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Ancient China Study Guide


Shang Dynasty:
Society Had Six Social Classes: Kings, Nobles, Craftspeople, Traders, Farmers, Slaves. Which class had the larges population? Farmers were the largest class. Describe Feudalism: Nobles own the land. Farmers rent from them and have to pay whatever the noble wants so the farmers cannot get rich. Government Lead by powerful king. They were the first to discover how to make bronze, which they used to make strong weapons. Shang armies were split up into groups (specialized). Religion Based on ancestor worship and they believed that their ancestors could help or harm them. Invention and Innovation: Oracle bones were used to communicate with the ancestors. Oracle bones were where writing came from. A written language helped to unify the country. Bronze weapons gave the Shang a tremendous advantage.

Zhou Dynasty:s
Political Structures

Describe the Mandate of Heaven: Kings claimed they had the Mandate of heaven. This allowed them to rule with complete power. Confucianism: A way of thinking based on a belief that people need to be shown, not forced to do the right thing. It is based on teaching, not forcing. Daoism: A way of thinking based people having happiness and peace by living in harmony, or agreement, with the way of nature. Legalism: A way of thinking based on the idea that most people are naturally selfish. Legalists are people who always pursue their own self interest. They establish strict laws and enforce them with rewards and they have punishments if they do not follow the rules.

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Quin Dynasty:
How did the Emperor Qin unify China under one rule? -Laws were the same for everyone. -Money was the same for everyone. -Language was the same for everyone. -Weights and Measures were standardized. Standardized= everything is the same Which philosophy did Emperor Qin follow? Legalism. Name two things that are around today that Emperor Qin made his people build: 1. The Terra Cotta Warriors 2. The Great Wall Inventions

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Invention

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How did each invention improve the lives of the Chinese people? (Read pages 226-230) The chain pump was an important invention because it channeled water to the farmers to help irrigate their crops. Chain pumps also brought fresh drinking water into the cities. The Iron Plow was an important invention because it poured melted iron into molds, which made it easier to make strong iron plows. It was also important because it was designed to make trenches and push dirt away from the trench. The Wheelbarrow was an important invention because it was much easier for farmers to push a heavy load in a wheelbarrow than to carry it on their backs or in buckets suspended from a pole across their shoulders.

Chain Pump

Iron Plow

Wheelbarrow

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Invention

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How did each invention improve the lives of the Chinese people? (Read pages 226-230) Silk was an important invention because silk was very valuable in trade with people outside of China. The silk trade began under the Han. Silk was very hard to make and time-consuming. Silk is a material produced from the fibers of a silkworm cocoon. The iron tipped bamboo drill was an important invention because it dug deep wells and could retrieve salt all the way to 1000 feet below the surface. Calligraphy was an important form of art for the Chinese. Their pictures were inspired by nature and their writing flowed naturally. Their strokes were done delicately but it created bold lines. They wrote their characters by painting with a brush and ink.

Silk

Iron-Tipped Bamboo Drill

Calligraphy

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Invention

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How did each invention improve the lives of the Chinese people? (Read pages 226-230)

Paper

There were many materials to make paper, including silk fibers hemp bamboo straw and seaweed. The materials were boiled into a soupy pulp. Then they dipped a screen and when the soupy pulp dried the result was paper. Paper was cheaper than bamboo or silk so people could afford to write more. Acupuncture was an important invention because it was useful for curing illnesses that strike quickly, like headaches. In acupuncture, thin needles are inserted into specific parts of the body This is thought to rebalance the forces of yin and yang.

Acupuncture

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Invention

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How did each invention improve the lives of the Chinese people? (Read pages 226-230) The seismograph is an important invention because it is an instrument used for detecting earthquakes. The first Chinese seismograph was a circular machine made of bronze. The machine had a pendulum in the center and was surrounded by eight sculpted animal heads. Using this ingenious machine, the Han were able to detect earthquakes up to several hundred miles away. The magnetic compass is an important invention because it is an instrument for determining directions, such as which way is north or south. The Chinese believed that it was important to place temples, graves, and homes in the correct position for luck. By the 200s C.E., they understood that a lodestone direction because of Earths magnetism.

Seismograph

Magnetic Compass