction and instantaneous rate of reaction. [4 marks] Berikan takrifan kadar tindak balas dan kadar tindak balas pada masa tertentu. [4 markah]

(b)

In Experiments I and II above, explain why the rate of reaction differs in the two experiments. [6 marks] Dalam Eksperimen I dan II di atas, jelaskan kenapa kadar tindak balas adalah berbeza antara kedua-dua eksperimen tersebut. [6 markah]

(c)

In Experiment III above, explain how sulphuric acid affects the rate of reaction as compared to Experiment II. [6 marks] Dalam Eksperimen III di atas, jelaskan bagaimana asid sulfurik mempengaruhi kadar tindak balasnya berbanding dengan Eksperimen II. [6 markah]

(d)

Give an example in our daily life how we apply the principle of size of reactants affects the rate of reaction and how we can overcome it. [4 marks] Berikan satu contoh dalam kehidupan seharian kita dalam mengaplikasikan prinsip saiz bahan tindak balas mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas dan bagaimana kita mengatasinya. [4 markah] Define activation energy. [2 marks] Berikan takrifan tenaga pengaktifan.

11

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

[2 markah] With the help of a graph, explain what an energy profile diagram is. [5 marks] Dengan bantuan sebuah graf, jelaskan apakah maksud gambar rajah profil tenaga. [5 markah] Based on the collision theory explains the factors needed for a chemical reaction to occur. [5 marks] Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, jelaskan faktor-faktor yang diperlukan supaya tindak balas kimia boleh berlaku. [5 markah] In the industry of the production of ammonia, explain the criteria needed for the reaction and how the reaction takes place. [8 marks] Di dalam industri pengeluaran ammonia, jelaskan ciri-ciri yang diperlukan untuk tindak balas tersebut dan bagaimanakah tindak balas tersebut berlaku. [8 markah]

Section A Bahagian A

1 (a) (b) (c) (d)

(e)

(i) Cu2+, Fe2+ (ii) Not a carbonate (i) Could be Fe2+ (ii) Fe2+ present Light blue precipitate with potassium hexacyanoferrate(II). Or Dark blue precipitate with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III). (i) No carbonate present (ii) Chloride presents (iii) No sulphate presents Iron(II) chloride, FeCl2

2 (a) Water displacement method (b)

(c) 2H2O2(s) 2H2O(l) + O2(g) (d) Experiment II (e) The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in experiment II is higher. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher. (f) To act as a catalyst (g) The catalyst, manganese(IV) oxide provides an alternative path, which lowers the activation energy for a reaction, to enable the effective collision between the particle to take place

(h)

3 (a)

(b) (c)

(d)

In Experiment II, the copper(II) sulphate catalyses the reaction by lowering the activation energy and thus raising the rate of reaction. In Experiment II, sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid. Since the concentration of H+ is higher, the frequency of collision will be more and thus effective collision will be more and raises the rate of reaction. In Experiment I, hydrochloric acid is a monoprotic acid and thus the concentration of H+ is lower. (i) Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H2 Number of mole of H2 = = 0.12 mol 1.2 mol of H2 produce 1.2 mol of Mg Mg needed = 0 .12 mol 24 = 2.88 g Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2

(ii)

Number of mole of H2 = = 0.24 mol 0.24 mol of H2 produce 0.24 mol of Mg Mg needed = 0.24 mol 24 = 5.76 g

4 (a) (b) (c)

(i) (ii) (i) (ii) (i) (ii)

Copper Magnesium Magnesium nitrate/Magnesium sulphate Copper(II) nitrate/Copper(II) sulphate To complete the circuit by allowing the ions to flow from one halfcell to the other. Diluted sulphuric acid, concentrated potassium chloride solution/concentrated potassium nitrate solution Mg(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2e Mg(s) + Cu2+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + Cu(s)

(d) (e)

(i) (ii)

Differences between voltaic cell and electrolytic cell Voltaic cell Electrolytic cell Chemical energy Electrical Electrical energy chemical energy energy Does not use battery Uses battery Cathode is positive terminal Cathode is negative terminal Anode is negative terminal Anode is positive terminal (Any two of the above)

5 (a)

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

The slope measures the rate of reaction at an instant. Zn(s) + HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) As time increases, the rate of reaction decreases. As the time increases, the reactant become lesser and/or has completely reacted. The reactants have used up in the reaction. = = = 0.245 cm3 s1 = 0.12 cm3 s1

(i) = 0.13 cm3 s1 6 (a)

(b) (c) (d) (e)

The rate of reaction increases as the temperature increases. The precipitation of sulphur When the temperature is at 80 oC When the temperature increases, the particles in the reactants gain kinetic energy and move faster which increase the collision frequency and effective collision frequency. Therefore, the rate of reaction increases. Time taken for 60 53 33 23 17 13 11 X to disappear/s 0.017 0.019 0.03 0.043 0.059 0.077 0.09 /s1

(f)

(g) measures the rate of reaction (h) Welding, the higher the temperature, the faster the welding process will be.

7 (a) HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (b) The gas produced is passed through lime water. Lime water will turn cloudy. (c)

(d) = 0.34 cm3 s1

(e) 96 cm3 (f) Sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid the 1 mol of the acid contain 2 mol of H+ ion, double the H+ ion in HCl. (g)

(h) The curve for (c) use calcium carbonate chips but the curve in (g) uses calcium carbonate powder. The total exposed area is more in powdered form than in chips form. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher in (g).

Section B Bahagian B 8 (a) (b) A catalyst is a substance added to the reactants of a reaction, changes the rate of a reaction. It may change physically but not chemically in the reaction. The catalyst is specific in its reaction. Catalyst can be poisoned and its efficiency is lowered by the presence of impurities. The catalyst does not change the quantity of the product of reaction formed. Only a small quantity of catalyst is needed to affect the rate of reaction. Catalyst does not change chemically but can change physically during

(c)

a reaction. (i)

(ii)

A catalyst increases the rate of reaction by providing an alternative reactive pathway of lower activation energy. When a positive catalyst is used in a reaction, the catalyst provides an alternative reactive pathway of lower activation energy as shown in the diagram below.

(d)

If the activation energy is lowered, then more of the particles that are moving slowly will have collisions. More particles collide results in a higher frequency of effective collision. The lower the activation energies that the reaction has to overcome, the higher is the rate of reaction. In industry, catalyst are widely used in industrial processes to speed up the rate of reaction to obtain more products in a shorter time. This will reduce the cost of production. The catalyst is needed in a small amount only. Therefore, the overall cost is still lower.

9 (a)

(b)

On a hot day, the temperature of the surrounding is high. The microorganisms will gain kinetic energy and will collide with the food particles more often. The effective collision will increase, and thus the rate of reaction will be higher. Therefore, the food will spoil faster on a hot day as compared to rainy day. (i) = 0.98 oC s1 (ii) Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(aq) + H2O(l) + S(s) (iii) 2 mol of HCl 1 mol of S, therefore 1 mol of sulphur will yield 32 g of sulphur. (iv) At higher temperatures, the molecules will gain kinetic energies to move faster More collisions per second The frequency of collisions will increase. Therefore, the effective frequency of collision will also increase At higher temperatures, a greater fraction of the colliding particles will possess sufficient energy To overcome the activation energy needed to break the covalent bonds of reacting molecules Therefore the rate of reaction will be higher The fixed variable will be the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate So the sodium thiosulphate used will be at room temperature and no heating is needed. The rate of reaction will be affected Increase in the reactant concentration will increase the reactant particles in a specific volume of liquid or gas Molecules must collide with each other in order to react. The more often they collide, the more chances there is for a reaction to take place As a result, the increases in number of collisions per unit of time between the reactants particles and hence increases the effective collision frequency The rate of reaction also increases

(v)

Section C Bahagian C

10 (a)

The rate of reaction can be defined as a time measurement of how fast a chemical reaction occurs. The rate of reaction at a particular time or at an instance is known as the instantaneous rate of reaction. In Experiment I, pieces of zinc is used and in Experiment II, zinc powder is used. As the size of particles get bigger such as in pieces, the total surface exposed for reaction will be less as compared to zinc in powdery form. As the size of particles get smaller such as in powdery form, the total surface area exposed for reaction will be more. This will increase the number of collisions Hence, increase the effective frequency collision. The rate of reaction will be higher in Experiment II than in Experiment I. Sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid, while hydrochloric acid is a monoprotic acid. For every mole of sulphuric acid used, 2 mol of hydrogen ion is available for reaction. Increase in the reactant concentration of hydrogen ion will increase the reactant particles in a specific volume of liquid or gas. Therefore, the chances of the particles to collide will be more. As a result, the increase in number of collisions per unit of time between the reactant particles. Hence, the effective collision frequency increases. The rate of reaction also increases. When cooking meat, in order to reduce the time of cooking, we chop the meat into smaller pieces. Hence the total surface area exposed for cooking or reaction will be more. The effective frequency collision between the meat particle with the soup particle will increase. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher and the time of cooking will be reduced.

(b)

(c)

(d)

11 (a) (b)

Activation can be defined as the minimum quantity of energy that must be available for a collision to be effective in a chemical reaction. The activation energy can be shown in a diagram called the energy profile diagram or a reaction profile diagram.

(Ea is the activation energy barrier that reactants must overcome before a reaction can take place)

Energy profile diagrams are graph plotted for the energy changes versus time during chemical reactions. Before reactants can change into products there is an energy barrier which reactants must overcome to become products.

(c)

The height of this barrier determines the energy at which the reactants have to gain in order for a chemical reaction to occur and is called the activation energy. According to the collision theory, for a chemical reaction to occur the reactants particles must:

collide with each other gain enough energy during the collision to overcome activation energy the particles must in the proper orientation

the collision must effective Only when all the factors mentioned above is fulfilled, that the chemical reaction between the particles will occur Ammonia is produced in industry through the Haber process that harvests ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen and nitrogen at room temperature and pressure do not react. However, at a higher pressure with corresponding temperatures, ammonia is released. The optimum conditions for maximum oxidation of hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia in the Haber process is: o Temperatures between 450550 oC o Pressure between 250 500 atmospheres o Catalyst: iron powder (Fe) o 3 mol of hydrogen gas react with 1 mol of nitrogen gas to produce 2 mol of ammonia gas. In the industrial process the temperature is set at 450 oC and iron powder is used as a catalyst to raise the rate of reaction In Haber process, the temperature, pressure and catalyst are used to raise the rate of reaction in order to cut cost and time in the industry. The chemical equation for the Haber process:

(d)