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Homework III (due 03/04/2010)

1. A filter bed of packing density 0.1 and fiber diameter 4 m for use in removing radioactive
particles from a gas stream must provide an overall collection efficiency of at least 99.99%
for particles of any size. Given a flow rate of air at 298 K, 1 atm of 1 m
3
/s,
p
= 1.2 g/cm
3
,
and filter bed width and height of 1.5 and 1.0 m, respectively, determine (a) the necessary
depth of the filter; (b) the most penetrating particle size (MPPS) and the corresponding
single fiber efficiency; (c) the relative importance of single fiber efficiency due to
interception, impaction and diffusion in collecting the MPPS; (d) filter quality at the
MPPS. (16%)

















2. With increasingly stringent fuel economy standards, diesel engines appear to be attractive
alternative power plants for passenger vehicles. However, despite its superior fuel
economy, a diesel engine presents a challenging emission control problem. As the engine
is operated in a manner to maintain low NOx emissions, particulate emissions exceed the
exhaust standard. Thus, an additional scheme for controlling particulate emissions is
necessary. One such scheme that has received extensive study is the filtration of exhaust
particulate matter by a filter bed placed in the exhaust system. In this problem, we
consider the design of a fibrous filter bed for this purpose. (Disposal of the collected
particulate matter is a key problem, although we do not consider it here.) We will focus on
the initial performance of the filter, that is, on the period during which the deposition of
particles is not influenced by those already collected. The following conditions can be
assumed for the exhaust filtration problem: o = 0.05, T = 473 K, d
f
= 10 m, u

= 8 cm/s,
and
p
= 1 g/cm
3
.
(a) Calculate the Stokes number for particles ranging in size from 0.02 to 1.0 m in
diameter. Show that the Stokes number is sufficiently small that inertial impaction can
be neglected as a significant mechanism of collection.

Stokes numbers from 0.02 to 1.0 m are sufficiently small to neglect the impaction.







(b) Plot the single fiber collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter over the
range 0.02 to 1.0 m showing the individual contributions of diffusion and interception.
Assume the Kuwabawa flow field to be applicable.



Diffusion is dominant mechanism for small size particles whereas interception is more
important for large size particles.
(c) For a given set of operating conditions there are four filter design parameters that can
be varied: filter face area, filter thickness, fiber size and packing density. These design
parameters can be divided into two groups; the first two parameters are related to the
0.01 0.1 1
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25


E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Dp
Diffusion
Interception
Efficiency for single fiber
size and shape of the filter, and the last two refer to the properties of the filter medium.
Considering the operating conditions corresponding to an Oldsmobile 5.7-L diesel
engine automobile being drive at 40 mph (64 km/h):
Exhaust flow rate = 2832 L/min (at 293 K, 1 atm)
Exhaust temperature = 473 K
Mass median particle diameter = 0.2 m
Particle density = 1 g/cm
3

With filter thickness as the ordinate (in cm) and filter face area as the abscissa (in cm
2
),
plot the curve of overall bed efficiency = 90% based on particle mass. (If we require at
least 90% efficiency, all points above this line are candidates for a filter design).






(d) Now assuming a filter face area of 2500 cm
2
and a thickness of 3.4 cm, with the
operating conditions above, plot the overall bed efficiency as a function of packing
density o over the range 0 < o < 0.1 for d
f
= 5, 10, 20 and 40 m. Discuss your results.
(24%)



The overall efficiency increases as the solidity increases because of increase of cross
sectional area. The overall efficiency decreases as the fiber diameter increases in that
the diffusion and interception decrease.








3. (a) An aerosol neutralizer has a volume of 1.7 L and contains a 1.0-mCi Kr-85 source that
produces an ion concentration of 310
6
#/cm
3
inside the cylinder. At a flow of 50 L/min,
what fraction of the original charge will remain on an aerosol after it has passed through
the device? (b) What is the average charge on a 0.15 m diameter particle in equilibrium
with bipolar ions at 293 K? (12%)
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2


E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Packing density (o)
df=5
df=10
df=20
df=40















4. For the particle size range listed below and E = 2 kV/cm, determine the collection
efficiency of a plate-type electrical precipitator. The plate spacing is 1 inch and the plate
length in the direction of flow is 5 ft. Make your calculations for velocities of 3 and 10
ft/s, and plot efficiency as a function of particle diameter. Assume flat collecting plates
and a laminar flow. Also, N
i
t = 10
8
s/cm
3
, c = 10 and T = 300K. (20%)
dp (m) Wt% (< dp)
< 0.1 5
0.3 10
0.6 50
1 90
5 99.6








5. Raindrops falling from thunderclouds may carry charges as high as 3.310
-11
C/drop.
What is the minimum size of such drops? (6%)




6. The California visibility standard requires that the visibility be greater than 10 miles on
days when the relative humidity is less than 70%. Consider a day when the visibility
0.1 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110


C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
E
)
Particle diameter (m)
3 ft/s
10 ft/s
controlling aerosol is composed of material with a refractive index of 1.5. Estimate the
aerosol mass concentration (g/m
3
) in the atmosphere that would correspond to the
visibility standard. Assume (1) the density of the spherical particles is 1 g/cm
3
; (2) the
aerosol is monodisperse with a particle size, d
p
= 0.5 m; and (3) the wavelength of
interest is 0.5 m. (8%)


7. (a) What is the maximum distance at which one can see a black automobile on a foggy,
moonlit night? Assume that the fog consists of 5 m droplets at 10
10
#/m
3
, that the
background luminance is 10
-3
cd/m
2
, and that your eyes are completely dark adapted. (b)
Repeat part (a) if the headlights are on and are directed toward you; assume the inherent
contrast is 10
4
. (10%)


8. Let J be the intensity of the air light seen by an observer looking along a horizontal path to
the horizon sky (infinity). The path falls close to one that ends at a black test object a
distance x from the observer. Show that the intensity of the light seen by an observer
looking toward the black test object is given by
) 1 ( ) (
x
e J x I
o
=
(b) Derive an expression for the fraction of the total air light (to infinity) contributed by the
atmosphere between the observer and the point x from the observer. (12%)



9. Go over the Optical Particle Counter module at http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu. Learn how to
operate the OPC simulator. Use it to simulate the measurement of room air and outdoor
air in St. Louis. Present your results and discuss how the size distributions are different.
(10%)

For both room air and outdoor air, the number concentration decrease as particle size
increases. The number concentration in outside is higher than that in room air. The
possible reason is anthropogenic sources such as construction and combustion. The filtered
air through HVAC system goes into the building (room).
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
-2.0x10
4
0.0
2.0x10
4
4.0x10
4
6.0x10
4
8.0x10
4
1.0x10
5
1.2x10
5
1.4x10
5
1.6x10
5
1.8x10
5


N
u
m
b
e
r

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
#
/
c
m
3
)
Particle Diameter (m)
Room Air
Outside