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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. INTRODUCTION Electronic systems operate properly as long as the supply voltage stays within a consistent range. There are several types of voltage fluctuations that can cause the systems to malfunction, including surges and spikes, sags, harmonic distortions, and momentary disruptions. Among them, voltage sag is the major power-quality problem. It is an unavoidable brief reduction in the voltage from momentary disturbances, such as lightning strikes and wild animals, on the power system. Although most of them last for less than half a second, this is often long enough for many types of loads to drop out. Typical examples include variable speed drives, motor starter contactors, control relays, and programmable logic controllers. Such an unplanned stoppage can cause the load to take a long time to restart and can lead to high cost of lost production. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is presently one of the most cost-effective and thorough solutions to mitigate voltage sags by establishing proper quality voltage level for utility customers. Its function is to inject a voltage in series with the supply and compensate for the difference between the nominal and sagged supply voltage. The injected voltage is typically provided by an inverter, which is powered by a dc source, such as batteries, flywheels, externally powered rectifiers, and capacitors. Voltage restoration involves determining the amount of energy and the magnitude of the voltage injected by the DVR. Conventional voltage-restoration technique is based on injecting a voltage being in-phase with the supply voltage. The injected voltage magnitude will be the minimum, but the energy injected by the DVR is non minimal. In order to minimize the required capacity of the dc source, a minimum energy injection (MEI) concept is proposed in. It is based on maximizing the active power delivered by the supply mains and the reactive power handled by the DVR during the sag. Determination of the injected-voltage magnitude is based on a real-time iterative method to minimize the active power injection by the DVR. This can then enhance the ride-through capability.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

However, the operation of each phase is individually controlled. There is no energy interaction between the un sagged phase(s) and the sagged phase(s), in order to enhance the voltage restoration. Moreover, as the computation method is purely based on sinusoidal waveforms, the implementation is complicated in distribution network with nonlinear load. A sliding window over one line cycle of the fundamental frequency is proposed to determine the active and reactive power at the fundamental frequency. The lengthy computation time of the injected voltage phasor will cause output distortion after voltage sag. Instead of using an external energy storage device, the methods are taking the active power for the inverter from the transmission system via a shunt-connected rectifier. The series inverter by its self has the capability to provide real-series compensation to the line. The rectifier-based source requires a separate service supply, while the battery-based source requires regular maintenance and is not environment friendly. No external source is required in the DVR. The required phase and magnitude of the inverter load-voltage phasor are derived by considering the energy balance between the supply and the load, but the advantage is offset by the lengthy digital transformation and inversion of symmetrical components and calculation of the power consumption. The wave shape of the load voltage will be distorted and will take a relatively long settling time. As the supply voltage is assumed to be sinusoidal in the calculation, the load voltage will be affected and distorted with non sinusoidal supply voltage and load current. A single-phase capacitor-supported DVR can ideally revert the load voltage to steady state in two switching actions after voltage sags. By extending the concept, an analog-based three-phase capacitor-supported interline DVR is presented. 1.2. OBJECTIVE Dynamic voltage restorer features the following operational characteristics: a) By extending the fast transient control scheme the load voltage can ideally be restored in two switching actions after a voltage sag. This can assure near-seamless load voltage and power. b) The load voltage balance and quality can be maintained, even if the supply is
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unbalanced and/or has harmonic distortion, and the load is nonlinear and/or unbalanced. c) As the three inverters share the same dc link and the controller acts on the three inverters together, the un sagged phase(s) will help restore the sagged phase(s) during the voltage sag. The simulation model has been built and tested. The steady-state and dynamic behaviors of the simulation model are provided. 1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.3.1. Literature Survey: Brief survey of project work analysis is done in the following areas: 1. Understanding Power Quality Problems, Voltage Sags and Power interruption costs to industrial and commercial consumers of electricity in power quality issue. 2. Experience with an inverter based dynamic voltage restorer is developed and Experimental investigation of DVR with dynamic control is analyzed. 3. Open loop and closed loop control methods for the compensation of voltages in dynamic voltage restorer technique is carried out. 4. Closed-loop state variable controls of dynamic voltage restorers with fast compensation characteristics are developed. 5. Power quality ensured by dynamic voltage correction is flexible and accurate. 6. Simulation and analysis of series voltage restorer (SVR) for voltage sag relief. 7. Optimized control strategy for a medium-voltage DVR-Theoretical investigations and experimental results are obtained.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

8. A new approach of DVR control with minimized energy injection is provided in the system. 9. Interline dynamic voltage restorer: A economical approach for multiline power quality compensation is analyzed. 10. Design of a capacitor-supported dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) for

unbalanced and distorted loads.

11. Design and practical simulink model of a fast dynamic control scheme for capacitor-supported dynamic voltage restorers is developed. 12. A comparative study of the boundary control of second-order switching surfaces is obtained. 13. A survey of distribution system power quality-Preliminary results, Voltage sags & Voltage swell effects and their mitigation is done. 1.3.2. Organization of Thesis: 1. Chapter 1 directs the basics definitions of power quality and their occurrence will be discussed.

2. The chapter 2 deals with the different types of power quality problems and their time of occurrence and how to overcome the power quality issues.

3. The chapter 3 directs us with voltage sag and the improvement methods to overcome the issue.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

4. Chapter 4 explains the concept related to voltage swell their occurrence and the methods required to limit the voltage swell.

5. Chapter 5 illustrates about the concept of basic FACTS devices that are used to regulate the real power and classifies different FACTS devices.

6. Chapter 6 explains about Dynamic Voltage Restorer and components involved in the designing the simulink model and importance to regulate the uneven conditions of voltage levels to nominal value with the energy stored in capacitors.

7. Chapter 7 illustrate the inverter concepts, which is used to either convert AC to DC i.e. acts converter as well as DC to AC i.e. acts as inverter for different voltage sag and swell condition.

8. Chapter 8 deals with the modeling of the fast dynamic control mechanism of dynamic voltage restorer, their design procedures, equations and results. Developing a simulink model and tested it with MAT LAB/SIMULINK library. Developing the DVR model using the concept of second order switching and PLL.

1.4. SUMMARY The power quality is the main problem in power systems and the different methodologies required to overcome the phenomenon of uneven voltage unbalances that result in the power system. The literature survey that is requires to build the model and the steps that are required to get analyzed with the concept of fast dynamic control scheme to regulate the voltage to nominal values.
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2. POWER QUALITY
2.1. INTRODUCTION The contemporary container crane industry, like many other industry segments, is often enamored by the bells and whistles, colorful diagnostic displays, high speed performance, and levels of automation that can be achieved. Although these features and their indirectly related computer based enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation, we must not forget the foundation upon which we are building. Power quality is the mortar which bonds the foundation blocks. Power quality also affects terminal operating economics, crane reliability, our environment, and initial investment in power distribution systems to support new crane installations. To quote the utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my home utility billing: Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and business practice which saves you money, reduces emissions from generating plants, and conserves our natural resources. As we are all aware, container crane performance requirements continue to increase at an astounding rate. Next generation container cranes, already in the bidding process, will require average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW almost double the total average demand three years ago. The rapid increase in power demand levels, an increase in container crane population, SCR converter crane drive retrofits and the large AC and DC drives needed to power and control these cranes will increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very near future. 2.2. POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS Power quality problem can be defined as:

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Any power problem that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment, manifests itself as an economic burden to the user, or produces negative impacts on the environment. When applied to the container crane industry, the power issues which degrade power quality include: 1) Power Factor 2) Harmonic Distortion 3) Voltage Transients 4) Voltage Sags or Dips 5) Voltage Swells The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes are significant contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion. Whereas SCR phase control creates the desirable average power factor, DC SCR drives operate at less than this. In addition, line notching occurs when SCRs commutate, creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3 to 4 times the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of the drives. The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances varies with the speed of the drive. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC drives will be highest when the drives are operating at slow speeds. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods, increasing to its maximum value when the SCRs are phased on to produce rated or base speed. Above base speed, the power factor essentially remains constant. Unfortunately, container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and land containers. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or engine-alternator power source. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can ultimately result in detrimental effects on the life of sensitive electronic equipment or even intermittent malfunction. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching, AC drive voltage chopping, and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment.
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It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems with Container cranes, either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. Before the advent of solid-state power supplies, Power factor was reasonable, and harmonic current injection was minimal. Not until the crane Population multiplied, power demands per crane increased, and static power conversion became the way of life, did power quality issues begin to emerge. Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced, no one was really prepared. Even today, crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during competitive bidding for new cranes. Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the potential issues, the power quality issue is intentionally or Unintentionally ignored. Power quality problem solutions are available. Although the solutions are not free, in most cases, they do represent a good return on investment. However, if power quality is not specified, it most likely will not be delivered. 2.3. IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY The methods used to improve the power quality are as follows: 1) Power factor correction 2) Harmonic filtering 3) Special line notch filtering 4) Transient voltage surge suppression 5) Proper earthing systems In most cases, the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully aware of the potential power quality issues. If this article accomplishes nothing else, we would hope to provide that awareness. In many cases, those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes may not be cognizant of such issues, do not pay the utility billings, or consider it someone elses concern. As a result, container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

filtering. Also, many of those specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria. Early in the process of preparing the crane specification: a) Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that must be satisfied, if any. b) Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that can be expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific project. c) Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation, but consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the terminal. 2.4. BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY Power quality in the container terminal environment impacts the economics of the terminal operation, affects reliability of the terminal equipment, and affects other consumers served by the same utility service. Each of these concerns is explored in the following paragraphs. 2.4.1. Economic Impact: The economic impact of power quality is the foremost incentive to container terminal operators. Economic impact can be significant and manifest itself in several ways: a. Power Factor Penalties: Many utility companies invoke penalties for low power factor on monthly billings. There is no industry standard followed by utility companies. Methods of metering and calculating power factor penalties vary from one utility company to the next. Some utility companies actually meter kVAR usage and establish a fixed rate times the number of kVARhours consumed. Other utility companies monitor kVAR demands and calculate power factor.
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If the power factor falls below a fixed limit value over a demand period, a penalty is billed in the form of an adjustment to the peak demand charges. b. System Losses: Harmonic currents and low power factor created by nonlinear loads, not only result in possible power factor penalties, but also increase the power losses in the distribution system. These losses are not visible as a separate item on your monthly utility billing, but you pay for them each month. Container cranes are significant contributors to harmonic currents and low power factor. Based on the typical demands of todays high speed container cranes, correction of power factor alone on a typical state of the art quay crane can result in a reduction of system losses that converts to a 6 to 10% reduction in the monthly utility billing. For most of the larger terminals, this is a significant annual saving in the cost of operation. c. Power Service Initial Capital Investments: The power distribution system design and installation for new terminals, as well as modification of systems for terminal capacity upgrades, involves high cost, specialized, high and medium voltage equipment. Transformers, switchgear, feeder cables, cable reel trailing cables, collector bars, etc. must be sized based on the kVA demand. Thus cost of the equipment is directly related to the total kVA demand. As the relationship above indicates, kVA demand is inversely proportional to the overall power factor, i.e. a lower power factor demands higher kVA for the same kW load. In the absence of power quality corrective equipment, transformers are larger, switchgear current ratings must be higher, feeder cable copper sizes are larger, collector system and cable reel cables must be larger, etc. 2.4.2. Equipment Reliability: Poor power quality can affect machine or equipment reliability and reduce the life of components. Harmonics, voltage transients, and voltage system sags and swells are all power quality problems and are all interdependent. Harmonics affect power factor, voltage transients can induce harmonics, the same phenomena which create harmonic current injection in DC SCR variable speed drives are responsible for poor power factor, and dynamically varying power factor of the same drives can create voltage sags and swells. The effects of harmonic
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distortion, harmonic currents, and line notch ringing can be mitigated using specially designed filters. 2.4.3. Power System Adequacy: When considering the installation of additional cranes to an existing power distribution system, a power system analysis should be completed to determine the adequacy of the system to support additional crane loads. Power quality corrective actions may be dictated due to inadequacy of existing power distribution systems to which new or relocated cranes are to be connected. In other words, addition of power quality equipment may render a workable scenario on an existing power distribution system, which would otherwise be inadequate to support additional cranes without high risk of problems. 2.5. Environment No issue might be as important as the effect of power quality on our environment. Reduction in system losses and lower demands equate to a reduction in the consumption of our natural nm resources and reduction in power plant emissions. It is our responsibility as occupants of this planet to encourage conservation of our natural resources and support measures which improve our air quality. 2.5. Summary Power quality is the main criteria for the customers and the utility companies. So, there is a need to maintain the supply voltage profile to nominal values, to achieve voltage stability basic improvement methods stated above must be implemented to improve the power factor to reduce the KVA ratings, size and cost. The series and shunt capacitors must be used to improve the voltage profile and power factor, these methods improves the customer equipment reliability. To avoid the environmental issues related to fossil fuels operated power plants we need to opt for the renewable energy sources like wind, hydro, geothermal, solar energies which are eco friendly.

3. VOLTAGE SAG
3.1. INTRODUCTION

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Voltage sags and momentary power interruptions are probably the most important PQ problem affecting industrial and large commercial customers. These events are usually associated with a fault at some location in the supplying power system. Interruptions occur when the fault is on the circuit supplying the customer. But voltage sags occur even if the faults happen to be far away from the customer's site. Voltage sags lasting only 4-5 cycles can cause a wide range of sensitive customer equipment to drop out. To industrial customers, voltage sag and a momentary interruption are equivalent if both shut their process down.

Fig 3.1.A typical example of voltage sag 3.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLTAGE SAGS: Voltage sags which can cause event impacts are caused by faults on the power system. Motor starting also results in voltage sags but the magnitudes are usually not severe enough to cause equipment misoperation. The one line diagram given below in fig.3.2 can be used to explain this phenomenon. Consider a customer on the feeder controlled by breaker 1. In the case of a fault on this feeder, the customer will experience voltage sag during the fault and an interruption when the breaker opens to clear the fault. For temporary fault, enclosure may be successful. Anyway, sensitive equipment will almost surely trip during this interruption. Another kind of likely event would be a fault on one of the feeders from the substation or a fault somewhere on the transmission system. In either of these cases, the customer will experience a voltage sag during the actual period of fault.

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Fig.3.2 One line diagram of Power System As soon as breakers open to clear the fault, normal voltage will be restarted at the customer's end. The customer voltage during a fault on a parallel feeder circuit that is cleared quickly by the substation breaker i.e total duration of fault is 150m sec. The voltage during a fault on a parallel feeder will depend on the distance from the substation to fault point. A fault close to substation will result in much more significant sag than a fault near the end of feeder. A single line to ground fault condition results in a much less severe voltage sag than 3phase fault Condition due to a delta--star transformer connection at the plant. Transmission related voltage sags are normally much more consistent than those related to distribution. Because of large amounts of energy associated with transmission faults, they are cleared as soon as possible. This normally corresponds to 3-6 cycles, which is the total time for fault detection and breaker operation Normally customers do not experience an interruption for transmission fault. Transmission systems are looped or networked, as distinct from radial distribution systems. If a fault occurs as shown on the 115KV system, the protective relaying will sense the fault and breakers A and B will open to clear the fault. While the fault is on the transmission system, the entire power system, including the distribution system will experience Voltage sag. In general the magnitude of measured voltage sags at an industrial
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plant supplied from a 115 kV system. Most of the voltages were 10-30% below nominal voltage, and no momentary interrupts were measured at the plant during the monitoring period (about a year). This is a convenient way to completely characterize the actual or expected voltage sag conditions at a site. Evaluating the impact of voltage sags at a customer plant involves estimating the member of voltage sags that can be expected as a function of the voltage sag magnitude and then comparing this with equipment sensitivity. The estimate of voltage sag performance are developed by performing short-circuit simulations to determine the plant voltage as a function of fault location throughout the power system. Total circuit miles of line exposure that can affect the plant (area of vulnerability) are determined for a particular sag level. 3.3. VOLTAGE-SAG ANALYSIS 3.3.1. Load Flow: A load flow representing the existing or modified system is required with an accurate zero- sequence representation. The machine reactance Xd" or Xd' is also required. The reactance used is dependent upon the post fault time frame of interest. The machine and zerosequence reactance are not required to calculate the voltage sag magnitude. 3.3.2. Voltage Sag Calculation: Sliding faults which include line-line, line to ground, line to line- to ground and three phases are applied to all the lines in the load flow. Each line is divided into equal sections and each section is faulted.

3.3.3. Voltage Sag Occurrence Calculation: Based upon the utilities reliability data (the number of times each line section will experience a fault) and the results of load flow and voltage sag calculations, the number of
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voltage sags at the customer site due to remote faults can be calculated. Depending upon the equipment connection, the voltage sag occurrence rate may be calculated in terms of either phase or line voltages dependent upon the load connection. For some facilities, both line and phase voltages may be required. The data thus obtained from load flow, Voltage sag calculation, and voltage sag occurrence calculation can be sorted and tabulated by sag magnitude, fault type, location of fault and nominal system voltage at the fault location. 3.3.4. Study of Results of Sag- Analysis: The results can be tabulated and displayed in many different ways to recognize difficult aspects. Area of vulnerability can be plotted on a geographical map or one - line diagram. These plots can be used to target transmission and distribution lines for enhancements in reliability. Further bar charts, and pie-charts showing the total number of voltage sags with reference to voltage level at fault point, area/zone of fault, or the fault type can be developed to help utilities focus on their system improvements. Possible such system structural changes that can be identified include. Reconnection of a customer from one voltage level to another, Installation of Ferro-resonant transformers or time delayed under voltage, drop out relay to facilitate easy ride - through the sag Application of static transfer switch and energy storage system., Application of fast acting synchronous condensers, Neighborhood generation capacity addition, Increase service voltage addition through transformer tap changing, By enhancement of system reliability.

A) Equipment Sensitivity Studies: Process controllers can be very sensitive to voltage sags. off-line during voltage sag conditions. An electronic

component manufacturer was experiencing problems with large chiller motors tripping A 15VA process controller which regulates water temperature was thought to be causing individual chillers to trip. This controller
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was tested using a voltage sag simulator for voltage sags from 0.5-1000 cycles in duration. The controller was found to be very sensitive to voltage sags tripping at around 80% of voltage regardless of duration.

B) Chip Testers: Electronic chip testers are very sensitive to voltage variations, and because of the complexity involved, often require 30 minutes or more to restart. In addition, the chips involved in the testing process can be damaged and several days' later internal electronic circuit boards in the testers may fail. A chip tester consists of a collection of electronic loads, printers, computers, monitors etc. If any one component of the total package goes down, the entire testing process is disrupted. The chip testers can be 50KVA or larger in size. C) DC Drives: DC drives are used in many industrial processes, including printing presses and plastics manufacturing. The plastic extrusion process is one of the common applications where voltage sag can be particularly important. The extruders melt and grind plastic pellets into liquid plastic. The liquid plastic may then be blowup into a bag or processed in some other way before winder winds the plastic into spools. During voltage sag, the controls to the D.C. Drives and winders may trip. These operations are typically completely automated and an interruption can cause very expensive cleanup and restarting requirements. Losses may be of the order of Rs. 15 lakhs / event and a plant fed from a distribution system is likely to experience at least one event per month. Extra ders begin to have problems when the voltage sags to only 88% of normal, which indicates a very high level of sensitivity. Faults May miles away from the plant will cause voltage sags down to 88% level. Even protecting only the winders and controls does not serve the purpose always. When they are protected and voltage sag occurs, the controls and winders continue to work properly. However, the dc drives slow down. For severe voltage dips, the
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slowing down are so much that the process is interrupted. Therefore D.C. drives also need to be helped to ride through all voltage sags. D) Programmable Logic Controllers: Their overall sensitivity to voltage sags varies greatly by portions of an overall PLC system have been found to be very sensitive The remote I/O units have been found to trip for voltages as high as 90% for a few cycles. E) Machine Tools: Robots or complicated machines used in cutting, drilling and metal processing can be very sensitive to voltage variation. Any variation in voltage can affect the quality of the part that is being machined. Robots generally need very constant voltage to operate properly and safely. Any voltage fluctuations especially sag. May cause unsafe operation of robot. Therefore these types of machines are often set to trip at voltage levels of only 90%. 3.4. SOLUTION TO VALTAGE SAGS Efforts by utilities and customers can reduce the number and severity of sags. A. Utility solutions: Utilities can take two main steps to reduce the detrimental effects of sags (1) Prevent fault (2) Improve fault clearing methods Fault prevention methods include activities like tree trimming, adding line arrests, washing insulators and installing animal guards. Improved fault clearing practices include activities like adding line recloses, eliminating fast tripping, adding loop schemes and modifying feeder design. These may reduce the number and /or duration of momentary interruptions and voltage sags but faults cannot be eliminated completely.

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B. Customer solutions: Power conditioning in power utilization helps to: 1. Isolate equipment from high frequency noise and transients. 2. Provide voltage sag ride through capability.

The following are some of the solutions available to provide ride - through capability to critical loads: a) Motor generator sets (M-G sets) b) Uninterruptible Power supply (UPS's) c) Ferro resonant, constant voltage transformers (CVT's) d) Magnetic synthesizers e) Super conducting storage devices (SSD's) MG sets usually utilize flying wheels for energy storage. They completely decouple the loads from electric power system Relational energy in the flywheel provides voltage regulation and voltage support during under voltage conditions. MG sets have relatively high efficiency and low initial cost. UPS's (Fig.3.3) Utilize batteries to store energy which is converted to usable form during an outage or voltage sag UPS technology is well established and there are many UPS configurations to choose.

Fig.3.3 UPS Configurations


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3.5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION If the less-expensive solutions mentioned in this brief are not effective, the next step is to evaluate the life-cycle costs and effectiveness of voltage sag mitigation technologies. This task can be very challenging and tends to be beyond the expertise of most industrial facility managers. This type of evaluation requires an analysis of the costs of your voltage sag problems in terms of downtime and lost production, the costs of the devices, and an Understanding of how the mitigation devices work, including partial solutions. A good place to start in performing this type of analysis is to ask your utility or a power quality consultant for assistance. Many utilities offer power quality mitigation services or can refer you to outside specialists. 3.6. SUMMARY Voltage sag is the severe power quality issue running at the utility and consumers. In general due to large number of loads connected to a substation transformers will cause sudden decrease of voltage profile which lasts for 0.5-1 sec which is enough to drop out large amout of loads i.e. discontinuity of power supply to consumers. To avoid sag in voltages prior voltage as well as load flow analysis is carried out. This mitigation has also considered the economic aspects from the customer point of view.

4. VOLTAGE SWELL
4.1. INTRODUCTION A swell is the reverse form of Sag, having an increase in AC Voltage for duration of 0.5 cycles to 1 minute's time. For swells, high-impedance neutral connections, sudden large load reductions, and a single-phase fault on a three phase system are common sources. Swells can cause data errors, light flickering, electrical contact degradation, and semiconductor damage in electronics causing hard server failures. Our power conditioners and UPS Solutions are common solutions for swells.

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It is important to note that, much like sags, swells may not be apparent until results are seen. Having your power quality devices monitoring and logging your incoming power will help measure these events. A) OVER-VOLTAGE: Over-voltages can be the result of long-term problems that create swells. Think of an overvoltage as an extended swell. Over-voltages are also common in areas where supply transformer tap settings are set incorrectly and loads have been reduced. Over-voltage conditions can create high current draw and cause unnecessary tripping of downstream circuit breakers, as well as overheating and putting stress on equipment. Since an overvoltage is a constant swell, the same UPS and Power Conditioners will work for these. Please note however that if the incoming power is constantly in an overvoltage condition, the utility power to your facility may need correction as well. The same symptoms apply to the over-voltages and swells however since the overvoltage is more constant you should expect some excess heat. This excess heat, especially in data center environments, must be monitored. B) SWELL CAUSES: As discussed previously, swells are less common than voltage sags, but also usually associated with system fault conditions. A swell can occur due to a single line-to ground fault on the system, which can also result in a temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases. This is especially true in ungrounded or floating ground delta systems, where the sudden change in ground reference result in a voltage rise on the ungrounded phases. On an ungrounded system, the line-to ground voltages on the ungrounded phases will be 1.73 pu during a fault condition. Close to the substation on a grounded system, there will be no voltage rise on unfaulted phases because the substation transformer is usually connected delta-wye, providing a low impedance path for the fault current. Swells can also be generated by sudden load decreases. The abrupt interruption of current can generate a large voltage, per the formula: v = L di/dt, where L is the inductance of the line, and di/dt is the change in current flow. Switching on a large capacitor bank can also cause a swell, though it more often causes an oscillatory transient.

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C) MONITORING & TESTING: As with other technology-driven products, the power quality monitoring products have rapidly evolved in the last fifteen years. Increased complexity and performance of VLSI components, particularly microprocessor, digital signal processors, programmable logic, and analog/digital converters, have allowed the manufacturer's of power quality monitoring instruments to include more performance in the same size package for the same or reduced price. Different types of monitoring equipment are available, depending on the user's knowledge base and requirements. The four basic categories of power quality monitors (also known as power line disturbance monitors) are: event indicators, text monitors, solid state recording volt/ammeters, and graphical monitors. While all of these devices can be used to measure/monitor sags and swells, the effectiveness of each depends on what information the user wants to gain. Since sags and swells are relatively slow events (as opposed to microsecond duration transients), the wide variety of instruments are generally capable of capturing a sag or swell with reasonable reliability. Event indicators are usually on the lower price end of the market. They indicate to the user that a sag or swell has occurred through visual means, such as indicator lights or illuminated bar graphs. Some products will store the worst case amplitudes of such and/or the number of occurrences of the type of event. Most such device do not provide an indication of the time of occurrence or the duration. The voltage limit detectors may be preset or programmable, with the accuracy being in the 2-5% range. Textual-based monitors were actually the first dedicated power quality monitors, produced back in 1976. The function of these instruments is similar to the event indicators, except the output is in alphanumeric format Additional information, such as duration and time-of-occupance is often included. Some of these products allow for the correlation of other information (such as environmental parameters and system status levels) to assist the user in determining the cause of the event. Solid state recording volt/ammeters have replaced the older pen-and-ink chart recorders as a means of providing a graphical history of an event.

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These devices typically lack the resolution necessary for monitoring fault-clearing sags. Sampling techniques range from average of several cycles to samples over 2-30 cycles. The averaging over several cycles may mask the sag or swell, as well as result in misleading amplitudes. Sampling over multiple cycles will not properly represent the event either. Graphical monitors provide the most information about sag or swell. Most graphical monitors provide a cycle-by-cycle picture of the disturbance, as well as recording minimum/maximum values, duration, and time-of-occurrence. The three-phase voltage graphs, coupled with graphs of neutral to ground voltage, phase currents, neutral current (in wye), and ground currents, will usually provide the user with enough information to determine if the fault occurred upstream or downstream. The timing and magnitude information can often identify the source of the fault. For example, if the phase current levels of the load did not change prior to the voltage sag; the fault is more likely upstream. If the magnitude of the sag is down to 20% of nominal, it is likely that the fault was close by. If the sag duration was less than four cycles, it was most likely a transmission system fault. If the swell waveform is preceded by a oscillatory transient, it may be the result of a power factor correction capacitor being switched on. Line-to-neutral voltage sag is often accompanied by a neutral-to-ground voltage swell. The location of the monitor, power supply wiring, measurement input wiring, and immunization from RFI/EMI is especially critical with the higher performance graphical monitors. The monitor itself must also be capable of riding through the sag and surviving extended duration swells. The functionality of the monitor should be thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, under simulated disturbances, before placing out in the field. Just because it didn't record it, does not mean it didn't happen. Unless there is significant information pointing to the cause of the disturbance before the monitoring begins, it is common practice to begin at the point of common coupling with the utility service as the initial monitoring point. If the initial monitoring period indicates that the fault occurred on the utility side of the service transformer, then further monitoring would not be necessary until attempting to determine the effectiveness of the solution. If the source of the disturbance is determined to be internal to the facility, the placing multiple monitors on the various feeds within the facility would most likely produce the optimal answer in the shortest time period.
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Otherwise, the monitor must be moved from circuit to circuit, with particular attention to circuits powering suspected sources, and the circuits of the susceptible devices. Recent developments in artificial intelligence tools, especially fuzzy logic, have allow software vendors to develop products that allow knowledge and reasoning patterns to be stored in the software program. Further analysis of the event, beyond the IEEE 1159 classifications, is possible. These include the severity of the event, relative to the type of equipment that would be effected, and probability factors on the cause of the disturbance. Multiple, successive sags that return to nominal for an adequate time for the power supply capacitors to recharge may not be as severe as a longer duration sag of a higher amplitude. 4.2. SOLUTIONS The first step in reducing the severity of the system sags is to reduce the number of faults. From the utility side, transmission-line shielding can prevent lighting induced faults. If tower-footing resistance is high, the surge energy from a lightning stroke is not absorbed quickly into the ground. Since high tower-footing resistance is an import factor in causing back flash from static wire to phase wire, steps to reduce such should be taken. The probability of flashover can be reduced by applying surge arresters to divert current to ground. Treetrimming programs around distribution lines are becoming more difficult to maintain, with the continual reductions in personnel and financial constraints in the utility companies. While the use of underground lines reduces the weather-related causes, there are additional problems from equipment failures in the underground environment and construction accidents. The solutions within the facility are varied, depending on the financial risk at stake, the susceptibility levels and the power requirements of the effected device. Depending on the transformer configuration, it may be possible to mitigate the problem with a transformer change. "It is virtually impossible for an SLTG condition on the utility system to cause a voltage sag below 30% at the customer bus, when the customer is supplied through a deltawye or wye-delta transformer."

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TABLE 4.1 TRANSFORMER SECONDARY VOLTAGES (PU)

For wye-wye and delta-delta connections two phase-to-phase voltages will drop to 58% of nominal, while the other phase-to-phase is unaffected. However, for delta-wye and wyedelta connections, one phase-to-phase voltage will be as low as 33% of nominal, while the other two voltages will be 88% of nominal. It is the circulating fault current in the delta secondary windings that results in a voltage on each winding. Another possible solution is through the procurement specification. If a pre-installation site survey is done, the distribution curve and probability of the sags and/or swells can be determined. The user then specifies such information in the equipment procurement specifications. 4.2.1. FERRORESONANT TRANSFORMERS: Ferro resonant transformers, also called constant-voltage transformers (CVT), can handle most voltage sags. Ferro resonant transformers can have separate input and output
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windings, which can provide voltage transformation and common-mode noise isolation as well as voltage regulation. While CVTs provide excellent regulation, they have limited overload capacity and poor efficiency at low loads. At a load of 25% of rating, they require an input of a minimum of 30% of nominal to maintain a +3/-6% output. At 50% load of rating, they typically require 46% of nominal input for regulation, which goes to 71% of nominal input at full load. 4.2.2. MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Magnetic synthesizers use transformers, inductors and capacitors to synthesize 3- phase voltage outputs. Enough energy is stored in the capacitors to ride through one cycle. They use special autotransformers, with buck-boost windings to control the voltage. The effect of the buck-boost windings is varied by a control winding with DC current that affects the saturation of the core. The control-winding current is produced by electronic sensing and control circuits. The response time is relatively slow (3-10 cycles).

4.2.3. TAP SWITCHING TRANSFORMERS: Electronic tap-switching transformers have the high efficient, low impedance, noise isolation, and overload capacity of a transformer. These regulators use solid state switches (thyristors) to change the turns ratio on a tapped coil winding. The switching is controlled by electronic sensing circuits, and can react relatively quickly (1-3 cycles). Thyristor switching at zero voltage is easier and less costly than at zero current, but can cause transient voltages in the system, as the current and voltage are only in phase at unity power factor. Thus, switching at zero-current is preferred. The voltage change is in discrete steps, but the steps can be small enough so as not to induce additional problems. 4.2.4. STATIC UPS: A UPS can provide complete isolation from all power line disturbances, in addition to providing ride-through during an outage. A static UPS consist of a rectifier AC to DC
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converter, DC bus with a floating battery, DC to AC inverter, and solid state bypass switch. The rectifier converts the raw input power to DC, which keeps the floating battery fully charged and supplies power to the inverter section. The inverters generate 6 or 12 step waves, pulse-width modulated waves, or a combination of the two, to create a synthetic sine-wave output. Inverter output should be a stable, low-distortion sine wave, provided there is adequate filtering in the output stage. The batteries supply the DC bus voltage when the AC voltage is reduced. There units range from a few hundred VA to 750kVA or higher. Since they are constantly running, there is no switch-over time, except when the bypass switch is activities. The capacity of the battery banks determines the length of ride-through.

4.2.5. ROTARY UPS/MOTOR GENERATORS: Motor generator sets can also provide power conditioning by fully isolating the output power of the generator from disturbances of the input power (except for sustained outages). Various configurations are possible, including single shaft synchronous MG, DC motor driven MG, 3600 rpm induction motor with a flywheel driving a 1800 rpm generator, synchronous MG with an additional DC machine on same shaft, which powers AC generator with AC fails; or, variable speed, constant frequency synchronous MG (varies number of poles so that frequency remains the same. The inertia of an MG set, (especially if supplemented by a flywheel), can ride-through several seconds of input power interruption. Since the generator output can be of different voltage and frequency from the motor input, conversion from 60 Hz to 400 Hz is possible. 4.3. SUMMARY

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Swell in voltage results when large kva rating of loads are drop out. Time to time monitoring and preventive measures must be taken while desingning the electrical equipments like ferro resonant transformers, magnetically controlled regulators, tab changing switching transformer, ups, motor generator sets. To overcome the aspect of voltage swell at houses it is better to pprefer ups configurations which eliminates voltage flickering and saves the data.

5. FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS


5.1 INTRODUCTION Flexible AC Transmission Systems, called FACTS, got in the recent years a well known term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice. In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are: 1. Power flow control 2. Increase of transmission capability 3. Voltage control
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4. Reactive power compensation 5. Stability improvement 6. Power quality improvement 7. Power conditioning 8. Flicker mitigation 9. Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages Fig.5.1 shows the basic idea of FACTS for transmission systems. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS devices. It can be seen that with growing line length, the opportunity for FACTS devices gets more and more important. The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work electrically as fast current, voltage or impedance controllers. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels. Figure 5.1 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices. For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices provided by the power electronics. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Therefore most of the FACTS-devices can equally be static and dynamic. The left column in Figure 5.1 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance, inductance or capacitance together with transformers. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor valves or converters. These valves or converters are well known since several
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years. They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency, the losses are increasing as well. Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this.

Fig 5.1 Basic FACTS devices 5.2. CONFIGURATIONS OF FACTS-DEVICES: 5.2.1. SHUNT DEVICES:

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The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. The main applications in transmission, distribution and industrial networks are: a) Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses. b) Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. c) Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge demand fluctuations like industrial machines, metal melting plants, railway or underground train systems and improvement of static or transient stability. d) Compensation of Thyristor converters e.g. in conventional HVDC lines. Almost half of the SVC (Fig 5.2) and more than half of the STATCOMs (Fig 5.3) are used for industrial applications. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted, nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to insufficient power quality. Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require SVCs or STATCOMs. Applications of the SVC and STATCOMs systems in transmission systems: a. To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin b. To damp power oscillations c. To achieve effective voltage control

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Fig 5.2 SVC design blocks

Fig 5.3 STATCOM

5.2.2. SERIES DEVICES: Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices. The main applications are: a) Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line. b) Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power Transmissions and improvement of system damping resp. damping of oscillations, c) Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations, 5.2.3. SHUNT AND SERIES DEVICES A) DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROLLER:

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A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC). The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series compensation. The Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components: 1. A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) 2. series-connected Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors (TSC / TSR) 3. A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) Based on the system requirements, a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR. The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of overload and other conditions. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. If a higher power flow resolution is needed, a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added. The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics. However, in general, the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous control as well. B) UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER: The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously. The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer, which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor. The DC-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage which provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow. The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge. Due to the high efforts for the Voltage Source Converters and the protection, an UPFC is getting quite expensive, which limits the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.

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Fig 5.4 UPFC controller The UPFC has many possible operating modes. In particular, the shunt inverter is operating in such a way to inject a controllable current, ish into the transmission line. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes: a) VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. The shunt inverter control translates the VAR reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage, Vdc, is also required. b) Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value. For this mode of control, voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways. a) Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. b) Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. Line Impedance

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Emulation mode: The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance c) Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes. 5.3. SUMMARY Flexible AC transmission systems has the higher controllability and reliability in regulated power devices used to compensate the real powers and reactive powers that get distracted when transmitted from sending to receiving end. The FACTS devices require lesser cost for installation for lesser MVA rated mechanisms and facilitates the fast response and easier to operate and control. The various FACTS devices used in power system are used accordingly, such as the series controller are used to inject the currents and shunt controllers are to inject the voltages and a combination of both are used to facilitate controller either injet the voltages or currents.

6. DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

6.1. INTRODUCTION The major objectives are to increase the capacity utilization of distribution feeders (by minimizing the rms values of the line currents for a specified power demand), reduce the losses and improve power quality at the load bus. The major assumption was to neglect the variations in the source voltages. This essentially implies that the dynamics of the source voltage is much slower than the load dynamics. When the fast variations in the source voltage cannot be ignored, these can affect the performance of critical loads such as (a) semiconductor fabrication plants (b) paper mills (c) food processing plants and (d) automotive assembly plants. The most common disturbances in the source voltages are the voltage sags or swells that can be due to (i) Disturbances arising in the transmission system
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(ii) (iii)

Adjacent feeder faults and Fuse or breaker operation.

Voltage sags of even 10% lasting for 5-10 cycles can result in costly damage in critical loads. The voltage sags can arise due to symmetrical or unsymmetrical faults. In the latter case, negative and zero sequence components are also present. Uncompensated nonlinear loads in the distribution system can cause harmonic components in the supply voltages. To mitigate the problems caused by poor quality of power supply, series connected compensators are used. These are called as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) in the literature as their primary application is to compensate for voltage sags and swells. Their configuration is similar to that of SSSC. However, the control techniques are different. Also, a DVR is expected to respond fast (less than 1/4 cycle) and thus employs PWM converters using IGBT or IGCT devices. The first DVR entered commercial service on the Duke Power System in U.S.A. in August 1996. It has a rating of 2 MVA with 660 kJ of energy storage and is capable of compensating 50% voltage sag for a period of 0.5 second (30 cycles). It was installed to protect a highly automated yarn manufacturing and rug weaving facility. Since then, several DVRs have been installed to protect microprocessor fabrication plants, paper mills etc. Typically, DVRs are made of modular design with a module rating of 2 MVA or 5 MVA. They have been installed in substations of voltage rating from 11 kV to 69 kV. A DVR has to supply energy to the load during the voltage sags. If a DVR has to supply active power over longer periods, it is convenient to provide a shunt converter that is connected to the DVR on the DC side. As a matter of fact one could envisage a combination of DSTATCOM and DVR connected on the DC side to compensate for both load and supply voltage variations. In this section, we discuss the application of DVR for fundamental frequency voltage. The voltage source converter is typically one or more converters connected in series to provide the required voltage rating. The DVR can inject a (fundamental frequency) voltage in each phase of required magnitude and phase. The DVR has two operating modes A. Standby (also termed as short circuit operation (SCO) mode) where the voltage injected has zero magnitude. B. Boost (when the DVR injects a required voltage of appropriate magnitude and phase to restore the prefault load bus voltage).
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The power circuit of DVR shown in Fig. 6.1 has four components listed below 6.1.1. Voltage Source Converter (VSC): This could be a 3 phase - 3 wire VSC or 3 phase - 4 wire VSC. The latter permits the injection of zero-sequence voltages. Either a conventional two level converter (Graetz bridge) or a three level converter is used. 6.1.2. Boost or Injection Transformers: Three single phase transformers are connected in series with the distribution feeder to couple the VSC (at the lower voltage level) to the higher distribution voltage level. The three single transformers can be connected with star/open star winding or delta/open star winding. The latter does not permit the injection of the zero sequence voltage. The choice of the injection transformer winding depends on the connections of the step down transformer that feeds the load. If ac Y connected transformer (as shown in Fig. 6.1) is used, there is no need to compensate the zero sequence volt- ages. However if Y|Y connection with neutral grounding is used, the zero sequence voltage may have to be compensated. It is essential to avoid the saturation in the injection transformers.

Fig. 6.1 Power circuit of DVR 6.1.3. Passive Filters: The passive filters can be placed either on the high voltage side or the converter side of the boost transformers. The advantages of the converter side filters are (a) the components are
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rated at lower voltage and (b) higher order harmonic currents (due to the VSC) do not own through the transformer windings. The disadvantages are that the filter inductor causes voltage drop and phase (angle) shift in the (fundamental component of) voltage injected. This can affect the control scheme of DVR. The location of the filter o the high voltage side overcomes the drawbacks (the leakage reactance of the transformer can be used as a filter inductor), but results in higher ratings of the transformers as high frequency currents can ow through the windings.

6.1.4. Energy Storage: This is required to provide active power to the load during deep voltage sags. Leadacid batteries, flywheel or SMES can be used for energy storage. It is also possible to provide the required power on the DC side of the VSC by an auxiliary bridge converter that is fed from an auxiliary AC supply.

6.2. CONTROL STRATEGY


There are three basic control strategies as follows: 6.2.1. Pre-Sag Compensation: The supply voltage is continuously tracked and the load voltage is compensated to the pre-sag condition. This method results in (nearly) undisturbed load voltage, but generally requires higher rating of the DVR. Before a sag occur, VS = VL = Vo. The voltage sag results in drop in the magnitude of the supply voltage to VS1. The phase angle of the supply also may shift see Fig. 6.2. The DVR injects a voltage VC1 such that the load voltage (VL = VS1 + VC1) remains at Vo (both in magnitude and phase). It is claimed that some loads are sensitive to phase jumps and it is necessary to compensate for both the phase jumps and the voltage sags.

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Fig 6.2 Pre-Sag Compensation Phasor diagram 6.2.2. In-phase Compensation: The voltage injected by the DVR is always in phase with the supply voltage regardless of the load current and the pre-sag voltage (Vo). This control strategy results in the minimum value of the injected voltage (magnitude). However, the phase of the load voltage is disturbed. For loads which are not sensitive to the phase jumps, this control strategy results in optimum utilization of the voltage rating of the DVR. The power requirements for the DVR are not zero for these strategies. 6.2.3. Minimum Energy Compensation: Neglecting losses, the power requirements of the DVR are zero if the injected voltage (Vc) is in quadrature with the load current. To raise the voltage at the load bus, the voltage injected by the DVR is capacitive and V l leads VS1 (see Fig. 6.3). Fig. 14.3 also shows the inphase compensation for comparison. It is to be noted that the current phasor is determined by the load bus voltage phasor and the power factor of the load.

Fig 6.3 Minimum Energy Compensation Phasor diagram

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Implementation of the minimum energy compensation requires the measurement of the load current phasor in addition to the supply voltage. When VC is in quadrature with the load current, DVR supplies only reactive power. However, full load voltage compensation is not possible Unless the supply voltage is above a minimum value that depends on the load power factor. When the magnitude of VC is not constrained, the minimum value of VS that still allows full compensation is where is the power factor angle and Vo is the required magnitude of the Load bus voltage. If the magnitude of the injected voltage is limited (V max C ), the mini- mum supply voltage that allows full compensation is given by the expressions figures (6.1) and (6.2). Note that at the minimum source voltage, the current is in phase with VS for the case (a). 6.3. CONTROL AND PROTECTION The control and protection of a DVR designed to compensate voltage sags must consider the following functional requirements. 1. When the supply voltage is normal, the DVR operates in a standby mode with zero voltage injection. However if the energy storage device (say batteries) is to be charged, then the DVR can operate in a self- charging control mode. 2. When a voltage sag/swell occurs, the DVR needs to inject three single phase voltages in synchronism with the supply in a very short time. Each phase of the injected voltage can be controlled independently in magnitude and phase. However, zero sequence voltage can be eliminated in situations where it has no effect. The DVR draws active power from the energy source and supplies this along with the reactive power (required) to the load. 3. If there is a fault on the downstream of the DVR, the converter is by- passed temporarily using thyristor switches to protect the DVR against over currents. The threshold is determined by the current ratings of the DVR. The overall design of DVR must consider the following parameters: 1. Ratings of the load and power factor
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2. Voltage rating of the distribution line 3. Maximum single phase sag (in percentage) 4. Maximum three phase sag (in percentage) 5. Duration of the voltage sag (in milliseconds) 6. The voltage time area (this is an indication of the energy requirements) 7. Recovery time for the DC link voltage to 100% 8. Over current capability without going into bypass mode.

Typically, a DVR may be designed to protect a sensitive load against 35% of three phase voltage sags or 50% of the single phase sag. The duration of the sag could be 200 ms. The DVR can compensate higher voltage sags lasting for shorter durations or allow longer durations up to 500 ms for smaller voltage sags. The response time could be as small as 1 ms.

6.4. SUMMARY DVR is used in the power system network mainly to mitigate the power quality issues related to voltage sags and voltage swells. It contains fast dynamic switching devices like IGBT to facilitate fast switching action and has a frequency of 10 KHz. The voltage source inverters converts AC to DC supply to charge the capacitor banks when a swell occurs and converts DC to AC supply and injects a voltage in series with the line to overcome the effect of voltage sag. The components used in the DVR model are VSC, boosting transformer, passive filters to overcome the harmonics which while switching the IGBTs. To reduce the cost required by the storage devices we can opt for a closed loop control to charge the capacitor banks from the supply itself irrespective of sagged or swelled conditions.

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7. INVERETER
7.1. INTROCTION

The main objective of static power converters is to produce an ac output waveform from a dc power supply. These are the types of waveforms required in adjustable speed drives (ASDs), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), static var compensators, active filters, flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), and voltage compensators, which are only a few applications. For sinusoidal ac outputs, the magnitude, frequency, and phase should be controllable. According to the type of ac output waveform, these topologies can be considered as voltage source inverters (VSIs), where the independently controlled ac output is a voltage waveform. These structures are the most widely used because they naturally behave as voltage sources as required by many industrial applications, such as adjustable speed drives (ASDs), which are the most popular application of inverters; see Fig 7.1. Similarly, these topologies can be found as current source inverters (CSIs), where the independently controlled ac output is a current waveform. These structures are still widely used in medium-voltage industrial applications, where high-quality voltage waveforms are required. Static power converters, specifically inverters, are constructed from power switches and the ac output waveforms are therefore made up of discrete values. This leads to the generation of waveforms that feature fast transitions rather than smooth ones. For instance, the ac output voltage produced by the VSI of a standard ASD is a three-level

Fig 7.1 Inverter DC link

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

7.1.1. Basic designs: In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the centre tap of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit. The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported moving contact. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary contact. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. This type of electromechanical inverter switch, called a vibrator or buzzer, was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios. A similar mechanism has been used in door bells, buzzers and tattoo. As they became available with adequate power ratings, transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs.

Fig 7.2 switching of MOSFET 7.1.2. Output waveforms:


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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

The switch in the simple inverter described above, when not coupled to an output transformer, produces a square voltage waveform due to its simple off and on nature as opposed to the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of an AC power supply. Using Fourier analysis, periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine waves. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the fundamental component. The other sine waves, called harmonics, that are included in the series have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. The quality of the inverter output waveform can be expressed by using the Fourier analysis data to calculate the total harmonic distortion (THD) Fig7.3. The total harmonic distortion is the square root of the sum of the squares of the harmonic voltages divided by the fundamental voltage:

THD = 7.1

Fig 7.3 Total harmonic distortion 7.2. SINGLE-PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER Single-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) can be found as half-bridge and fullbridge topologies. Although the power range they cover is the low one, they are widely used in power supplies, single-phase UPSs, and currently to form elaborate high-power static power topologies, such as for instance, the multi cell configurations that are reviewed.The main features of both approaches are reviewed and presented in the following.

7.2.1. Types of VSI:


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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

A. Half-Bridge VSI: The power topology of a half-bridge VSI, where two large capacitors are required to provide a neutral point N, such that each capacitor maintains a constant voltage=2. Because the current harmonics injected by the operation of the inverter are low-order harmonics, a set of large capacitors (C. and C) is required. It is clear that both switches S. and S cannot be on simultaneously because short circuit across the dc link voltage source V i would be produced. In order to avoid the short circuit across the dc bus and the undefined ac output voltage condition, the modulating technique should always ensure that at any instant either the top or the bottom switch of the inverter leg is on.

Fig 7.4 Half-bridge inverter shows the ideal waveforms associated with the half-bridge inverter shown in Fig 7.4. The states for the switches S. and S are defined by the modulating technique, which in this case is a carrier-based PWM. The Carrier-Based Pulse width Modulation (PWM) Technique: As mentioned earlier, it is desired that the ac output voltage. V a,N follow a given waveform (e.g., sinusoidal) on a continuous basis by properly switching the power valves. The carrier-based PWM technique fulfils such a requirement as it defines the on and off states of the switches of one leg of a VSI by comparing a modulating signal V c (desired ac output voltage) and a triangular waveform Vd (carrier signal). In practice, when Vc > Vd the switch S. is on and the switch is off; similarly, when Vc < Vd the switch S. is off and the switch S is on. A special case is when the modulating signal Vc is a sinusoidal at frequency fc and amplitudeVc, and the triangular signal Vd is at frequency fD and amplitude Vd. This is the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) scheme. In this case, the modulation index ma (also known as the amplitude-modulation ratio) is defined as
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER =

7.2

And the normalized carrier frequency mf (also known as the frequency-modulation ratio) is
=

7.3

. VaN is basically a sinusoidal waveform plus harmonics, which features: (a) the amplitude of the fundamental component of the ac output voltage ^vo1 satisfying the

following expression:

...7.4

Fig 7.5.Pulse width modulation

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

will be discussed later); (b) for odd values of the normalized carrier frequency of the harmonics in the ac output voltage appear at normalized frequencies fh centered around mf and its multiples, specifically, h=lmf k where l=1,2,3. 7.5

Where k . 2; 4; 6; . . . for l . 1; 3; 5; . . . ; and k . 1; 3; 5; . . . for l. 2; 4; 6; . . . ; (c) the amplitude of the ac output voltage harmonics is a function of the modulation index ma and is independent of the normalized carrier frequency mf form f > 9; (d) the harmonics in the dc link current (due to the modulation) appear at normalized frequencies fp centered around the normalized carrier frequency mf and its multiples, specifically, h=lmf k 1 where l=1,2,3. 7.6

Where k . 2; 4; 6; . . . for l . 1; 3; 5; . . . ; and k . 1; 3; 5; . .for l . 2; 4; 6; . . . . Additional important issues are: (a) for small values of mf (mf < 21), the carrier signal vD and the modulating signal Vc should be synchronized to each other(mf integer), which is required to hold the previous features; if this is not the case, sub harmonics will be present in the ac output voltage; (b) for large values of mf (mf > 21), the sub harmonics are negligible if an asynchronous PWM technique is used, however, due to potential very low-order sub harmonics, its use should be avoided;

Fig.7.6. Modulation region finally (c) in the over modulation region (ma > 1) some intersections between the carrier and the modulating signal are missed, which leads to the generation of low-order harmonics but a higher fundamental ac output voltage is obtained; unfortunately, the linearity between ma and
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

^vo1achieved in the linear region does not hold in the over modulation region, moreover, a saturation effect can be observed. The PWM technique allows an ac output voltage to be generated that tracks a given modulating signal. A special case is the SPWM technique (the modulating signal is a sinusoidal) that provides in the linear region an ac output voltage that varies linearly as a function of the modulation index and the harmonics are at well-defined frequencies and amplitudes. These features simplify the design of filtering components. Unfortunately, the maximum amplitude of the fundamental ac voltage is V i=2 in this operating mode. Higher voltages are obtained by using the over modulation region (ma > 1); however, low-order harmonics appear in the ac output voltage.

Fig7.7 Voltage wave forms B. Square-Wave Modulating Technique: Both switches S. and S are on for one-half cycle of the ac output period. This is equivalent to the SPWM technique with an infinite modulation index ma. Figure 7.5 shows the following: (a) the normalized ac output voltage harmonics are at frequencies h 3; 5; 7; 9; . . . , and for a given dc link voltage; (b) the fundamental ac output voltage features an amplitude given by

7.7 and the harmonics feature an amplitude given by equation (7.8)

C. Full-Bridge VSI:
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

The power topology of a full-bridge VSI. This inverter is similar to the half-bridge inverter; however, a second leg provides the neutral point to the load. As expected, both switches S1. and S1 (or S2. and S2) cannot be on simultaneously because a short circuit across the dc link voltage source vi would be produced. The undefined condition should be avoided so as to be always capable of defining the ac output voltage. In order to avoid the short circuit across the dc bus and the undefined ac output voltage condition, the modulating technique should ensure that either the top or the bottom switch of each leg is on at any instant. It can be observed that the ac output voltage can take values up to the dc link value vi which is twice that obtained with half-bridge VSI topologies. Several modulating techniques have been developed that are applicable to full-bridge VSIs. Among them are the PWM (bipolar and unipolar) techniques.

Fig 7.8 Full-bridge inverter D. Bipolar PWM Technique: States 1 and 2 are used to generate the ac output voltage in this approach. Thus, the ac output voltage waveform features only two values, which are V i and *vi. To generate the states, a carrier-based technique can be used a sine half-bridge configurations where only one sinusoidal modulating signal has been used. It should be noted that the on state in switch S. in the half-bridge corresponds to both switches S1. and S2 being in the on state in the fullbridge configuration. Similarly, S in the on state in the half-bridge corresponds to both switches S1 andS2. being in the on state in the full-bridge configuration. This is called bipolar carrier-based
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

SPWM. The ac output voltage waveform in a full-bridge VSI is basically a sinusoidal waveform that features a fundamental component of amplitude o1 that satisfies the expression o1 = ab1 = (i * ma) 7.9 In the linear region of the modulating technique (ma 1), which is twice that obtained in the half-bridge VSI. Identical conclusions can be drawn for the frequencies and amplitudes of the harmonics in the ac output voltage and dc link current, and for operations at smaller and larger values of odd mf(including the over modulation region (ma > 1)), than in half bridge VSIs, but considering that the maximum ac output voltage is the dc link voltage i . Thus, in the over modulation region the fundamental component of amplitude ^vo1 satisfies the expression 7.10 In contrast to the bipolar approach, the unipolar PWM technique uses the states 1, 2, 3, and to generate the ac output voltage. Thus, the ac output voltage waveform can instantaneously take one of three values, namely i, -i . The signal c is used to generate van, and c is used to generate bN ; -bN1 = aN1. On the other hand,

o1=aN1-bN1=2*aN1 thus o1=2*aN1=ma*i.


This is called unipolar carrier-based PWM. Identical conclusions can be drawn for the amplitude of the fundamental component and harmonics in the ac output voltage and dc link current, and for operations at smaller and larger values of mf , (including the over modulation region (ma > 1)), than in full-bridge VSIs modulated by the bipolar SPWM. However, because the phase voltages aN and bN are identical but 180 out of phase, the output voltage o = aN - bN = ab will not contain even harmonics. Thus, if mf is taken even, the harmonics in the ac output voltage appear at normalized odd frequencies fh centered around twice the normalized carrier frequency mf and its multiples. Specifically, h=lmfk where l=2,4. Where k=1,3,5 and the harmonics in the dc link current appear at normalized frequencies fp centered around twice the normalized carrier frequency mf and its multiples. Specifically, h=lmf k 1 where l=2,4. Where k=1,3,5This feature is considered to be an advantage
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

because it allows the use of smaller filtering components to obtain high-quality voltage and current waveforms while using the same switching frequency as in VSIs modulated by the bipolar approach. 7.3. APPLICATIONS The various applications of voltage source inverter are as follows 1. DC power source utilization: An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they produce alternating current with the same wave shape and frequency as supplied by the distribution system. They can also switch off automatically in the event of a blackout. 2. Uninterruptible power supplies: Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to a higher frequency for use in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power. 3. HVDC power transmission & Variable-frequency drives: With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC. A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled power. In most cases, the variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the key component, variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just inverters. 4. Electric vehicle drives:
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the traction motors in some electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as some battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles such as the Toyota Prius. Various improvements in inverter technology are being developed specifically for electric vehicle applications. In vehicles with regenerative braking, the inverter also takes power from the motor (now acting as a generator) and stores it in the batteries. 5. Air conditioning: A transformer allows AC power to be converted to any desired voltage, but at the same frequency. Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be designed to convert from any voltage, AC or DC, to any other voltage, also AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output power can never exceed the input power, but efficiencies can be high, with a small proportion of the power dissipated as waste heat.

7.4. SUMMARY The voltage source converter consists of IGBT switches to provide high speed switching actions as they operate for higher frequency around 10 KHz. The voltage source inverters converts AC to DC supply to charge the capacitor banks when a swell occurs and converts DC to AC supply and injects a voltage in series with the line to overcome the effect of voltage sag. The pulse width modulation technique is used to generate the firing pulses to turn on the IGBTs in half bridge and full bridge configurations.

8. MODELING OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

8.1. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.1. Structure of the proposed interlines DVR and its connection to the utility. Fig. 8.1 shows the circuit schematic of the DVR with three phase transmission system. It consists of inverters, output LC filters, and injection transformers. The dc side is connected to a capacitor bank, formed by two capacitors. Each capacitor has the value of . The inverter

shown in Fig. 8.1 is a half bridge configuration. However, the operation is similar in the fullbridge configuration. The DVR is operated as a controllable voltage source , where n

represents either phase a, b, or c. It is connected between the supply and the load. The relationship among the supply voltage , the load voltage d,n and o,n .
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

d,n(t) = s,n(t) o,n(t)


Fig. 8.3 shows the phasor diagrams of

8.1 and the load current in

s,n , o,n , d,n ,

voltage sag and unbalanced conditions. Fig. 8.2 shows the control block diagram of proposed control scheme. The control scheme consists of two main loops. The first control loop, namely inner loop, is formed in each phase. It is used to generate the gate signals for the switches in the inverter, so that will follow the DVR output reference . This loop has fast dynamic

response to external disturbances. Its operating principle is based on extending the boundary control technique with second-order switching surface in. The second loop, namely outer loop, is used to generate .Based on (Eq. 8.1)

*d,n(t) = s,n(t) *o,n(t)


Where

8.2

is the load-voltage reference and is generated by the phase-lock loop (PLL)

The outer loop is used to regulate the dc-link voltage by adjusting the phase of the inverter load voltage with respect to the load current. Its bandwidth is set much lower than the line frequency. The purpose is to attenuate the undesirable signals, which are due to the ac component on the dc-link voltage and the load current, getting into the loop. Since the inner and outer loops have different dynamic behaviors, the controller will react differently in the voltage sags of short and long durations. If the duration of the voltage sag is short, typically less than 0.5 s, the inner loop will react immediately and maintain the wave shape of the load voltage. The outer loop is relatively inert during the period. The sagged phase(s) will be supported purely by the capacitor bank. The capacitor voltage will decrease. After the voltage sag, the outer loop will start reacting to the decrease in the capacitor voltage. The capacitor will be charged up from the supply by adjusting the phase angle of the inverter output. If the duration of the voltage sag is long, the inner loop will keep the wave shape of the load voltage and the outer loop will regulate the dc-link voltage. Thus, the sagged phase(s) will be supported by the dc link, while electric energy will also be extracted from the un sagged phase(s) through the dc link. In the steady-state operation, as the frequency response of the inner loop is very fast, the wave shape of the load voltage can be kept sinusoidal, even if there
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

are harmonic distortions in the supply voltage and the load current. Moreover, with the interline energy flow in the outer-loop control; the output quality can be maintained, even if there is an unbalanced supply voltage. At any time, the amplitude of load voltage is regulated at the nominal value. phase angle between and is fixed because the , and the

Has the same frequency as

is controlled by the signal

shown in Fig. 8.3. The supply

voltages can be expressed as follows:

s,a (t) = Vsm,a cos(t) s,b (t) = Vsm,b cos(t - 120) s,c (t) = Vsm,c cos(t + 120)
Where , , and 8.5

8.3 8.4

are the peak values of the supply voltages of the phases a, b, and c,

respectively, and is the angular line frequency.

Fig.8.2 Block diagram of the proposed controller

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.3. Steady-state vector diagrams with different sagged conditions. (a) vs,a is changed from 220 to 120 Vrms . (b) Unbalanced three-phase voltages with vs,a = 210 Vrms , vs,b = 190 Vrms, and vs,c = 240 Vrms

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

8.2. REVIEW OF INNER LOOP The inner-loop control strategy is by using boundary control with second-order switching surface. A brief review of the inner loop will be given in this section. In one leg of the three-phase half-bridge inverter, which is shown in Fig. 8.1, as S1,n and S2,n are operated in anti phase and the output inductor current is continuous, two possible switching modes are derived, and their state-space equations are shown as follows. When S1,n is OFF and S2,n is ON

xn

un

8.6

d,n =
8.7

xn

When S1,n is ON and S2,n is OFF

xn
...8.8

un

d,n =

xn

...8.9

Where xn = [ iL,n C,n ]T ; 8.10

un = [ Vdc

Vs,n ]T

And RL,n is the fictitious resistance showing the ratio between the load voltage and load current.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig. 8.4(a) and (b) shows the equivalent circuits of the two modes corresponding to Eq. 8.6 to 8.10. By solving Eq. 8.6 to 8.10 with different initial values, families of state-plane trajectories shown in Fig. 8.5 can be derived. The solid lines are named as the positive trajectories, while the dotted lines are named as the negative trajectories. The positive trajectories show the trajectories of the state variables when S1,n is ON and S2,n is OFF. The negative trajectories show the trajectories of the state variables when S1,n is OFF and S2,n is ON.

Fig.8.4. Equivalent circuits of one phase in the inverter system. (a) S1,n is OFF and S2,n is ON. (b) S1,n is ON and S2,n is OFF.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.5. State-plane trajectories of the inverter The tangential component of the state-trajectory velocity on the switching surface determines the rate at which successor points approach or recede from the operating point in the boundary control of the switches. An ideal switching surface that gives fast dynamics can ideally

should follow the only trajectory passing through the operating point. Although

go to the steady state in two switching actions during a disturbance, its shape is load dependent and requires sophisticated computation to determine the only positive and negative trajectories that pass through the operating point. A second-order switching surface , which is close to

around the operating point, is derived. The concept is based on estimating the state trajectory after a hypothesized switching action. As the switching frequency of the switches is much higher than the signal frequency, the load current io is relatively constant over a switching cycle. The gate signals to the switches are determined by the following criteria. For the sake of simplicity and without loss of generality, A. Criteria for Switching S1,n OFF and S2,n ON:
o,

n and d,n with Fig 8.1.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

S1,n and S2,n are originally ON and OFF, respectively. S1,n and S2,n are going to switch OFF and ON, respectively. The criteria for switching S1,n OFF and S2,n ON are as follows: d,n(t1) d,n,max [ 1 / (DC(t1)/2) + d,n(t1) ] i2C,n (t1) 8.11

iC,n(t1)

8.12

B. Criteria for Switching S1,n ON and S2,n OFF: S1,n and S2,n are originally OFF and ON, respectively. S1,n and S2,n are going to switch ON and OFF, respectively. The criteria for switching S1,n ON and S2,n OFF are as follows: d,n(t3) d,n,min + [ 1 / (DC(t3)/2) - d,n(t3) ] i2C,n (t3) 8.13

iC,n(t3) Based on (6)(9) and d,n,min 2 [ iL,n (t), d,n(t) ] =

8.14

= d,n,max = *d,n , the general form of 2 is defined as follows:


[d,n(t) *d,n(t)] * [ + sgn[iC,n(t)]i2C,n(t) + [sgn[iC,n(t)] d,n(t)]]

Where

k = L/2C

8.15

Fig.8.5 shows the load line and the second-order switching surface ( 2 127 V) when the required output voltage of the DVR is 127 V. Fig. 8.6 shows the simulated state-plane trajectory of the DVR for compensating changing from 220 to 130V. The states of the

first and the second switching actions are labeled. The switching surface described in (Eq.8.15) is implemented with analog circuitry. 8.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTER LOOP A. Steady-State Characteristics:
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

The function of the outer loop is to regulate dc at the reference value of *dc. By applying the conservation of energy, the DVR will ideally have zero-average real power flow at the steady state. Fig.8.6. Simulated state trajectory of the DVR for v(s,n) changing from 220 to 130 V.

Fig.8.6 Simulated state trajectory of the DVR PS,a + PS,b+ PS,c = Po,a + Po,b + Po,c Pa = Pb = Pc = 0 Ps,n = s,n io,n cos (n - ) Po,n = o,n io,n cos (n) ; Pn = d,n io,n cos(n) 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19

where

, and

are the input, output powers, and power transferred of the each is the phase angle between and and .

phase, respectively,

is the load current of each phase, and , and

, is the phase angle between

is the phase angle between

Under supply-voltage interruption, the outer loop will adjust the value of . The DVR will generate the required magnitude and phase of in each phase individually. The DVR will

then absorb (deliver) electric energy from (to) the dc link. As the adjustment of is common to the three phases, the sagged phase(s) will be supported by the capacitor bank and the un sagged phase(s). The corresponding equations of are as follows:

o,a (t) = Vom,a cos(t - )


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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

o,b (t) = Vom,b cos(t - 120 - ) o,c (t) = Vom,c cos(t + 120 - )
Where is the peak load voltage of phase n.

8.21 8.22

Fig. 8.3 shows the steady-state phasor diagrams with one-phase sagged and three-phase voltage balancing, respectively. The parameters used are based on Tables 8.1-8.3. In Fig. 8.3(a), is reduced to 120 V, while the other phases are at the nominal value of 220 V. By is established by the DVR and can be kept at 220 V. Thus,

increasing the value of ,

part of the energy supplied to phase-a load is supported by phases b and c. TABLE 8.1 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE DVR

TABLE 8.2 PARAMETERS OF THE PLL AND TRANSDUCER GAINS

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

TABLE 8.3 COMPONENT VALUES OF THE DVR

In Fig. 8.3(b), all three phases are unbalanced, where = 240 V. Again, by adjusting the value of , phase transformation between and = - ( n- n) Where is the phase difference between and . , , and

= 210 V,

= 190 V, and

are regulated at 220 V. For the

8.23

Based on Fig. 8.3(a) and by using Equations (8.19) to (8.23), it can be shown that the steadystate power-transfer equation can be expressed as follows:

8.24 Detailed derivation of (34) is given in the Appendix. The values of , , , and

are different in each phase. Thus, the power flow of each phase inverter is different. is
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

controlled by the outer loop in order to achieve power equilibrium in the system, and thus, satisfy (8.16) and (8.17). B. Small Signal Modeling: Fig. 8.7 shows the small-signal model of the outer loop. It consists of the transfer characteristics of the inner loop, inverter, PLL, and power-flow controller. As the inner loop has much faster dynamic response than the outer loop, the small-signal transfer function of the inner loop is unity. The transfer function of the inverter describes the small-signal behaviors between and Vdc. The functional blocks of power stage and controller are derived as follows.

Fig.8.7. Small-signal model of the outer loop

1) Relationship Between function Tp (s) is as follows:

and

: The small-signal dclink voltage to dc-power-transfer

8.25 Where is the steady-state values of .

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

2) Relationship between Power Flow and the Phase of

With Respect to io,n in Each Phase:

The small-signal DVR phase- to-power transfer function Tr,n (s) equals Tr,n(s) = [pn(s)/n(s)] = - Vd,n io,n 8.26 Where Vd is the steady-state values of vd . 3) Phase Transformation Between and in Each Phase: The transfer function Tpt,n (s) representing the transformation between and is

...8.27 Where Vs , Vo , and B are the steady-state values of vs , vo , and , respectively. 4) Phase Transformation Between and vdc in Inverter: The transfer function Tinv (s) of the inverter is as follows:

...8.28 Detailed derivation of (8.25)(8.28) is given in the Appendix.

Fig.8.8. Circuit schematic of the power-flow controller


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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

5) PLL: The PLL consists of three components, including the phase detector (PD), loop filter (LF), and the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO).Based on the small-signal model of the PLL is as follows:

8.29

Where

A = - (Rl / (RcKpd)) ;

= 0.5 ( KpdKlKvco) ;

n =

(KpdKlKvco/)

8.30

are the constant gains of PD, LF and VCO, respectively.

6) Power-Flow Controller The function of the power-flow controller is to regulate vdc at the reference voltage Vdc, which is determined by the voltage ratings of the capacitor and the switches. Charging or discharging the capacitor Cdc is achieved by adjusting n in three phases individually. The regulation action is performed by the error amplifier shown in Fig. 8.8. The transfer function TC (s) can be shown in (Eq.8.29-8.30), at the bottom of the page. 8.4. SIMPLIFIED DESIGN PROCEDURES The values of L, C, and Cdc in the inverter, R1 , R2 , C1 , and C2 in the power-flow controller are designed as follows. A. Design of L and C in the Inverter: The values of L and C in the output filters are determined by considering the maximum voltage drop across the inductor vL, D at the maximum line current Io, max, angular line frequency , maximum ripple current I ripple , and angular switching frequency sw . As most of the load current is designed to flow through L, the value of L is determined by considering that its voltage drop vL, D is small at the maximum line current Io, max. Thus 8.31a As the inverter output consists of high-frequency harmonics, the fundamental component of the ripple current through the filter is designed to be less than I ripple. For the sake of
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LIo,max < L,D = L < (L,D/Io,max)

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

simplicity In the calculation, the load impedance at the switching frequency is assumed to be infinite. Thus

&

8.31b

The nominal switching frequency is chosen to be a few hundred times the line frequency. vL,D is chosen to be 1% of the line voltage, and Iripple is chosen to one half of the peak of the line current. As shown in Table I, sw = 300 , vL,D = 2 V, and Iripple = 2.6 A for the designed prototype. Based on (Eq.8.31) and stated criteria, the values of L and C in the output filters are determined. B. Design of Cdc in the Inverter: The value of Cdc is determined by

...8.32 Where vo, nor and vs, min are nominal value of load voltage and minimum voltage of supply voltage in specification, respectively, tres is duration of restoration. C. Design of R1 , R2 , C1 , and C2 in the Power-Flow Controller: The pole and zeros are designed as follows: log p = Log z2 (/20) in order to avoid overlapping in the two zeros. Therefore log z = log 2z 2
8.34

8.33

Typically, = 20 is chosen, and the ratio of z1 and z2 is chosen to be at least 100,

Based on Eq. (8.35)(8.37), R1 , R2 , C1 , and C2 are designed by putting a value into one of them. The practical simulation model of DVR is shown in Fig 8.9. The loop gain TOL(s), it is based on the specifications and designed component values listed in Tables 8.2 and 8.3. The bode plot shows operation range, the frequency between cross, min, and cross, max within the stable regions.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Based on Eq. (8.30), we have z1 + z1 = (1/R2C2) + (1/R2C1) + (1/R1C2) z1* z1 = (1/R1 R2 C1 C2) P = (C1 + C2)/(C1 C2 R1 ) 8.35 8.36 8.37

8.5 RESULTS 8.5.1. Result analysis without using DVR a) When large amount of loads are added or removed at the load centres a dip in voltage level will take place and that can abrupt performance of the customers equipment. The above mentioned are two major power quality issues that existing in the power systems. Due these effects the total harmonic distortion that is transmitted in the line is 33.54% for one complete cycle of the waveform and the transmitted signals will affect the performance of the line. b) Result without using DVR

Fig. 8.9 The voltage and harmonic analysis of wave forms without DVR 67

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

8.5.2. Result analysis with DVR a. Description When large amount of loads are connected the dip in voltage will rise which can be reduced by using a dynamic voltage restorer. The sag that is reduced by using the DVR is shown in the below figure. The storage element in the DVR i.e. capacitor stored energy will be used to bounce back the sagged phases to nominal values and the total harmonic distortion can be reduce to1.37% from a value 33.54% b. Result with DVR

Fig.8.10 The voltage and harmonic analysis of wave forms with DVR

The voltage sag and swell cases that are compensated by the dynamic voltage restorer are shown in the fig. (11-15).

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.11 Waveforms at three sagged phases under condition. Vs,a , Vs,b , and Vs,c are changed from 220 to 120 Vrms .
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.12 Waveforms at single phase sagged condition: Vs,a is changed from 220 to 120 Vrms.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.13 Waveforms at single phase swell condition. Vs,a is changed from 220V to 260V Vrms

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

Fig.8.14 Waveforms at three swell conditions. (a) Vs,a , Vs,b , and Vs,c are changed from 220V to 260V Vrms.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

8.6. COMPARISION OF RESULTS WITH AND WITHOUT DVR

The effect of voltage sag and swell has a greater impact on the power that is transmitted from sending end to recieveing end. The real power that is transmitted gets varied due to the addition of more non-linear loads or sudden shutdown of large rating loads. The voltage sag and swell cases cause customer appliances to get abrupt by reducing their life span. The power quality at the load centre are mostly electonic switched ones, so due to the switching actions of these non-linear loads the level of harmonics injected into the supply will be more and the cost of the capacitors required to compensate the harmonics will increase there by increasing the overall cost.

When an automatically controlled regulators are used then the chances of overcoming the voltage sag or swell cases can be aoided. The dynamic voltage restorer operates at desired levels to regulate voltages as well as eliminates the harmonics. The entire mechanism uses capacitor banks to restore the voltage to nominal values and the energy stored in the capacitor can be charged from the supply it self. Under normal operated conditions the MOSFET switches which operate at 10 KHz frequency nor inject nor charge the capacitor. When a voltage sag occur the stored enrgy restores the voltage to nominal value by discharging the energy. When a voltage swell occur in any of the phases, the capacitor uses the swelled phase to charge its energy to bounce to normal full capacity. The total harmonic content that will be available when a power system is operated under sagged condition will be 33.54% i.e without using the DVR. When a DVR is used in to back up the sagged voltage to nominal value it also eliminates the total harmonic content to a lower value of 1.37%.

CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE


10.1. CONCLUSION
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

A control scheme for three-phase capacitor-supported interline DVR has been presented. By integrating a recently proposed boundary-control method with second-order switching surface (inner loop), the dynamic response has been minimized to two switching actions. The voltage sag, swell, and voltage harmonic distortion have been compensated by this DVR. Moreover, by using series bidirectional inverter as DVR, capacitor banks are used to support the dc link and the sagged phase(s) could be supported by the un sagged phase(s). Long-duration voltage sags and swell and three-phase voltage unbalance could be overcome by the proposed power-flow controller (outer loop). The MOSFET switches that are used in the voltage source converter operate at a variable frequency range i.e. 10 KHz. This has facilitated for the fast switching action and provides dynamic response in turn maintains the stability of the system. The designed model of dynamic voltage restorer also reduces the harmonic percentages that resulted due to MOSFET switching actions. The gating pulse to the switch is generated by the pulse width modulation technique. The method has been verified with a 1.5-kVA system. The performances of the DVR have been demonstrated and evaluated with different power-quality disturbances. Experimental measurements are favorably verified with theoretical results. The power quality problem issues related to voltage sag and swell as well as total harmonic distortion can be compensated effectively by using the dynamic voltage restorer. 10.2. FUSTURE SCOPE

The Dynamic voltage restorer technology is used to reduce uneven voltage unbalances and harmonic distortion levels. These are extensively used in small rating power supplies to large rating machines for successful operation and desired response. There is consistent new development of additional circuit configurations of dynamic voltage restorer to provide costeffective and improved performance of power system. Some of new concepts, such as reducing the rating of passive filter element in shunt and series filters and eliminating the drawbacks of passive filters such as resonance and fixed compensation for improved performance of filters.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FAST DYNAMIC CONTROL SCHEME FOR CAPACITOR- SUPPORTED INTERLINE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

The artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic control methodology are yet getting to operate the DVR operated power systems to regulate the power more efficiently and reduces the on state power loss. The harmonic levels by using ANNFL can be reduced much to lower values compared with any other controllers. Use of an improved control algorithm reduces the requirements of sensors and provides the fast response of the system. Development of dedicated application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and new series of DSPs and microcontrollers is providing cost-effective and compact size in filters. Improved switching devices with reduced conduction losses and high permissible switching frequency and better gating requirement will improve the power quality issues. New development in magnetic such as filter magnetic materials will reduce the losses and size of passive filter elements such as transformers, inductors, etc., and thus cost and weight of dynamic voltage restorer.

REFERENCES

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[1] M. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems, Voltage Sags and Interruptions. New York: IEEE Press, 2000. [2] M. Sullivan, T. Vardell, and M. Johnson, Power interruption costs to industrial and commercial consumers of electricity, IEEE Trans. Ind. App., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 14481458, Nov. 1997. [3] N. Woodley, L. Morgan, and A. Sundaram, Experience with an inverterbased dynamic voltage restorer, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 11811186, Jul. 1999. [5] S. Lee, H. Kim, and S. K. Sul, A novel control method for the compensation voltages in dynamic voltage restorers, in Proc. IEEE APEC 2004, vol. 1, pp. 614620. [6] G. Joos, S. Chen, and L. Lopes, Closed-loop state variable control of dynamic voltage restorers with fast compensation characteristics, in Proc. IEEE IAS 2004, Oct., vol. 4, pp. 22522258. [30] H. Awad, J. Svensson, and M Bollen, Mitigation of unbalanced voltage dips using static series compensator, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 837846, May 2004. [31] Y. Chiu,K. Leung, andH.Chung, High-order switching surface in boundary control of inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 17531765, Sep. 2007. [32] M. Ordonez, J. E. Quaicoe, and M. T. Iqbal, Advanced boundary control of inverters using the natural switching surface: Normalized geometrical derivation, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 29152930, Nov. 2008. [33] S. Chen, Y. M. Lai, S. C. Tan, and C. K. Tse, Boundary control with ripple-derived switching surface for DCAC inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 28732885, Dec. 2009. [34] M. Rashid, Power Electronics, Circuits, Devices, and Applications, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2004.] [35] C. Ho, K. Au, and H. Chung, Digital implementation of boundary control with secondorder switching surface, in Proc. IEEE PESC2007, Jun., pp. 16581664.

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