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CONSTRUCTION

REMOTE-CONTROLLED
LAND ROVER—A DIY DWIVEDI &
S KUMAR

ROBOTIC PROJECT
 GP CAPT K.C. BHASIN (RETD),
S.C. DWIVEDI, SUNIL KUMAR

R
obotics is a fascinating sub-
ject—more so, if you have to
fabricate a robot yourself. The
field of robotics encompasses a num-
ber of engineering disciplines such as
electronics (including electrical), struc-
tural, pneumatics and mechanical.
The structural part involves use of
frames, beams, linkages, axles, etc. The
mechanical parts/accessories comprise
various types of gears (spurs, crowns,
bevels, worms and differential gear
systems), pulleys and belts, drive sys-
tems (differentials, castors, wheels and
steering), etc. Pneumatics plays a vital
role in generating specific pushing and
pulling movements such as those
simulating arms or leg movements.
Pneumatic grippers are also used with Fig.1: Prototype of the working land rover model including remote
advantage in robotics because of their
simplicity and cost-effectiveness. The cost involved in using RF modules is than a few milliseconds. This helps
electrical items include DC and step- much higher than of IR components prolong the battery life for remote.
per motors, actuators, electrical grips, and as such, we have included the re- A photograph of the working pro-
clutches and their control. The elec- placement alternative of RF modules totype of the land rover including re-
tronics part involves remote control, with their IR counterparts for using mote is shown in Fig. 1.
sensors (touch sensor, light sensor, col- the IR remote control. The entire project is split into sec-
lision sensor, etc), their interface cir- The proposed land rover can move tions and each section is explained in
cuitry and a microcontroller for over- in forward and reverse directions. You sufficient detail to enable you not only
all control function. would also be able to steer it towards to fabricate the present design but also
left and right directions. While being exploit these principles for evolving
Project overview turned to left or right, the correspond- your own design with added func-
What we present here is an elemen- ing blinking LEDs would blink to in- tions/features.
tary robotic land rover that can be con- dicate the direction of its turning. Simi- Forward and reverse movement. To
trolled remotely using primarily the RF larly, during reverse movement, re- keep our design as simple as possible,
mode. The RF remote control has the versing LEDs would be lit. Front and we have coupled a 30-rpm geared 6V
advantage of adequate range (up to rear bumpers are provided using long DC motor to the left front wheel and
200 metres with proper antennae) be- operating lever of micro switches to another identical motor to the right
sides being omnidirectional. On the switch off the drive motors during any front wheel. Both these front motors
other hand, an IR remote would func- collision. are mounted side-by-side facing in op-
tion over a limited range of about 5 The decoder being used for the posite directions. Wheel rims (5cm di-
metres and the remote transmitter has project has latched outputs and as such ameter) along with rubber wheels are
to be oriented towards the receiver you do not have to keep the buttons directly coupled to each of the motor
module quite precisely. However, the on remote control pressed for more shafts. This arrangement does not re-

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION
wheel needs to rotate ing (clockwise or anticlockwise) mo-
differentially with re- tion is achieved by driving only one
spect to its counter- wheel at a time. To turn the vehicle
part. When the car is towards left (as perceived by the
moving in a straight driver) we energise only the right-
line, the differential hand-side motor, and to turn it to-
gears do not rotate wards right we energise only the left-
with respect to their hand-side motor during turning.
axes. However, when Drive circuit for the motors. Here
the car negotiates a is a typical circuit for driving one of
turn, the differential al- the motors, in forward or reverse di-
Fig. 2: H-bridge motor drive circuit lows the two wheels to rection, coupled to, say, the left-hand
front wheel. Simultaneously, the right-
hand motor has to rotate in the reverse
direction (w.r.t the left-hand motor) for
moving the vehicle in the same direc-
tion. It means that input terminals of
the motor drive circuit for the right-
hand motor have to be fed with re-
verse-polarity control signals com-
pared to those of the left-hand motor
drive circuit.
In the H-bridge motor drive circuit
(see Fig. 2) when A1 input is made
high and A2 is made low, transistor
T1 (npn) is forward biased and driven
into saturation, while transistor T2
(pnp), being reverse-biased, is cut-off.
This extends the battery’s positive rail
to terminal-1 of the motor. Simulta-
neously, with input A2 at ground po-
Fig. 3: Test circuit tential, transistor T3 (npn) is cut-off,
while T4 (pnp) is forward biased and
quire separate axles. rotate differentially with respect to driven into saturation. This results in
During forward (or reverse) move- each other. ground being extended to terminal-2
ment of the vehicle, the two wheel 3. All the four wheels are used for of the motor. Thus the motor rotates
shafts, as viewed from the motor ends, driving as well as steering. Examples in one direction.
would move in opposite directions are Kyosho (USA) 4-wheel drive/4- Now, if the two inputs are logi-
(one clockwise and the other wheel steering electric powered mon- cally complemented, the motor will
anticlockwise). For reversing the direc- ster truck chassis. run in the opposite direction. When
tion (forward and backward), you sim- 4. Single front wheel is used for both the inputs are at the same logic
ply have to reverse the DC supply po- driving as well as steering; e.g., in a level (Gnd or Vcc), the motor is at rest.
larity of the two motors driving the tricycle. Thus we can control the movement
respective wheels. 5. Two driving wheels that are in- (forward, reverse and stop) as well as
Steering control. There are differ- dependently controlled to turn; e.g., in the direction of rotation of the motor
ent methods available for steering a a tank. with the help of logic level of the two
robotic vehicle. The commonly used In our project, to keep the things control input signals to the motor.
ones are: simple, we have used Method-5 with Motor control logic. As per the pre-
1. Front wheels are used for steer- some modification. For the rear wheels, ceding explanation, the input logic lev-
ing, while rear wheels are used for we have made use of a single 5cm dia. els required at terminals A1 and A2 of
driving; e.g., in tractors. plastic castor wheel, identical to the the left-hand motor drive circuit and
2. Front wheels are used for steer- ones used in revolving chairs. Such a at input terminals B1 of B2 of the right-
ing as well as driving; e.g., in most wheel turns by 180° when you try to hand motor drive circuit are shown in
light vehicles. In these vehicles (such reverse the direction of the vehicle’s Table I.
as cars), the front wheels are coupled motion. This way the movement of the Table I can be re-arranged as Table
using a differential gear arrangement. rover becomes stable in both the for- II, which can be further simplified as
It comes into play only when one ward and reverse directions. The steer- Table III. The equivalent hex values of

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION
TABLE I TABLE II TABLE III
Control Logic Control Logic Control Logic
Terminals Terminals Terminals
Motion A1 A2 B1 B2 Motion A2 B1 B2 A1 Motion A2/B1 B2 A1 Hex
Forward 1 0 0 1 Forward 0 0 1 1 Forward 0 1 1 3
Reverse 0 1 1 0 Reverse 1 1 0 0 Reverse 1 0 0 4
Left 0 0 0 1 Left 0 0 1 0 Left 0 1 0 2
Right 1 0 0 0 Right 0 0 0 1 Right 0 0 0 1
Stop 0 0 0 0 Stop 0 0 0 0 Stop 0 0 0 0

the binary control signals are indicated rially transmitted when the transmit-
TABLE IV
in Table III. It transpires that if we con- enable pin TE is taken low. The data
nect (short) input terminals A2 and B1 output appears serially on the DOUT
Technical Specifications
of the two motor control circuits to- pin. The data is transmitted four times of TX-433
gether, we can control both the mo- in succession. It consists of differing- VCC O/P Current
tors for forward, reverse, left and right length of positive-going pulses for ‘1’ 5V DC – 0 dBm 1.0 mA
movement of the vehicle using the 3- and ‘0,’ the pulse-width for ‘0’ being 12V DC + 9 dBm 3 mA
bit binary number shown in Table III. twice the pulse-width for ‘1.’ The fre-
This fact will be used while arriving quency of these pulses may lie between (the data pins of the encoder can be
at the integrated circuit for controlling 1.5 and 7 kHz depending on the resis- set as high or low using switches S2
the motors for appropriate movement tor value between OSC1 and OSC2 through S5), which is latched on pins
of the land rover. pins. The internal oscillator frequency D8 through D11 of the decoder once
Remote control. For remote control, of decoder HT12D is 50 times the os- TE pin is taken low momentarily us-
we have used Holtek encoder-decoder cillator frequency of encoder HT12E. ing push switch S1. This completes the
pair of HT12E and HT12D employing The values of timing resistors con- testing of encoder decoder pair of
RF as well as IR principles. Both of nected between OSC1 and OSC2 pins HT12E and HT12D.
these are 18-pin DIP ICs. Their pin con- of HT12E and HT12D, for given sup- RF transmitter and RF receiver.
figurations are shown in the test cir- ply voltages, can be found out from The RF transmitter and receiver mod-
cuit of Fig. 3. the graphs given in the datasheet of ules marketted by Aplus India,
Operation of Holtek HT12E and the respective chips (included in this Mumbai have been employed for RF
HT12D. HT12E and HT12D are CMOS month’s EFY-CD). The resistor values remote control. The RF transmitter
ICs with working voltage ranging from used in the circuits here are chosen for TX-433 is an AM/ASK transmitter. Its
2.4V to 12V. Encoder HT12E has eight approximately 3kHz frequency for the features include:
address and another four address/data encoder (HT12E) and 150 kHz for de- 1. 5V-12V single supply operation
lines. The data set on these twelve lines coder HT12D at Vdd of 5V. 2. On-off-keying (OOK)/amplitude
(address and address/data lines) is se- The HT12D receives the data from shift keying (ASK) data format
the HT12E on its DIN pin serially. If 3. Up to 9.6kbps data rate
OOK transmitters the address part of the data received 4. +9dBm output power (about
OOK is the modulation method of choice matches the levels on A0 through A7 200m range)
for remote control applications where pins four times in succession, the valid 5. SAW-based architecture
power consumption and cost are the transmission (VT) pin is taken high. 6. For antenna, a 45cm wire is ad-
primary factors. Because OOK The data on pins AD8 through AD11 equate.
transmitters draw no power when they of the HT12E appears on pins D8 The output power and current
transmit a ‘0,’ these exhibit significantly through D11 of the HT12D. Thus the drain of the RF transmitter for Vcc of
lower power consumption than FSK device acts a receiver of 4-bit data (16 5V and 12V are tabulated in Table IV.
transmitters. possible codes) with 8-bit addressing (Note. For details of OOK, refer
OOK modulation is a binary form of
(256 possible channels). box).
amplitude modulation. When logic ‘0’
(low data line) is being sent, the The test circuit given in Fig. 3 will The pin configuration of the trans-
transmitter is ‘off,’ fully suppressing the help you in checking the functional mitter module is shown in Fig. 4. The
carrier. In this state, the transmitter serviceability and synchronisation of RF receiver RX-433 is a 433MHz mod-
current is very low (less than 1 mA). the frequency of operation. Once the ule. Its pin configuration is shown in
When logic ‘1’ is being sent, the carrier frequency of the pair is aligned, on Fig. 5 and technical specifications are
is fully ‘on.’ In this state, the current pressing of push switch S1 on the en- given in Table V.
consumption of the module is at its coder, LED on the decoder should Remote transmitter. A complete
highest—about 4.5 mA with a 3V power glow. You can also check the transfer schematic of the remote control trans-
supply. of data on pins AD8 through AD11 mitter-encoder circuit is shown in Fig.

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION
represent logic by moving the shorting link of Con-1
‘1’ state. The connector. Similarly, the RF receiver
logic circuitry module in the RF receiver-decoder can
at the receiver- be replaced with the IR receiver mod-
decoder end ule shown in Fig. 7.
will decode For using the IR-based encoder, the
the data ap- DOUT signal pin (pin 17) of HT12E is to
propriately for be connected to DIN pin 5 of astable
controlling the oscillator IC CD4047 for modulating
Fig. 5: Pin configuration of the RF receiver module two motors of its output. The frequency of the astable
the land rover. at output pin 10 is dermined by the
Fig. 4: Pin 6. The receiver ad- IR-based alternative. The RF timing components as follows:
configuration of the dress to be trans- modulator used in the remote can be
RF transmitter 1
module mitted can be set easily replaced with the IR modulator Frequency = Hz
4.71×(R6+VR1)×C3
with the help of 8- circuit built around IC2 and transistor
way DIP switch DIP-SW2. T1. The RF/IR selection can be affected This frequency is adjused for 38
When any switch is open the pin kHz with pin 5 held at logic 1. The
connected to that switch is at logic 1, TABLE V modulated 38 kHz, after amplification
and when it is closed the respective Technical Specifications by Darlington pair of transistors T1
pin is at logic ‘0.’ The data pins are of RX-433 and T2, drives IRLED1 LD271 (or
pulled high via resistors R2 through Parameter Value
equivalent).
R5. In this condition, if TE pin is taken RF receiver-decoder. The complete
low (by depressing STOP switch), the Bandwidth 12 MHz RF receiver-decoder circuit employing
binary data transmitted via pins AD8 Sensitivity –103 dBm HT12D is shown in Fig. 7. Assuming
through AD11 will be ‘1111’ (decimal Data rate 4800 bps that identical address is selected on the
15). When any other data pin marked Max data rate 9600 bps encoder and the decoder, when any of
FWD, REV, LEFT or RIGHT alone is Standby current 1.2 mA the switches on the transmitter
pressed, a ‘0’ will be sent at that data Antenna Whip, strip line or helical (marked as FWD, REV, RIGHT, LEFT)
position, while other data pins will Voltage 4.5V–5.5V DC is depressed, the corresponding data

Fig. 6: Circuit of RF remote control transmitter encoder

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 7: RF/IR receiver-decoder circuit for control of motor drives

with the help of truth table (refer Table


TABLE VI VI). The following is the exact se-
Truth Table quence of operation at the receiver
Input Output (Fig. 7) and the motor driver (Fig. 8)
E1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 GS Q1 Q2 Q0 EO when a specific push switch is momen-
tarily pressed on the transmitter:
1 X X X X X X X X 0 0 0 0 0
1. Forward. The D8 output (pin
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
10) of IC3 goes low, which after in-
1 1 X X X X X X X 1 1 1 1 0
version by inverter N1 goes high to
1 0 1 X X X X X X 1 1 1 0 0
switch on the front LEDs (LED2 and
1 0 0 1 X X X X X 1 1 0 1 0 LED3) via driver transistor T6 and
1 0 0 0 1 X X X X 1 1 0 0 0 take D3 input (pin 13) of IC5 high.
1 0 0 0 0 1 X X X 1 0 1 1 0 This causes Q2, Q1 and Q0 going to
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 X X 1 0 1 0 0 logic states ‘0,’ ‘1’ and ‘1,’ respectively
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 X 1 0 0 1 0 (as per Table VI), and as a result, both
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 the motors will run in such directions
X = Don’t care Logic 1 = High Logic 0 = Low as to move the rover in forward di-
rection.
pin of the demodulator will go low. data pins (D8 through D11) on the de- 2. Reverse. The D9 output (pin 11)
The data outputs of HT12D are fed to coder will latch to the high output of IC3 goes low, which after inver-
8-bit priority encoder CD4532 via in- state. After inversion by NAND gates sion by inverter N2 goes high to
verters to generate appropriate logic N1 through N4, all the outputs will be switch on the rear LEDs (LED4 and
outputs in conformity with Table III low and hence EI (pin 5) of CD4532 LED5) via driver transistor T7 and
to control the left-/right-hand motors will go low to force all its outputs to take D4 input (pin 1) of IC5 high.
for required motion of the land rover go low. As a result, both the motors This results in Q2, Q1 and Q0 going
as explained earlier. will stop running. to logic states ‘1,’ ‘0’ and ‘0,’ respec-
However, when STOP button is You may like to verify the code tively (as per Table VI), and as a re-
pressed on the remote transmitter, all generated at the outputs of CD4532 sult, both the motors will run in such

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors:
IC1 - HT12E Holtek encoder
IC2 - CD4047 monostable/
astable multivibrator
IC3 - HT12D decoder
IC4 - CD4049 hex inverter/
buffer
IC5 - CD4532 8-bit priority
encoder
IC6 – L293D motor driver
TX1 – TX-433 RF (ASK)
TX2 – LD271 (or equivalent)
RX1 – RX-433 RF (ASK)
RX2 – TSOP1738 receiver
module
D1-D13 – 1N4148 switching diode
T1, T3, T6, T7 – BC548 npn transistor
T2 – 2N2222 npn transistor
T4 – BC557 pnp transistor
T5 – 2N2907 pnp transistor
LED1-LED5 - 5mm red LED
LED6, LED7 - Blinking LED
Resistors (all ¼-watt, ±5% carbon):
R1 – 1-mega-ohm
R2-R5, R9, R22 – 10-kilo-ohm
R6, R16, R17 – 4.7-kilo-ohm
R7 – 2.2-kilo-ohm
R8 - 22-ohm, 0.5W
R10, R25-R27 – 1-kilo-ohm
R11- R15, R21 – 470-ohm
R18 – 47-kilo-ohm
R19 – 3.9-kilo-ohm
R20 – 22-kilo-ohm
R23 – 330-ohm
R24 – 100-ohm
VR1 - 10K preset
Capacitors:
C1, C5, C6 - 10µF, 16V
C2 – 0.1µF ceramic disk
C3 – 390pF ceramic disc
C4 - 100µF, 16V
Miscellaneous:
S1-S5 - Push-to-on switch
S6 – On/off switch
S7 - On/off rocker switch
SW1-SW2 - 8-way DIP switches
S8, S9 – Micro switch (optional)
Fig. 8: H-bridge motor drive circuit for two motors using IC L293D with long operating lever
A, B - 6V geared motor (30
directions as to move the rover in re- high. This results in Q2, Q1 and Q0 rpm), shaft dia. 4mm
Bat.1 - 6V battery
verse (backward) direction. going to logic states ‘0,’ ‘0’ and ‘1,’ re- Bat.2 - 6V, 4.5Ah battery
3. Left. The D10 output (pin 12) of spectively (as per Table VI) and as a
*Mechanical:
IC3 goes low, which after inversion result, only the left-hand-side motor Kit Part name Qty
by inverter N3 goes high to switch on will run and the right-hand-side mo- part no.
610 4mm dia., 12.7cm
the left blinking LED7 after a second tor will be static. This causes the rover long axle 2
inversion by inverter/driver gate N6 to perform a right turn. 105 1.3cm (0.5-inch)
and makes D2 input (pin 12) of IC5 5. Stop. The D8 through D11 out- reverse-angle bracket 2
102 Angle bracket 4
high. This results in Q2, Q1 and Q0 puts of IC3 go high and, after inver- 108 Bent strip p.c. 4
going to logic states ‘0,’ ‘1’ and ‘0,’ sion by inverters N1 through N4, cause 922 4×9cm flanged plate 1
926 14×6.3cm flat plate 2
respectively (as per Table VI), and as blocking of diodes D5 through D8. As 760 Brass collar with grub
a result, only the right-hand-side mo- a result, ground is extended to EI pin screws 6
707 5cm pulley (for tyres)
tor will run and the left-hand-side mo- 5 through resistor R17 and all the out- with boss 2
tor will be static. This causes the rover puts (Q2, Q1 and Q0) of CD4532 go 712 Tyre for 5cm pulley 2
to perform a left turn. low to stop both the motors. All the 817 12mm long (3mm dia.)
bolt 24
4. Right. The D11 output (pin 13) LEDs also stop glowing. 819 Nuts for above 24
of IC3 goes low, which after inversion IR receiver alternative. The RF re- 820a Washer thick (for bolts) 24
X1 5cm dia. castor wheel
by inverter N3 goes high to switch on ceiver module can be easily replaced (plastic) 1
the right blinking LED6 after a second with the IR circuitry by moving the X2 10cm (3mm dia.) screws 4
inversion by inverter/driver gate N5 shorting link of Con-2 connector appro- *For details/drawing of part numbers, please refer
and makes D1 input (pin 11) of IC5 priately. For the receiver to work in IR ‘Entech_Parts.pdf’ document included in this

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 9: Combined actual-size, single-side PCB for the transmitter and the receivere-decoder-driver

Fig. 10: Component layout for the PCB

mode, it is to be ensured that the trans- HT12D. The rest of the circuit remains does not require external free-wheeling
mitter is also working in IR mode. The unchanged for IR operation. diodes as the same are built into the IC.
output of the IR circuit is to be con- Drive circuit (Fig. 8). For controlling The control output from CD4532 of the
nected to DIN pin 14 of decoder HT12D. the two drive motors, we have used the receiver/decoder circuit is connected
The IR detector comprises IR receiver quad half-H driver circuits contained to the inputs of L293D in accordance
module TSOP1738, whose output is am- inside IC L293D to configure them as with the logic explained earlier in Table
plified by Darlington pair of pnp tran- two H-Bridge driver circuits (as ex- III. The battery supply for the motor
sistors T4 and T5 before connection to plained with reference to Fig. 2). L293 drive circuit is routed via the normally

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CMYK
CONSTRUCTION
made contacts of micro switches S8 and shifting the jumpers in the remote wheel, so that all the three wheels on
S9, whose operating levers serve as part transmitter and receiver PCBs towards the rover are at the same level when
of the front and back bumpers of the appropriate positions. fully assembled. The castor wheel
land rover. In case these micro switches Here are some useful hints and se- should have clearance for 360o move-
are not used, short the switch terminal quence for successful assembly of the ment, when assembled.
points using jumpers. land rover: 4. Join the flanged plate (refer step
1. The geared motors that we have 3) to the two flat plates (refer steps 1
Construction used in the prototype have a 12.5mm and 2) so as to form two sides of the
Combined actual-size, single-side PCB plastic flange with threads and a metal rover. The width of the flanged plate
for the remote transmitter (Fig. 6) and nut for securing it in position. The shaft needs to be increased by 2.54 mm so
the receiver-decoder-driver (Figs 7 and (4mm dia.) protrudes from the centre that the motor ends do not fowl against
8) is shown in Fig. 9 and its component- of the flange. The two flat plates (part each other and the castor wheel has
side layout in Fig. 10. The remote trans- No. 926) used by us had only 4mm 360o free movement. This is achieved
mitter part can be easily cutout from the holes (perforations). Thus for securing by securing four bent strips (part
integrated PCB. A suitable FRC connec- the motors onto these plates, the 4mm 108)—two on each side of the flange
tor arrangement has been made on the holes at 2.5cm position (from the front plate using 12mm bolts and nuts. Also
receiver-decoder-driver PCB for extend- and bottom edges) were increased to use two axles (part No. 610) along with
ing connections to the drive motors, 13 mm and motors (with shafts facing collars (part No. 760) to maintain par-
LEDs and battery mounted on the chas- in opposite directions) were secured to allelism of the two side plates.
sis of the land rover. the two plates. With 2cm dia. wheels 5. Fix directional LEDs on the strips
pushed onto the motor shafts, we had using Feviquick and wire/terminate
Mechanical assembly adequate clearance from ground. Giv- them on the connectors as per the cir-
The working prototype, as shown in ing slight clearance from the plate, the cuit diagram of the receiver. Similarly,
Fig. 1, has been fabricated using wheel pulleys were secured on the mo- terminate connections from the battery
readymade sheet metal parts, wheels, tor shafts by tightening the grub screws and motors (A and B) onto the con-
geared motors, axles, brass collars on boss of the pulleys. nectors, which would mate with their
(with grub screws), brackets, etc. The 2. After securing the motors and respective connectors on the receiver
overall dimensions (length×width× wheels, we attached two angled brack- PCB. Make a provision for reversing
height) of the rover, before mounting ets part No. 102 (at front and rear- the polarity to one of the two motors,
the battery and the PCB, are approxi- middle positions) of the two flat plates in case you find one of them rotating
mately 14×9×7.5 cm. The mechanical (part No. 926) for mounting LEDs (us- in wrong direction due to the wiring
parts used are shown under the Me- ing Feviquick) for front and rear di- error.
chanical Parts List. There is much rections. Also using reverse-angle 6. Use some thermocole sheet on the
scope for improving the aesthetics of brackets (part No. 105), we suitably flanged sheet to ensure that the battery
this prototype. Hopefully, the enthu- mounted the direction-indicating LEDs sits over it, maintaining proper balance.
siasts/hobbyists would devote extra on the two flat plates. Use four 10cm long screws and nuts
time and energy to give it a more pro- 3. The next step is to mount 5cm through the flanged plate for mount-
fessional appearance. dia. Castor wheel (plastic) at the rear ing the receiver PCB through its four
The mechanical assembly of the of the flanged plate in middle posi- corner holes. The screws should secure
rover is followed by proper placement tion, roughly 2 cm from the edge. (The the battery and the PCB in position.
of the battery (6V, 4Ah), mounting of flange is to face up.) Again we had to 7. Now insert the connectors from
the PCB (over the battery) and finally enlarge a 4mm hole in the required the battery, LEDs and motors into their
plugging the connectors from the bat- position to 10mm dia. as the diameter corresponding connectors on the re-
tery, motors and various LEDs of the threaded bolt of the castor wheel ceiver PCB. This completes the me-
(mounted on the rover) into the corre- is around 9 mm. Use two nuts (one chanical assembly of your rover. Good
sponding connectors on the PCB be- before passing the bolt through the luck!
fore being able to control various mo- hole on the flanged plate and the other EFY note. Parts of the kit will soon
tions of the land rover remotely using after the flanged plate). This provides be available from EFY associates
either RF or IR principles—by simply for adjusting the height of castor Kits‘n’Spares. 

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