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2013

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM

NAITIK SHAH MEHUL JOGANI

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS: TOPICS PAGE NO.

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION INSPIRATIONS BEHIND ABS BASIC COMPONENTS OF ABS & THEIR FUNCTINS CONCLUSION / DISCUSSION REFRENCES

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ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013

INTRODUCTION:
An Anti-Lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. The Anti-lock Braking System is designed to maintain vehicle control, directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions on most road surfaces. It does so by monitoring the rotational speed of each wheel and controlling the brake line pressure to each wheel during braking. This prevents the wheels from locking up. A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking.

INSPIRATIONS BEHIND ABS:


The basic design of a braking system has been around and in use in other applications for many years. The brakes in a car use the simple principle of hydraulics. This principle reduces the amount of work required by the user. Figure below illustrates the basic design of a modern braking system.

Figure: Basic braking system design

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013 The problem with the traditional braking system is that the force exerted by the brakes on the wheel cannot exceed the force of friction between the wheel and the road. If the braking force exceeds the force of friction from the road the vehicle will begin to slide. This problem brought about the invention of the anti-locking breaking system (ABS). The ABS detects drastic changes in the speed of the wheels. When a sharp deceleration is detected the ABS will reduce the hydraulic pressure supplied to the braking system until the wheel begins to accelerate again. When the acceleration is detected the pressure is again increased until an unusual amount of deceleration is detected. The process is repeated until the user removes their foot from the brake pedal or the vehicle comes to a complete stop.

BASIC COMPONENTS OF ABS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:


The ABS consists of speed sensors, valves, a pump, and a controller. The location of these devices within a vehicle is shown in figure below:

Figure: Anti-Lock Braking System Design

a) SPEED SENSORS:
The speed sensor is used to determine the acceleration or deceleration of the wheel. A picture of this sensor is shown in figure: These sensors use a magnet and a coil of wire to generate a signal. The rotation of the wheel or differential induces a magnetic field around the sensor. The fluctuations of this magnetic field generate a voltage into the sensor. A schematic of this system is shown in figure below. The ABS controller interprets this signal.

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013 Since the voltage inducted on the sensor is a result of the rotating wheel, this sensor can become inaccurate at slow speeds. The slower rotation of the wheel can cause inaccurate fluctuations in the magnetic field and thus cause inaccurate readings to the controller.

b) VALVES:
The valves within an ABS serve three distinct functions. The first function of the valves is to open and allow the hydraulic fluid from the brake pedal or the pump to reach the braking system. The second function of the valves is to maintain the current pressure provided to the braking system. This is accomplished by closing the valve to resist further pressure from the brake pedal. The third function of these valves is to reduce the amount of hydraulic pressure at the braking system. This is accomplished by opening the valves to allow the hydraulic fluid to be released from the braking system. A picture of a standard ABS valve and pumping system is show in figure below. The majority of problems with the valve system occur due to clogged valves. When a valve is clogged it is unable to open, close, or change position. An inoperable valve will prevent the system from modulating the valves and controlling pressure supplied to the brakes.

Figure: ABS Valves and Pumping System

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013

c) PUMPS:
The pump in the ABS is used to restore the pressure to the hydraulic brakes after the valves have released it. A signal from the controller will release the valve at the detection of wheel slip. After a valve release the pressure supplied from the user, the pump is used to restore a desired amount of pressure to the braking system. The controller will modulate the pumps status in order to provide the desire amount of pressure and reduce slipping. A picture of the pumping system is shown in figure above. Similar to the valves, the major limitation or mode of failure is due to blockage within the pump. A blockage within the pump will prevent the pump from supplying the correct pressure to the pumping system.

d) CONTROLLER:
The entire system is observed and manipulated by the ABS controller. A detailed control system used in ABS is shown in figure below.

Figure: ABS Control System

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION:
The control analysis shows that a proportional (P), proportional / derivative (PD), and the proportional / Integral / Derivative (PID) is able to control the ABS. Since all of the control systems will achieve the desired results, the best design must be determined by another method. Since the proportional control is the least complex, the ABS controller should use this method. The ABS is responsible for preventing car accidents and personal injury. A simplified system should reduce the complexity, cost, as well as increase the easy of serviceability.

ANTI LOCK BREKING SYSTEM 2013

REFERENCES:
Online resources for ABS Braking Systems Georgia Institute of Technology George W. Woodruff School of Technology Article Introduction and History www.scribd.com Motorola for the article Anti-Lock Braking Systems http://www.motorola.com/webapp/sps/site/application.jsp?nodeId=04M0ym4Ky5P Controls Tutorial for Matlab http://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/index.html How Stuff Works for the article How Anti-Lock Brakes Work http://www.howstuffworks.com/ Magneto-Resistive Wheel Speed Sensors, New Active Wheel Speed Sensors Changing ABS Diagnostic Procedures, David W. Gilbert. http://www.asashop.org/autoinc/aug2001/mech.cfm Heavy Truck Pneumatic Braking System Modeling, Analysis and Anti-lock Braking Robust Controller Design, Prof. Umit Ozgumer. http://car.eng.ohio-state.edu/consortium/proposals/hdv/h02pneu.pdf

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