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Fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Fasting blood sugar level tests are used to diagnose diabetes Fasting blood sugar level forum threads

Normal fasting blood glucose level? Fasting... Can eating too much sugar give a false diabetic reading

Fasting, as the name suggests, means refraining from eating of drinking any liquids other than water for eight hours. It is used as a test for diabetes. After fasting, a carbohydrate metabolism test is conducted which measures blood glucose levels. When fasting the hormone glucagon is stimulated and this increases plasma glucose levels in the body. If a patient doesnt have diabetes, their body will produce insulin to rebalance the increased glucose levels. However people with diabetes either dont produce enough insulin to rebalance their blood sugar (typically in type 1 diabetes) or their body is not able to use the insulin effectively enough (typical of type 2 diabetes). Consequently when blood glucose levels are tested, people with diabetes will have blood sugar levels significantly higher than people who do not have diabetes. What is the fasting blood sugar test used for? The fasting blood sugar test is also used to test the effectiveness of different medication or dietary changes on people already diagnosed as diabetic. Fasting tests The fasting test should be conducted on two separate occasions to ensure consistent results and in order to avoid a false diagnosis.

This is the case as increased blood glucose levels may be as a result of Cushings syndrome liver or kidney disease, eclampsia and pancreatitis. However many of these conditions are often picked up in lab diagnostic tests. Fasting test results The results of a fasting test with respect to glucose levels in the body are as follows:

Normal: 3.9 to 5.5 mmols/l (70 to 100 mg/dl) Prediabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance: 5.6 to 7.0 mmol/l (101 to 126 mg/dl) Diagnosis of diabetes: more than 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)

Creatinine

Also known as: Creat; Cre; Blood creatinine; Serum creatinine; Urine creatinine Formal name: Creatinine Related tests: BUN; BUN/creatinine ratio; eGFR; Creatinine clearance; CMP; BMP; Urinalysis; Urine protein to creatinine ratio; Microalbumin

At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages

The Test 1. 2. 3. 4. How is it used? When is it ordered? What does the test result mean? Is there anything else I should know?

How is it used? The creatinine blood test is used along with a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test to assess kidney function. Both are frequently ordered as part of a basic or comprehensive metabolic panel (BMP or CMP), groups of tests that are performed to evaluate the function of the bodys major organs. BMP or CMP tests are used to screen healthy people during routine physical exams and to help evaluate acutely or chronically ill patients in the emergency room and/or hospital. If the

creatinine and BUN tests are found to be abnormal or if you have an underlying disease, such as diabetes, that is known to affect the kidneys, then these two tests may be used to monitor the progress of kidney dysfunction and the effectiveness of treatment. Blood creatinine and BUN tests may also be ordered to evaluate kidney function prior to some procedures, such as a CT (computed tomography) scan, that may require the use of drugs that can damage the kidneys. A combination of blood and urine creatinine levels may be used to calculate a creatinine clearance. This test measures how effectively your kidneys are filtering small molecules like creatinine out of your blood. Urine creatinine may also be used with a variety of other urine tests as a correction factor. Since it is produced and removed at a relatively constant rate, the amount of urine creatinine can be compared to the amount of another substance being measured. Examples of this are when creatinine is measured with protein to calculate a urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/CR) and when it is measured with microalbumin to calculate microalbumin/creatinine ratio (also known as albumin/creatinine ratio, ACR). These tests are used to evaluate kidney function as well as to detect other urinary tract disorders. Serum creatinine measurements (along with your age, weight, and gender) also are used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which is used as a screening test to look for evidence of kidney damage. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? Creatinine may be ordered routinely as part of a comprehensive or basic metabolic panel, during a health examination. It may be ordered when you have non-specific health complaints, when you are acutely ill, and/or when your doctor suspects your kidneys are not working properly. Some signs and symptoms of kidney dysfunction include:

Fatigue, lack of concentration, poor appetite, or trouble sleeping Swelling or puffiness, particularly around the eyes or in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs or ankles Urine that is foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored A decrease in the amount of urine Problems urinating, such as a burning feeling or abnormal discharge during urination, or a change in the frequency of urination, especially at night Mid-back pain (flank), below the ribs, near where the kidneys are located High blood pressure

The creatinine blood test may be ordered, along with BUN test and microalbumin, at regular intervals when you have a known kidney disorder or have a disease that may affect kidney function or be exacerbated by dysfunction. Both BUN and creatinine may be ordered when a CT scan is planned, prior to and during certain drug therapies, and before and after dialysis to monitor the effectiveness of treatments.

^ Back to top What does the test result mean? Increased creatinine levels in the blood suggest diseases or conditions that affect kidney function. These can include:

Damage to or swelling of blood vessels in the kidneys (glomerulonephritis) caused by, for example, infection or autoimmune diseases Bacterial infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) Death of cells in the kidneys small tubes (acute tubular necrosis) caused, for example, by drugs or toxins Prostate disease, kidney stone, or other causes of urinary tract obstruction Reduced blood flow to the kidney due to shock, dehydration, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, or complications of diabetes

Creatinine blood levels can also increase temporarily as a result of muscle injury and are generally slightly lower during pregnancy. Low blood levels of creatinine are not common, but they are also not usually a cause for concern. They can be seen with conditions that result in decreased muscle mass. Levels of 24-hour urine creatinine are evaluated with blood levels as part of a creatinine clearance test. Random urine creatinine levels have no standard reference ranges. They are usually used with other tests to reference levels of other substances measured in the urine. Some examples include the microalbumin test and urine protein test. NOTE: The result of your Creatinine test is measured by your doctor against a reference range for the test to determine whether the result is normal (it is within the range of numbers), high (it is above the high end of the range), or low (it is below the low end of the range). Because there can be many variables that affect the determination of the reference range, the reference range for this test is specific to the lab where your test sample is analyzed. For this reason, the lab is required to report your results with an accompanying reference range. Typically, your doctor will have sufficient familiarity with the lab and your medical history to interpret the results appropriately While there is no such thing as a standard reference range for Creatinine, most labs will report a similar, though maybe not exactly the same, set of numbers as that included in medical textbooks or found elsewhere online. For this reason, we recommend that you talk with your doctor about your lab results. For general guidance only, we are providing the reference range for this test below from the classic medical text, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics..

Is there anything else I should know? Drugs such as aminoglycosides (vancomycin, gentamicin) can cause kidney damage and so creatinine is monitored. Other drugs, such as cephalosprins (cefoxitin), may increase creatinine concentration without reflecting kidney damage. What is a BUN/Creatinine ratio? Occasionally, a doctor will look at the ratio between a persons BUN and blood creatinine to help them determine what is causing these concentrations to be higher than normal. The ratio of BUN to creatinine is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration. It may also be seen with increased protein, from gastrointestinal bleeding, or increased protein in the diet. The ratio may be decreased with liver disease (due to decrease in the formation of urea) and malnutrition. Urinalysis

Also known as: Urine test; Urine analysis; UA Formal name: Urinalysis Related tests: Urine culture; Urine protein; BUN; Creatinine; Creatinine clearance; Microalbumin; eGFR

At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages

The Test 1. 2. 3. 4. How is it used? When is it ordered? What does the test result mean? Is there anything else I should know?

How is it used? The urinalysis is used as a screening and/or diagnostic tool because it can help detect substances or cellular material in the urine associated with different metabolic and kidney disorders. It is ordered widely and routinely to detect any abnormalities that require follow up. Often, substances such as protein or glucose will begin to appear in the urine before patients are aware that they may have a problem. It is used to detect urinary tract infections (UTI) and other disorders of the urinary tract. In patients with acute or chronic conditions, such as kidney disease, the urinalysis may be ordered at intervals as a rapid method to help monitor organ function, status, and response to treatment. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? A routine urinalysis may be done when you are admitted to the hospital. It may also be part of a wellness exam, a new pregnancy evaluation, or a work-up for a planned surgery. A urinalysis will most likely be performed when you see your health care provider complaining of symptoms of a UTI or other urinary system problem such as kidney disease. Some signs and symptoms may include:

abdominal pain back pain painful or frequent urination blood in the urine

This test can also be useful when monitoring certain conditions over time. What does the test result mean?

Urinalysis results can have many interpretations. Abnormal findings are a warning that something may be wrong and should be evaluated further. Generally, the greater the concentration of the atypical substance, such as greatly increased amounts of glucose, protein, or red blood cells, the more likely it is that there is a problem that needs to be addressed. But the results do not tell the doctor exactly what the cause of the finding is or whether it is a temporary or chronic condition. A normal urinalysis does not guarantee that there is no illness. Some people will not release elevated amounts of a substance early in a disease process, and some will release them sporadically during the day, which means that they may be missed by a single urine sample. In very dilute urine, small quantities of chemicals may be undetectable.

Is there anything else I should know? The urinalysis is a set of screening tests that can provide a general overview of a person's health. Your doctor must correlate the urinalysis results with your symptoms and clinical findings and search for the causes of abnormal findings with other targeted tests, such as a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), or urine culture (to look for a urinary tract infection). Typhidot test to detect IgG & IgM antibodies in typhoid fever. Jesudason M, Esther E, Mathai E. Source Department of Microbiology, Christian Medical College & Hospital, Vellore, India. Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: As typhoid fever is endemic in India, there is a continuing search for a simple test which can be carried out in small laboratories for an early and rapid diagnosis. We have evaluated the Typhidot test for this purpose. METHODS: The Typhidot test was carried out on coded sera according to the manufacturer's instructions. The test was performed on 30 Widal positive sera, 30 sera from blood culture positive patients, 60 Widal negative sera and 30 samples from patients whose blood culture grew Gram negative bacilli (GNB) other than Salmonella Typhi. RESULTS: Typhidot test was positive for both IgG and IgM in 39 samples, IgM alone in 24 and IgG alone in 2. Of the 30 culture positive samples, 27 were positive by Typhidot. The Typhidot test gave a sensitivity of 100 per cent and specificity of 80 per cent when bacteraemic patients were analysed. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The Typhidot is easy to perform, and requires no special equipment or training of staff for interpretation of results. It will be a useful complementary test to blood culture and the Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.