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Primary Secondary Survey Head Injury Spinal Injury

Primary survey
A : Airway B : Breathing C : Circulation D : Disability E : Exposure Goal : recognizing life threatening condition and simultaneously do resuscitation

Airway Cervical Spine Control (Assume injury until proven otherwise) Airway assessment Obstruction? Patient can talk airway clear Look (cyanosis/breathing pattern/uses of accessories muscle/RR/Pox ) Listen (grunting/stridor/ total obstruction silent) Feel (decreased/absent airflow) Airway management Triple airway maneuver only if w/o possible cervical spine injury : Slight neck extension Jaw thrust ( elevation of mandible) Mouth opening Possible cervical injury : without neck extension Adjunctive devices : oropharyngeal airway ( only if no gag reflex) / Nasopharyngeal airway ( KI: susp. Basilar skull fracture/coagulapaty) Breathing Assesment : Look ( sign of respiratory distress/ equal chest rise /RR/P ox) /Listen ( lung sound ) /Feel ( trachea position /crepitus ,emphysema subcutis) /P Management : Oxygen supplement / Assisted ventilation Manual assisted ventilation Indication : Apneic/Inadequate ventilation Bag valve mask , RR:12 to 16 x/min, 100 % oxygen with max flow ( >10 l/min) Circulation Assestment : pulse ( carotid/femoral/radial) / BP/HR /evaluate quickly for areas of large hemorrhaging that can easily be stopped with direct pressure Management : 2 Large/short IV bore : 16 or intraosseous needle NS /RL 2-3 L/min or 20 cc/kg bolus in children No response, blood , O negative Disability (Neuro) AVPU ( Alert / Verbal response/Pain response/Unresponsive) GCS ( Adult/children) Exposure Undress patient for thorough examination Remember hypothermia

Remember neck/spinal immobilization

Addition on primary survey Vital sign monitor ( BP/P ox/HR or Pulse rate) / Cardiac monitor ECG Urinary catheter Check for possible urethra rupture ( blood OUE/scrotal or perineal hematome/ RT : unpalpable / high prostate) If susp. Urethra rupture, need urethra-systogram X-ray : Cervical ( lateral ) / Thorax (AP) /Pelvic ( AP)

Secondary survey
After primary survey / resuscitation and ABC stabilize Examine patient from head to toe Anamnesis : AMPLE ( Allergy / Medication/ Past medical history/ Last meal/ Event , mechanism of injury)

HEENT Examine face for facial fractures Examine eyes for any gross injury, shattered glass should be irrigated then flourescein Examine ears for hemotympanum Examine mouth for jaw fractures/loose teeth Neck

Ask patient if s/he has any neck pain Midline tenderness? Penetrating wound : which zone ? trauma to the arteries/airway?

Chest Palpate entire chest for area of crepitus/tenderness Look for Seat belt sign/bruising /asymmetric Listen to breath sounds, symmetric ? other additional sounds? Listen to heart sound Abdomen Look for distension / bruising / seat belt sign Examine for area of tenderness Pelvic Examine for tenderness AP/Lateral compression Genitourinary/rectal Examine externally for signs of bleeding Rectal exam for blood/position of prostate( male) Back

Log roll Look for bruising / tenderness on bone palpation / penetrating wound Extremities Look for deformity/laceration / bleeding site /abrasion Palpation for area of tenderness/crepitus/pulsation Neurologic GCS/Mental Status Limited sensory/motor exam

Laboratory test Cervical spine : AP/Lateral/open mouth ( odontoid) Hemoglobin : serial : 3x q 15 min Urinalysis Extremities X-ray USG abdomen /CT

Head Injury
Classification Mild Head Injury : GCS : 13-15 Moderate Head Injury : GCS : 9 12 Severe Head Injury : GCS : 3-8 Goal Discover all moderate/severe head injury Discover mild head injury with intracranial injury especially needing surgery Observation/education : patient that first appear with mild injury may worsen over several hours Risk stratifying Cost effectiveness Glasgow Comatose Scale

Adult /Children ( check in PDA : epocrates / table/ GCS ) Serial check

Mild Head Injury

Clinical predictor : GCS / Loss of consciousness GCS 15 / LOC (+) : 10 % Intracranial injury (+) , 1% need surgery GCS 13/ LOC (+) : 38 % Intracranial injury (+) , 8 % need surgery Location of injury : temporo-parietal , increased risk of epidural bleeding Significant retrograde amnesia Older patient Preexisting condition : on anticoagulant / hemophiliac Difficulty to determine Level of Consciousness in intoxicated patient ( alcohol / drugs) Sign of basilar fracture ( battles sign / raccoon eyes/ CSF leakage from nose ,ear / hemotympanum ) Head X-ray Only if patient stable otherwise dont waste time For facial fracture CT scan Infant < 12 months , all unless : Fall less than 1metres ( 3 feet) Normal neuro exam No evidence of scalp trauma ( bruising/hematoma etc) Older children and adult AbN neuro exam/GCS < 15 Prolonged LOC ( > 15 min) Retrograde amnesia > 30 min Repeated vomiting Worsened/severe headache Depressed skull fracture/basilar skull fracture

Special consideration : ( anticoagulation / older patient with LOC/Intoxicated ) Not sure / concerning mechanism of injury : CT Scan CT scan (-) but abN neuro exam , plan for another CT in 24/48 hours or significant worsening of symptoms.

Disposition Mild Head Injury , No neurological deficit , GCS : 15 . low risk stratification No Intra cranial injury on Head CT , normal neuro exam Observation for 24 hours , including neuro checks q 2-4 hours by responsible adult ( Head Injury patient leaflet) Follow up the next day Admission Intra cranial injury (+) on Head CT All abN Neuro exam / GCS < 15 Other consideration Second Impact syndrome Head Injury in sports , Can I return to the game? Post concussive syndrome Headache / dizziness / poor concentration / memory problems/ emotional problems. Most resolves after few weeks , 90 % resolves in 1 year , 10 % became chronic If worsening , Neuro evaluation / Head CT

Moderate / Severe Head Injury

ABC Cervical immobilization Maintain good oxygenation /perfusion ( avoid hypotension from shock) Prophylaxis anti seizures ( phenytoin) /Manitol Head CT Referral hospital / Neurosurgeon / Neurologist

Spine Injury
ABCDE / Primary survey / A with cervical immobilization /Spine immobilization with long spine board/back board. Maintain in line immobilization , i.e. hold the head with your hands/ Log roll during examination Usage of back board : for transportation , > 2 hours can cause decubitus ulcer , if > 2 hours need to log roll q 2 hourly

Neurological exam : Sensory exam , check level Motor exam , score 0 5 , check level Proprioseptive / vibratory function ( posterior column) Deep tendon reflex Anogenital ( sacral sparing) : Bulbocavernosus /cremaster /TSA Classification Level Lowest segment ( caudal) of the spinal cord that still have motoric ( 3/5) /normal sensoric function bilaterally Partial preservation Spinal injury level not the same with Level of bone fracture

Neurologic Deficit Complete /Incomplete Spinal Cord syndrome Anterior cord Central cord Brown Sequard Cauda Equina Spinal shock Morfology Fracture Fracture/Dislocation SCIWORA Penetration injury e.g gun shot

Cervical spine injury Cervical collar ? If you are worried or unsure assume theres cervical injury until proven otherwise . Immobilize /X-ray Ruled out C-spine injury, Low risk if following guidelines : No midline tenderness Alert / no neurological deficit Not intoxicated No other distracting injury Physical exam Sensory exam Top of head Ear Neck Shoulder Thumb Middle finger Little finger

C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8

Motor exam C3/4/5 diaphragm Shoulder shrug Biceps ( elbow flexion) Triceps ( elbow extension) Finger muscle

Posterior column sensation proprioception ( finger up/down) Imaging Studies X-ray : Lateral / Open Mouth Odontoid (OMO) /AP ( check proc. spinosus) CT Scan : To illustrate detail of fracture If fracture is suspected but no adequate X-ray MRI : Ligament /spinal cord Management : Methyl prednisolone, initial dose : 30 mg / kg IV over 1 hour followed by 5.4mg /kg/hour for the next 23 hours ( total 24 hours) Exclusion criteria : To be given within 8 hours > 13 years old No serious injury Not pregnant Not already taking other steroids Not given naloxone recently Neurogenic Shock :

Not common . Cause by spinal cord injury . Decreased vascular tone and relative bradycardia. ( symphatic enervation of the heart) Spinal shock After spinal cord injury . Flacid / loss of reflexes. Temporary .

Life threatening condition that need to be identified and treated immediately on Primary Survey Airway Laryngeal Injury Sign of upper airway obstruction ( stridor) Hoarseness/emphysema subcutaneous emphysema/palpable fracture of the larynx Humidified Oxygen/IV access/Prepare for early intubation or surgical airway/ ENT consult If edema larynx : Dexamethasone, adult 4 mg IV, ped: 0.25 mg 0.5 mg/kg IV Fracture /Dislocation of Sternoclavicular joint Obvious sign of trauma on the base of the neck with palpable defect on the sternoclav. Joint Closed reduction of the sternoclavicular joint in supine position Breathing Tension Pneumothorax Clinical diagnosis : Chest pain / respiratory distress/tachycardia/ hypotension/ tracheal deviation/unilateral absence of breath/JVD/cyanosis Needle thoracocentesis ( large bore needle , 14-16 G, 2 nd intercostal space, midclav) followed by insertion of chest tube Open Pneumothorax Large defects of chest wall which remain open or sucking chest wound Close the defect with sterile occlusive dressing, large enough to overlap the wound, tapes securely on 3 sides Flail chest Multiple ribs fractures ie, two or more ribs fractured in two or more places Paradoxical movement of the chest wall ( inspiration/expiration) Main problem is the underlying lung disease : Pulmonary contusion Humidified oxygen/fluid resuscitation/analgesic Asses adequate ventilation for the need for assisted ventilation /intubation Circulation Massive Hemothorax > 1500 ml blood in the chest cavity or blood loss > 200 ml/hour for 2 to 4 hours shock associated with the absence of breath sound and or dullness on percussion on one side of the chest Management : Fluid resuscitation/blood transfusion simultaneously with decompression of chest cavity ( chest tube)

Cardiac Tamponade Commonly associated with penetrating injury Becks triad : JVD/hypotension/muffled heart sounds, not always present PEA in the absence of hypovolemia/tension pneumothorax Pericardiocentesis Secondary Survey Further physical examination CXR P ox /Blood Gas Analysis ECG Simple Pneumothorax Decreased breath sounds / hyperresonance /CXR If pneumothorax < 15 %, no cardiovascular or respiratory compromise : observe for 4 to 6 hours and repeat CXR , if no change : discharge otherwise chest tube insertion Hemothorax Shown in CXR , needed to be evacuated with chest tube Pulmonary contusion Cause respiratory failure Intubation Blunt Cardiac Injury Traumatic Aortic Disruption Persistent hypotension CXR: widened mediastinum Subcutaneous emphysema Not require treatment Underlying injury If needed to assist ventilation with positive pressure, anticipate possible pneumothorax Rib fractures Upper ribs : 1-3 : severe injury , associated with other serious injury ( major blood vessels) Lower ribs : 10 -12 : considered hepatosplenic injury Common associated injury : pneumohemato thorax Treatment : adequate pain management to improve ventilation. Risk of infection esp. in elderly Traumatic Diaphragmatic injury More common in the left side Sternum/scapular fractures Generally results of direct pressure Sternum fracture can accompanied by lung contusion/blunt cardiac injury

Primary survey : ABCDE , Hypotension? Obvious sign of trauma on the abdomen : blunt/penetrating injury Internal organ injury : Liver/spleen/pancreas/hollow viscus/kidney Sign of peritonitis ( distension /tenderness/muscle guarding/ rebound) Serial Hb/urinalysis/pregnancy test Abdominal series /USG Pelvic Injury , associated with major blood vessel Genito-urinary trauma : blood OUE/scrotal-perineal hematoma/high riding prostate or blood on the rectal exam , precaution for urinary catheter. Penetrating injury : closed wound with gauze soaked with NS

AB C DE IV/O2 /Monitor Hipovolemic shock Femur fr. Pain management . Narcotic pain relief ( Pethidine/Morphine) Asses N V D ( Neurovascular distal) . Always check colour/pulsation/capillary refill / sensation, compare bilaterally, and documented prior and after every manipulation /splint Open wound Open fractures ? , cover with sterile dressing Splint , immobilized one joint above and one joint below the injury site Mal-aligned/ compromise NVD : attempt to realign by gentle traction. If after traction NVD compromise worsened back to position before and splint in that position Do not forced re-alignment if difficult splint in that position Tetanus prophylaxis : vaccine/Ig Antibiotic : Cefazolin ( gr I ) , + gentamycine ( gr II / III ) , dose check on 5MEC Orthopedic consult Compartment syndrome o Pain is the earliest symptoms esp. with passive stretching of the involved groups of muscle o Other ischemic sign: 5 P :pain /pressure/paresis/paresthesia/pulse o Unconscious patient is at increased risk

Near Drowning : survival at least a day after submersion Secondary drowning : Complication of near drowning after initially successful resuscitation ( may be delayed by up to 12 hours in otherwise normal appearing patient) In near drowning, aspiration as little as 2 cc/kg may cause lung damage/hypoxia :

Surfactant loss/alveolar dysfunction Direct tissue toxicity , pulmonary edema V/Q mismatch , vasoconstriction Even without aspiration, life threatening pulmonary edema may occur due to cerebral hypoxia or cardiac failure ( dry drowning) Management Prehospital ABCDE with neck/spinal injury and hypothermia ( especially in children) precaution Begin CPR immediately with max Oxygen IV/ Monitor No role for trying to evacuate water by Heimlich or other maneuvers Asymptomatic patient still need to be observe for possible secondary drowning Patient with Cardio pulmonary arrest /.P ox < 90 % with max Oxygen, should be transported to hospital with facility of Intubation Emergency Department Consider other associated injuries ( spine/head/other trauma) and medical condition ( AMI/Disrythmia/ stroke) Patient who arrived awake but with respiratory distress or hypoxia IV /O2 max with NRB/Monitor CXR PA/Lat and other X-ray if needed ECG / ABG / electrolyte/BUN /Creatinin/CBC/ Glucose If unable to maintain P ox > 90 % with max O2, need to intubate Antibiotic : Levofloxacine 500 mg QD Observation for 12-24 hours Repeat CXR/lab test every 6 to 12 hours Patient who arrived without any symptoms If physical exam/CXR and Pox normal , patient may be discharged after 6 hours of observation ( repeat CXR/lab test) High risk patient Loss of consciousness Cardiopulmonary arrest Cyanotic /tachypnoe / respiratory distress Seizures Prolonged time under water /water ingestion Preexisting medical condition /elderly/young children