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K.Avinash Reddy III B.TECH (ECE) 102u1a0447 08801238722

CH.SumaSwathi III B.TECH (ECE) 102u1a0417

Geethanjali Institute of Science and Technology,

3rd mile,Bombay Highway, Gangavaram,


ABSTRACT: Though many technologies currently available for wired and wireless, The 4G concept supports the provisioning of multiple types of services, ranging from simple network access to complex multimedia virtual reality, including voice communication services, which are themselves a challenge in packet-based mobile communications environments. 4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 100 megabits per second on the move and 1000gigbits per second stationary. The intent of this paper is to describe about 4G, specifications, and the technology. This paper also overviews technical physical layer and medium access layer features, further developments and threats of the 4G,Next, the features of the wireless broadband networks are compared and a conclusion is drawn. The primary target of this paper is to present a solution for Quos support in mobile environments1. In order to do so, we make frequent references to the Problem of integration of Quos, AAAC and mobility. In the course of the paper we discuss the methods that let us create and exploit the intrinsic associations between the service level agreements expressed in user profiles, and the network control mechanisms capable to monitor network usage per service and per user, in order to provide these services while the user moves and the terminal changes access Technologies. INTRODUCTION:

designed to users in cars to the public landline based telephone network. Then, in the 60s, a system launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or, Improved Mobile Telephone Service", brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. The systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", each cell is served by Low power transmitter and receiver. THE 1G OR FIRST GENERATION 1G had two major improvements Invention of the microprocessor Digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site. Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system. Based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice calls in 1 country THE 2G OR SECOND GENERATION 2G first appeared around the end of the 1980s, the 2G system digitized the voice signal, as well as the control link. This new digital system gave a lot better quality and much more capacity (i.e. more people could use their phones at the same time), All at a lower cost to the end consumer. Based on TDMA, the first commercial network for use by the public was the Global system for mobile communication (GSM). 3G OR THIRD GENERATION

At the end of the 1940s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was

3G systems promise faster communications services, entailing voice, facsimile and Internet data transfer capabilities. The aim of 3G is to provide these services anytime, anywhere throughout the globe, with seamless roaming between standards. ITUs IMT-2000 is a global standard for 3G and has opened new doors to enabling innovative services and application for instance; multimedia entertainment, and location-based services, etc.3G technology supports around 144 Kbps, with high speed Movement, i.e. in a vehicle. 384 Kbps locally, and up to 2Mbps for fixed stations, i.e. in a building. 4G OR FOURTH GENERATION For 1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6 Kbit/sec; this is approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN (Integrated services digital network). Rates did increase by a factor of 3 with newer handsets to 28.8kbps. This is rarely the speed though, as in crowded areas, when the network is busy, rates do drop dramatically. Fourth generation mobile communications will have higher data transmission rates than 3G. 4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 100 megabits per second on the move and 1000gigbits per second stationary. To understand 4G, we need to know about 3G. So how did 3G start? The idea didnt come from network operators, but from device manufactures. In 1996 Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (NTT) and Ericsson started development of 3G; then in 1997 in the USA the TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) chose CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) as a technology for 3G; and then in 1998 the ETSI(European telecommunications Standards Institute) also chose CDMA;

In the end, in 1998 wideband CDMA or WCDMA and cdma2000 were decided for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). The two major radio standards used for 3G are W-CDMA (wideband code division multiple access) CDMA2000. W-CDMA is used in Europe, where CDMA2000 is used in the USA. In CDMA, one signal carries the data, this is then multiplied with a signal with a faster rate, that his more bandwidth, it uses TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). CDMA200 uses CDM (common code division Multiplexing). Now we need to discuss the different access technologies, these are FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. The most common analog system is FDMA, or, Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is a method where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies and then this chunk given to the users. At one time only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of this the frequency is closed, until the call is ended, or it is passed on to another frequency. For a proper call to take place two frequencies are needed, one for sending and one for receiving, FDMA has been used f

Evolution of the mobile value chain towards 4G. Or first generation analog systems only, this is due to the large bandwidth wastage highlighted above. TDMA or Time Division Multiple Access makes use of the whole available spectrum, unlike FDMA. Instead of splitting the slots by frequency, it splits them by time, over All of the frequency. Each subscriber is given a time slot, as opposed to a frequency. Onto 4G... Fourth (4G) generation mobile communication systems tend to mean different things to different people: for some it is merely a higher-capacity (e.g., 100 Mb/s) New radio interface Interworking of cellular and wireless LAN technologies This now widely accepted vision sketches a heterogeneous network infrastructure comprising different wireless access systems (e.g., GSM/GPRS, UMTS, DVB-T, HAPS,WLAN) in a complementary manner, where the user, supported by his/her personal intelligent agent(s), enjoys untethered connectivity and ubiquitous access to applications over the most efficient combination of available systems. Availability of the network services anywhere, at anytime, can be one of the key factors that attract individuals and institutions to the new network infrastructures, stimulate the development of Telecommunications, and propel economies. This bold idea has already made its way into the telecommunication community bringing new requirements for network design, and envisioning a change of the current model of

providing services to customers. The emerging new communications paradigm assumes a user to be able to access services independently of her or his location, in an almost transparent way, with the terminal being able to pick the preferred access technology at current location (ad-hoc, wired, wireless LAN, or cellular), and move between technologies seamlessly i.e. without noticeable disruption. Unified, secure, multi-service, and multipleoperator network architectures are available in 4G networks. The 4G concept supports the provisioning of multiple types of services, ranging from simple network access to complex multimedia virtual reality, including voice communication services, which are themselves a challenge in packetbased mobile communications environments. Due to the heterogeneity of the access technologies, the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is being targeted as the common denominator across multiple accesses Technologies, and make the solution basically independent of the underlying Technology - and therefore future-proof. However, fitting such important concepts as support for Quality of Service (QoS), Authentication, Authorization, Accounting and Charging (AAAC) and mobility into the native Internet architecture poses numerous Difficulties and is a real challenge. The proposed architecture supports network services, in a secure and auditable way. Both user-to-network interfaces and inter-operator interfaces are defined, so that multiple service providers can interoperate. The architecture is able to support multimedia services, and has been further optimized for voice services. Voice services are now among the most demanding in terms of network design, imposing hard limits on network performance. In order to handle these services we will use the Expedited

Forward (EF) concept of the differentiated services framework. 4G will provide unconceivable amounts of bandwidth to the palm of a user. Matching Current Local Area Network speeds, 4G networks will provide 100MBps on the move. This is enough for studio quality video, multi channel surround sound and much More. 4G will be based on OFDM the next generation in access technologies (read The technical section for more info on OFDM), 4G will change the way we work, live and play. Cheap end user costs, fast, always On, reliable connectivity, where ever you are, whatever youre doing. Some people view 3G as a stop gap until the real 4G network arrives, something which is due Around 2010, and will impact every one, everywhere FEATURES OF COMMUNICATIONS 4G

Broadband services. 7. High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit. 8. Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks. 9. Seamless switching, variety of services based on Quality of Service (Quos) requirements 10. Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. 11. Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks. 12. Mobility of users across multiple terminals. 13. Mobility of terminals across multiple technologies. 14. Confidentiality both of user traffic and of the network control information. 4G CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS 1. Multi-access interface, timing and recovery. 2. Higher frequency reuse leads to smaller cells that may cause intra-cell Interference or higher noise figures due to reduced power levels. 3. The Digital to analog conversions at high data rates, multiuser detection and Estimation (at base stations), smart antennas and complex error control techniques as well dynamic routing will need sophisticated signal processing. 4. Issues in the interface with the ad hoc networks should be sorted out.4G systems are expected to interact with other networks like the Bluetooth, hiperlan, IEE802.11b, etc. 5. Voice over multi-hop networks is likely to be an interesting problem because of the Strict delay requirements of voice. 6. Security will be an important issue. 7. A new IP protocol might be needed because of the variable Quos services and the network should do better than best effort.

1. Personalization: The operator may send the data to the user depending on his preference or the data can be filtered at the user end depending upon his Requirement. 2. User friendly: Due to the design in transparency in the design user can utilize the service properly. 3. Heterogeneity: Ubiquitous connection can be experienced with network Heterogeneity. Terminal Heterogeneity supports different types of terminals in terms of size, portability, Complexity. 4. High Usability: The technology will support the end users anytime and anywhere. 5. Transmission cost of various multimedia services at a very low cost. 6. Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other

8. Networking protocols that adapt dynamically to the changing channel conditions. 9. Seamless roaming and seamless transfer of services. 10 Designing a single user terminal to operate in various networks and to overcome Some limitations like size of the device. A software radio can be used to make sure that the terminal will work in all networks. 11 Terminal Mobility: To locate and update the locations of various terminals. Here We can use signaling schemes and the faster handoff's can be used to achieve Terminal mobility. 12 Due to the heterogeneity in the network the security issues will be a challenge to Maintain. By implementing security handoff we can improve the security features of The network. BUSINESS MODEL OF 4G NETWORK

User and the service provider do not want to be bothered with the peculiarities of These networks, i.e. end users still want to use the services offered by service Providers irrespective of the network they are connected to. This asks for a service Centric approach where the end user, the service provider and network operator are Loosely coupled through a Service Support role, Two main responsibilities of Service Support are: service aggregation network integration Service aggregation (SA) enables ubiquitous service provisioning to end Users Network integration (NI) ensures that this can be realized regardless of the network the end user is connected to. The end user benefits from being able to access his/her subscribed services anywhere and anytime

The current model assumes there are relationships between the end user, the service provider, and the network operator. In the 4G worlds, the number of access networks and therefore the number of Network operators will increase rapidly. Especially the construction of many socalled hotspots, urban areas with Wireless LAN coverage, will cause this. Both the end

. End User Identities and Services Third party service providers provide end user services. These service providers have Established a legal relationship or Service Level Agreement (SLA) with one or more

Service aggregators. It is envisaged that the users location can be Obtained from the network integrator (and therefore from access network) to deploy Location-based services. Service Aggregator The role of service aggregator (SA) is twofold. On the one hand the SA acts as an Intermediary between a end user/subscriber and multiple services (the service Offering of the SA). On the other hand, for Service Provider the SA acts as an Intermediary to multiple different network integrators, such that services do not need To be concerned with issues eliminating the need for like determining on which Network a subscriber is currently located active. In this model, end users explicitly Subscribe to the SA. The SA manages these subscriptions and also takes care of Billing; based on accounting information received from services, network integrators, And the SA itself. In this way the SA not only provides single sign-on, but a more General single point of contact.

Heterogeneous networks and their administrative domains. To support the Seamlessness aspect is essential for this functionality. The NI provides the basic Network management functionality and provides an abstraction of the underlying Networks. This provides the illusion of one virtual network towards upper service This involves network addressing issues and technologies such as Mobile IP. 4G NETWORK SPECIFICATIONS One may wonder how 4G can provide a 10 times increase in data transfer over 3G. This speed can be achieved through Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM can not only transfer data at speed of more than 100 Mbps, but it can also eliminate interference that impairs high speed signals. Physical and MAC Layer specifications One promising underlying technology to accomplish the divisiveness is multi-carrier Modulation, a derivative of frequency division multiplexing. MCM was earlier used in DSL modems and digital audiovideo broadcasts. It is a baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth channels to transmit information. MOBILITY MANAGEMENT Mobility Management includes location registration Paging Handover. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) Ex- MTs

Network Integration The network integration (NI) enables end users to seamlessly roam across

in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till The network knows that they are in the train. END-TO-END QOS SUPPORT Three distinct situations arise in the Quos architecture: i) Registration, when a user may only use network resources after authentication And authorization, ii) Service authorisation, when the user has to be authorized to use specific services; And iii) Handover when there is a need to reallocate resources from one AR to Another. BENEFITS 1. Wireless radio resources will be saved. 2. Infrastructure cost will be reduced. 3. Power consumption will be less. 4. High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit. CONCLUSION the work on 4G systems has begun in the industry as well the academia.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced a program in 1999 that calls For proposals that would look at issues involved in 4G systems. In the USA, Motorola, Lucent, AT&T, Nortel and other major companies are also working on 4G systems. Multimedia traffic will be dominant in the future. It is estimated that voice would Contribute to only 20-30 % of total traffic in the future. A modified IP will be the universal network layer protocol in the future. Diverse array of applications like virtual navigation, tele -medicine, etc. The entire network would be digital and packet switched. REFERENCES The IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, October 2001 0010626S0065 http://www. id=92