i
is the leaning angle. The number of the external
gear teeth is indicated with z and it corresponds to
the number of the pump chambers. Position vector
of the contact point P
i
in the coordinate system of
trochoid can be defned in matrix form as:
( )
( )
( )
i
i i i i
t
i i i i P
cos cos cos
sin sin sin
1
e z z c
r e z z c
o
o
(
( + +
(
( ( = + +
(
(
. . (1)
In equation (1) is the trochoid coeffcient,
=d/ez, where c is the equidistant coeffcient,
c=r
c
/e.
On the basis of the geometrical relations shown
in the Figure 1, it is possible to determine the an
gle
i
as
( )
( )
i
i
i
sin 1
arctan
cos 1
z
z
o
=
+
. ................ (2)
If the angle formed by the axis x
a
and x
f
is
taken as referent rotating angle, it is necessary to
express the angle 
i
in the function of the angle
i i
1 z
= +
, ........................... (3)
where
i
is the angle between the axe x
a
and the
axe x
i
( )
i
2 1 i
z
t
=
. ........................... (4)
Analogous to that,
( )
i
2 1 i
z
t
=
............................ (5)
and
( )
i 1
2 1
1
i
z z
t
+
+
= +
. ................... (6)
After the defnition of the gerotor pump gearing
geometry and the forming of the basic kinemati
cal model, it is possible to determine the operating
characteristics of the pump.
3. Analysis of the pressure variation in the
pump chamber
Conventional calculation methods of the pump
load start from the hypothesis that the pressure in
all the chambers of the same zone (inlet and deliv
ery) is constant. In this case, the force of fuid pres
sure, which separates the inlet zone from the deliv
ery zone, is a continual force that can be presented
as an equivalent concentrated pressure force [19].
During the working process of the pump in every
working chamber, due to fuid fow, the pressure is
changing. It means that for the modeling of pump
gear loading, the pressure in each of the chambers
must be known at any time. In addition, as the con
sequence of the presence of production tolerance,
specifc geometry and working conditions of the
pump, the fuid leaking appears with the direct in
fuence to the volume losses. The fuid leaking out
through the gap between the teeth profles is the
consequence of the pressure difference between
the two neighboring chambers. For precise calcu
lation of pressure increase or decrease between the
two neighboring working pump chambers, pres
sure variations in the pump chambers must be de
termined. At the meshing simulation, numbering
of the contact points is necessary, as well as the
numbering of all the teeth, and it must be estab
lished which teeth are in meshing. During that, the
teeth of the external gear are indicated with i = 1,
2, , z, while internal gear teeth are signed as j
= 1, 2, , z1. The pump chambers are indicated
with K
i
and teeth contact points with P
i
(Figure 2).
When the pumps with the stationary shaft axis
are considered, the fuid distribution is done by
sickle form holes in the housing, as shown in the
Figure 2, which means that the open space area for
the fuid fow is changeable. With such construc
tions, the open space area for the fuid fow is the
same as the current chamber area. Starting from
the given hypothesis and the energy preservation
law Manc S. at al. [12, 16] have defned the for
mula for the calculation of the pressure variation
during the fuid fow in the chamber K
i
in the fol
lowing form:
.................... (7)
326 Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
technics technologies education management
where the
f
is fuid density, b is gear thickness,
A
i
is the current chamber area and dA
i
/dt is area
variation of chamber K
i
.
Figure 2. Schematic presentation of the gerotor
pump with sickle distribution holes
The pressure change in the inlet chamber can
be derived accordingly, the following formula:
, .............. (8)
and for the outlet chamber
........................... (9)
During the inlet phase, the chamber volume in
creases and the pressure decreases, while, in the
delivery phase, the chamber volume decreases and
the pressure increases.
4. Analysis of the chamber volume variation
of the gerotor pump
The volume variation of the chamber during
the working process of the gerotor pump will be
considered. With the gerotor pumps, due to specif
ic geometry of the gearing profle, continual con
tact of all the teeth is realized, which enables the
necessary separation of the zones of the high and
low pressure in the working area of the pump. The
working chambers are the space between the pro
fles of the external and internal gear, and during
working, the teeth have the role of the pushing ele
ments (pistons), while the chambers correspond to
cylinders. The chambers volume is periodically
increased and decreased, and they are in turn re
lated to the inlet and outlet lead. To calculate the
instantaneous area variation of the pump working
chamber, the method presented in the reference
[5] can be used. In the Figure 1 the geometrical
relations to the determination of the area A
i
() for
the kinematic model of a pump with the fxed axis
are given. The requested area A
i
can be calculated
according to the following equation:
i a t 1 2
A S S S S = + , ................... (10)
where are: S
a
is the segment of area limited
with the envelope profle, S
t
is the segment of area
limited with the profle of trochoid, S
1
is the area
of triangle and it is equal to:
( ) ( )
2
1 i i i
1
sin sin
2
S e z c o ( = +
.......................................(11)
The area of triangle is nominated as S
2
and it is
equal to:
( ) ( )
2
2 i 1 i 1 i 1
1
sin sin
2
S e z c o
+ + +
( = +
...................................... (12)
The area S
a
is considered as the sum of the geo
metrical elements area, calculated as follows
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 2
a
S S S S S S S S S = + + + ,
..................................... (13)
where S
3
is the area of the circular section
2
s
3
r
S
z
t
= . ............................. (14)
The area of triangle is nominated as S
4
and it is
calculated as
2
4 i
1
sin
2
S e c o =
. ...................... (15)
The area of triangle is nominated as S
5
and it is
equal to
2
5 i 1
1
sin
2
S e c o
+
=
. ..................... (16)
327
technics technologies education management
Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
V
e
r
s
i
o
n
f
o
r
p
r
e
v
i
e
w
The area of the circular section is nominated as
S
6
and is calculated as
2 2
6 i
1
2
S e c o = . ......................... (17)
The area of the circular section is marked as S
7
and is equal to
2 2
7 i 1
1
2
S e c o
+
= . ......................... (18)
S
8
is the area of the circular section, which is
equal to the area of the circular section
( )
2
2 2 2
s 2 2
8
1
arccos
2 2
c z r e
S e c
c z
+
=
. ...... (19)
S
9
is the area of triangle, which is equal to the
area of triangle
( )
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
9
1
1
2 2
s
c z r e
S e c z
c z
(
+
( =
`
(
)
...................................... (20)
S
10
is the area of the circular section, which is
equal to the area of the circular section
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
s 2
10 s
s
1
arccos
2 2
r e z c
S r
z r e
+
=
. ....... (21)
The area S
t
is calculated as the area of the sec
tion which has been marked with the curve line
defned in the parameter form as
i 1
i
t t
t t t
d d 1
d
2 d d
y x
S x y
+
 
=

\ .
, ........... (22)
with the coordinates of the trochoidal profle
points defned with the equations (1). Starting
from the equations (1), by their differentiating and
putting in order of the formula under the integral,
the following can be derived:
( )
i 1
i
2
t
1
f
2
S e d
+
=
, .................... (23)
where is
...................................... (24)
By the integral, formula is obtained:
( )
( )
( )
( )
i 1
i
i 1
i
2
2 2
t
2 2
2
1
1
1
1
sin sin 1
2 1
1
f d
2
c
S e z
z
z z
e c z
z
e c
o o
+
+
 
= + + +

\ .
( +
+ +
(
...................................... (25)
where is:
( ) ( ) ( )
1
f 2 cos 1 cos 1 z z z o o o ( = + + +
...................................... (26)
Relation between the angles 
i
and has been
established using the formula (3), and certain
transformations have been made, formula for cal
culation the current area is obtained:
( )
( )
( )
i 1
i
1
i 1
2
i
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
i
1
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
s
2 2
arccos
2
1
2
arccos sin 1
2 1
1 2 cos 1 d ,
c z s
A e s z z c c
z c z
c z s
c z
c z
s z c z e
r z
zs z
ce z z
+
+
+
= +
(
+
+
` (
)
+
+
(
+ + +
...................................... (27)
where is s=r
s
/e.
When the differential is done and expressed in
the function of the referent angle , calculation of
chamber area variation is obtained:
328 Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
technics technologies education management
( )
i 1
i
2 i
t
1
2
2
d 2
2 sin sin
d
1 2 cos
A i
e z
t z z
c
z
t t
+
 
=

\ .
(
+
`
)
. ........ (28)
As well as that of the fow rate
n
i
i m
d
d
A
Q b
t
=
=
,............................ (29)
where m, n are indexes of the beginning and fnal
chambers which can be found at the same time in
the thrust phase. With the substitution of the equa
tions (27) and (28) in (7) it is possible to calculate
the pressure variation in the pump chambers.
5. Simulation of the pressure variation in
the pump chambers
The developed mathematical model has been
tested on the gear pairs of the pump models. One
of previously defned demands is external loading,
defned through the values of working pressure of
0.6 MPa (6 bar) and pump volume of
6
0 1 4 1
m
3
/
rev. The geometrical characteristics which remain
constant, yet obtained with the necessary overall
dimensions of the gear pair are: b gear width, e
eccentricity and the radius of the external gears
root circle expressed by r
s
. The number of teeth
of the outer gear z is constant. It is necessary to
determine the values of coeffcients and c, which
defne the optimal form of teeth profle. Two dif
ferent gear sets are taken into consideration, com
mercial one and the other gear set has the profle
form obtained on the basis of calculation given
in the reference [19]. Geometrical parameters of
the gear sets are: z=6, e=3.56 mm, b=16.46 mm,
r
s
=26.94 mm. For gear set GP375 =1.375, c=
2.75 and for gear set GP575 =1.575, c= 3.95.
Other characteristics are: Ap=0.6 MPa,
f
=900 kg/
m
3
, n
t
=1500 rpm,
t t
n t 2 = =50t s
1
.
On the base of the previously conducted anal
ysis, in the Figure 3, a diagram is shown of the
instantaneous chamber area, and in the Figure 4,
chamber area variation is presented. The reference
angle is the rotation angle of the exterior gear,
a
. The fgures clearly show that the considered
chamber K
1
in position
a
=120
o
has the greatest
volume, the inlet phase is fnished and is coming
to the delivery phase. After the angle rotation of
180
o
in the chamber, the delivery phase is fnished,
the chamber has minimum volume and is coming
to the inlet phase.
Figure 3. Diagram of the chamber area for both
gear sets
Figure 4. Diagram of the chamber area varia
tions for both gear sets
In the Figure 5 the diagrams of fow rate of the
gerotor pumps in relation of the rotation angle of
the external gear are shown. On the basis of the
geometrical interpretation of the pump fow rate
with the same parameter r
s
, it can be concluded that
in the pumps with the same number of chambers,
there are minor differences in the fow pulsation.
329
technics technologies education management
Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
V
e
r
s
i
o
n
f
o
r
p
r
e
v
i
e
w
The Figure 6 shows the graphical interpreta
tion of the pressure variation in the pump cham
bers in relation of the rotation angle, for the gear
sets with the different coeffcient . Through the
mutual comparison of the diagrams a conclusion
can be made that with the increase of the coef
fcient the value of the pressure change in the
chambers is also rising. The volume degree of the
pump performance is greater with the model that
has a smaller value of the coeffcient , smaller
pressure changes in the pump chambers (Figure
6), and thus the smaller volume losses.
Figure 5. Diagram of the fow rate for gear
pumps with the both gear sets
Figure 6. Diagram of the pressure variations in
chamber K
1
for both gear sets
With the aim of better consideration of the pres
sure variation in the pump chambers, as well as to
establish characteristic phases in the pump working
cycles, in the Figure 7 the parallel diagrams for all
the chambers and two different gear sets are given.
In relation to the starting position, presented in the
Figure 2, the chambers K
6
, K
1
and K
2
are in the inlet
phase, and the chambers K
3
, K
4
and K
5
are in the
delivery phase. On the basis of the given graphical
interpretation, it can be concluded that the greatest
difference in the pressures between the neighbor
ing chambers is realized in the fnish of the delivery
phase and on the entrance into the delivery phase
(between chambers K
5
and K
6
), and thus the infu
ence of the pressure change on the volume losses
will be the greatest in these chambers.
a) gear set GP375
b) gear set GP575
Figure 7. Diagrams of the pressure variation in
the pump chambers for both gear sets
The examinations of the two considered mod
els of gear sets have been completed, with the
simulation of the real operating conditions of the
330 Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
technics technologies education management
pumps, and the results of the measuring are given
in the Figure 8.
Figure 8. Diagram of volumetric effciency
With the aim of illustrating the gear sets geom
etry infuence on the volume degree performance
change, measuring of the pump with different
teeth geometry gear sets built in has been carried
out. From the energetic effciency aspect, the ade
quate choice of a pump with a higher performance
level is of a great importance in the industrial use.
6. Conclusion
The aim of this investigation was to defne cer
tain relations between the operating characteristics
of the trochoidal gear pairs, through the theoretical
consideration such as the fow rate, pressure varia
tion in the pump chambers and the values of the
considered geometrical parameters. It has been
shown that, by the gerotor pump with the same
number of chambers and the same radius of the root
circle, the choice of the smaller values of the tro
choid coeffcient is changing the form of the gear
ing profle, but it does not signifcantly change the
pump fow. It has also been shown that, with the
new profle form, smaller pressure variation in the
pump chambers is realized. The developed math
ematical model and the obtained results can be of
use to the constructors of the gerotor pump and mo
tors for choosing the best constructive solutions that
reaches higher coeffcient of effciency.
References
1. Ansdale R.F., Lockley D.J. The Wankel RC Engine,
Iliffe Books Ltd., London, England. 1970.
2. Colbourne J.R. The Geometry of Trochoid Enve
lopes and Their Application in Rotary Pumps, Mech
anism and Machine Theory, 1974; 9( 34): 421435.
3. Colbourne J.R. Reduction of the Contact Stress in
Internal Gear Pumps, Journal of Engineering for
Industry, Trans. ASME, 1976; p. 12961300.
4. Robinson F.J., Lyon J.R. An Analysis of Epitrochoi
dal Profles With Constant difference Modifcation
Suitable for Rotary Expanders and Pumps, Journal
of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, 1976; p.
161165.
5. Maiti R., Sinha G.L. Kinematics of active contact in
modifed epitrochoid generated rotary piston machines,
Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1988; 23: 3945.
6. Maiti R., Sinha G.L. Limits on modifcation of epitro
choid used in rotary piston machines and the effects
of modifcation on geometric volume displacement
and ripple, IngenieurArchiv, 1990; 60: 183194.
7. Maiti R. Distributor valve port sequences in epitro
choid rotary piston machines type hydrostatic units,
Archive of Applied Mechanics, 1992; p. 223229.
8. Beard J.E., Yannitell D.W., Pennock G.R. The ef
fects of the generating pin size and placement on the
curvature and displacement of epitrochoidal gerotors,
Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1992; 27: 373389.
9. Shung J.B., Pennock G.R. Geometry for Trochoidal
Type Machines With Conjugate Envelopes, Mecha
nism and Machine Theory, 1994; p. 2542.
10. Shung J.B., Pennock G.R. The direct contact prob
lem in a TrochoidalType Machines, Mechanism
and Machine Theory, 1994; 29: 673689.
11. Mimmi G., Pennacchi P. Nonundercutting condi
tions in internal gears, Mechanism and Machine
Theory, 2000; 35: 477490.
12. Manc G., Manc S., Rundo M., Nervegna N.
Computerized generation of novel gearings for
internal combustion engines lubricating pumps,
The International Journal of Fluid Power, 2000; 1:
4958.
13. Vecchiato D., Demenego A., Argyris J., Litvin
F.L. Geometry of a cycloidal pump, Computer
methods in applied mechanics and engineering,
2001; 190 : 23092330.
331
technics technologies education management
Volume 8 / Number 1 / 2013
V
e
r
s
i
o
n
f
o
r
p
r
e
v
i
e
w
14. Paffoni B. Pressure and flm thichness in a trochoi
dal hydrostatic gear pump, Proc. IMechE Part G:
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engi
neers  Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering,
2003 ; 217( 4): 179187.
15. Kim J. H., Kim C., Chang Y. J. Optimum design
on lobe shapes of gerotor oil pump, Journal of Me
chanical Science and Technology, 2006; 20, 5 : p.
13901398.
16. Manc S., Nervegna N., Rundo M. Critical issues
on perfomance of lubricating gerotor pumps at
high rotational speed, Proceedings, The 7th Scan
dinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,
SICFP, Linkping, Sweden, 2001; 2: 2338.
17. Josifovi D., Ivanovi L. Kinematical analysis
of trochoidal gearing by IC engines lubricating
pumps, in: Monograph, Mobility and Vehicles Me
chanics, The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in
Kragujevac, (In Serbian). ISSN 14505304. 2005;
p. 119132.
18. Ivanovi L. Identifcation of the Optimal Shape of
Trochoid Gear Profle of Rotational Pump Ele
ments, Ph. D. thesis, The Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering in Kragujevac, (In Serbian). 2007.
19. Ivanovi L., Devedi G., Miri N., ukovic S.
Analysis of forces and moments in the gerotor
pumps, Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, Part C: J. Me
chanical Engineering Science, 2010; 224(10) :
22572269.
Corresponding Author
Lozica Ivanovic,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Kragujevac,
Serbia,
Email: lozica@kg.ac.rs
Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.
Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbitpenerbit terkemuka.
Batalkan kapan saja.