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16.42: a) In terms of the period of the source, Eq. (16.

27) becomes

. s m 25 . 0
s 1.6
m 12 . 0
s m 32 . 0
S
S
= =

=
T
v v

b) Using the result of part (a) in Eq. (16.18), or solving Eq. (16.27) for
S
v and
substituting into Eq. (16.28) (making sure to distinguish the symbols for the different
wavelengths) gives m. 91 . 0 =





16.64: To produce a 10.0 Hz beat, the bat hears 2000 Hz from its own sound plus 2010
Hz coming from the wall. Call v the magnitude of the bats speed,
w
f the frequency the
wall receives (and reflects), and V the speed of sound.
Bat is moving source and wall is stationary observer:

Hz 2000
w
v V
f
V
= (1)

Bat is moving observer and wall is stationary source:

w
Hz 2010 f
V v V
=
+
(2)

Solve (1) and (2) together:

s m 858 . 0 = v




14.90: When the level of the water is a height y above the opening, the efflux speed is
, 2gy and . 2 ) 2 (
2
gy d
dt
dV
= As the tank drains, the height decreases, and
. 2
) 2 (
2 ) 2 (
2
2
2
gy
D
d
D
gy d
A
dt dV
dt
dy
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
t
t

This is a separable differential equation, and the time T to drain the tank is found from
, 2
2
dt g
D
d
y
dy
|
.
|

\
|
=
which integrates to
| | , 2 2
2
0
T g
D
d
y
H
|
.
|

\
|
=
or
.
2
2
2
2 2
g
H
d
D
g
H
d
D
T |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=






17.91: a) = = A

=
A
C 67
in.) 5000 . 2 (
1
) (C
5
10 (1.2
in.) 0020 . 0 (
0
R
R
T to two figures, so the ring should be
warmed to C. 87 b) the difference in the radii was initially 0.0020 in., and this must be
the difference between the amounts the radii have shrunk. Taking
0
R to be the same for
both rings, the temperature must be lowered by an amount

( )
0 steel brass
R
R
T

A
= A

( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
=

=

C 100
in. 50 . 2 C 10 2 . 1 C 10 0 . 2
in. 0020 . 0
1 5 1 5

to two figures, so the final temperature would be C. 80





18.63: a) The tank is given as being large, so the speed of the water at the top of the
surface in the tank may be neglected. The efflux speed is then obtained from
,
2
1
2
p h g v A + A = or


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
| A
+ A =
) m kg (1000
Pa) 10 20 . 3 (
) m 50 . 2 ( ) s m 80 . 9 ( 2 2
3
5
2

p
h g v
s. m 2 . 26 =

b) Let m 50 . 3
0
= h and Pa. 10 20 . 4
5
0
= p In the above expression for
m 00 . 1 , = A h h v and .
m 00 . 4
m 00 . 4
a
0
0
p
h
h
p p
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A Repeating the calculation for


m 00 . 3 = h gives s m 1 . 16 = v and with s. m 5.44 m, 00 . 2 = = v h c) Setting 0
2
= v in
the above expression gives a quadratic equation in h which may be re-expressed as

.
m 4.00
m 50 . 0
g
m) 00 . 1 (
0 a
h g
p

p
h

=

Denoting , m 43 . 21
m) 50 . 0 (
and m 204 . 10
g
2 2 0 a
= = = = z
g
p
y

p
this quadratic becomes

, 0 ) ) m 00 . 4 ( ) m 00 . 4 (( ) m 00 . 5 (
2 2 2
= + + + z y h y h

which has as its solutions m. 47 . 13 and m 737 . 1 = = h h The larger solution is unphysical
(the height is greater than the height of the tank), and so the flow stops when m. 74 . 1 = h

Although use of the quadratic formula is correct, for this problem it is more efficient
for those with programmable calculators to find the solution to the quadratic by iteration.
Using m 00 . 2 = h (the lower height in part (b)) gives convergence to three figures after
four iterations. (The larger root is not obtained by a convergent iteration.)