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4/26/2011

PERKEMBANGAN FISIK DAN KOGNITIF PADA MASA KANAKKANAK TENGAH


HEPI WAHYUNINGSIH PRODI PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS ISLAM INDONESIA

Aspek-Aspek Perkembangan Fisik


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Pertumbuhan

Berat: bertambah 2x pada usia 6 ? 11

Tinggi: bertambah 2-3 inci setiap tahun


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Anak perempuan memiliki tubuh yang lebih memiliki lapisan lemak dibanding anak laki-laki

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Nutrisi
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Kebutuhan tidur
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Anak-anak membutuhkan kurang lebih 2400 kalori perhari

Agar tidak terjadi kegemukan dan mengalami masalah jantung seorang anak seharusnya hanya mendapatkan 30 % total kalori lemak dan kurang dari 10% dari lemak jenuh.
2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Anak-anak usia 9 tahun membutuhkan waktu tidur 10 jam setiap malam.

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Kesehatan dan Keselamatan


Medis Akut Infections Allergies Flu Warts Medis Kronis Masalah penglihatan dan pendengaran

Luka akibat kecelakaan


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Anak lebih banyak melakukan aktivitas fisik dan kurangnya pengawasan 88 % dapat dihindari dengan penggunaan helm Kekerasan pada anak

Asma HIV dan AIDS


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Kemajuan kognitif: Hubungan spasial dan kausalitas


Concrete-operational children have a clearer idea of distance from place to place ? Better use of maps
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Kemajuan Kognitif: kategorisasi


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Seriation

Menyusun obyek-obyek dalam sebuah rangkaian, didasarkan pada sebuah dimensi Example: Lightest to darkest Mengetahui hubungan antara 2 obyek yang didasarkan pada hubungan dengan obyek ketiga Ability to see relationship between a whole and its parts
2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Transitive inference

Class inclusion

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Kemajuan kognitif: Penalaran


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Kemajuan kognitif: Conservation


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Inductive

Starting specific and making generalizations My dog barks, her dog barks all dogs bark!

Conservation/konservasi: pengetahuan anak bahwa suatu benda akan tetap sama meskipun berubah bentuk Anak yang berada pada tahap operasional kongkrit dapat menjawab pertanyaan konservasi dalam kepala mereka Memahami identity, reversibility and decentering Horizontal dcalage: Ketidakmampuan anak mentransfer pengetahuan konservasi
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Deductive

Starting general and then making specific statements All dogs bark. Spot is a dog. Spot barks!

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Cognitive Advances: Number & Mathematics


Learn to count on More adept at solving simple story problems ? Some intuitively understand fractions ? Able to estimate
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3 Tahap perkembangan Penalaran Moral menurut Piaget


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Obedience to authority

Ages 2-7 Ages 7-11 Around age 11 or 12


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Increasing flexibility and autonomy

How much time do I need to walk to school?


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Notion of equity

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Understanding Memory
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Mnemonics: Strategies for Remembering


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External memory aids

A note pad Repeating a phone number in your head Placing information into categories (animals) Imagining items associated with something else
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Knowledge about the processes of memory

Rehearsal

Organization

Elaboration

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Language: Vocabulary, Grammar and Syntax


Children use increasingly precise verbs ? Children start to use the passive voice and conditional sentences ? Syntax structure continues to become more complex
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Pragmatics
The practical use of language to communicate ? Use of conversational skills
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Asking questions before introducing a topic, to make sure the other person is familiar

Use of narrative skills


Starting to describe motives and causal links when telling stories

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Reading
Children identify print in two ways:
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Writing Skills
Develop along with reading Early compositions are short ? Child must keep in mind many restraints:
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Decoding

Emphasizes phonetic, or code-emphasis, approach

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Visually-Based Retrieval

Whole-language approach

Spelling Punctuation and grammar Capitalization

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Influences on School Achievement


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Children with Learning Problems


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Self-efficacy beliefs Gender Parenting practices SES and social capital Educational system & school environment

Mental retardation Learning disabilities (LD)

Dyslexia

Social Promotion promoting students who do not meet standards

Hyperactivity and Attention Deficits (ADHD)

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Computer and Internet use Culture


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Issues of diagnosis, heritability and drug therapies


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Educating Children with Disabilities


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Identifying Gifted Children


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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Criterion is high general intelligence

Ensures free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities

IQ score of 130 or higher Highly creative children Disadvantaged children Children with specific aptitudes
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Tends to exclude:

Inclusion Programs

Integrating disabled and non-disabled children for all or part of day


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Defining and Measuring Creativity


Two kinds of thinking:
1.

Educating Gifted Children


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Enrichment

Convergent

The kind IQ tests measure Seeks a single answer Comes up with a wide array of new possibilities Example: Listing unusual uses for a paper clip
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Broadens knowledge through classroom activities, research activities, field trips

Acceleration
Speeds up education through grade skipping, fast-paced classes or advanced classes
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Divergent (Creativity)

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