Anda di halaman 1dari 16

INTODUCTION The term business is defined as an organized way to earn profit.

Profit is basic motif that coerces any business individual or organization to produce something that is really needed. This basic motif compels producers to take necessary steps to improve not only the product qualities but also the appearance. Producers manage to interlink demands and supplies and help their consumers to get maximum satisfaction in limited resources by offering them many well-suited goods. As there is always scarcity of sources and abundance of wants; to generate symmetry between wants and supplies a wide range of similar and nearly alternative products are offered with varieties of price, packing style, brand name etc. by various companies, which provides customers multiplicity of choices. Since, in perfect competition every individual or firm has rights to enter the market (or leave the market) at any time and produce and sell goods according to their own will, every producer tries his level best to captivate consumers' attention by emphasizing qualities of his products among many almost similar products, hence it becomes essential to use multiplicity of packaging style, size and color of likely products, so that specific brands may be distinguished among others. The intentions of Consumer for procuring anything depends upon the intensity of his desires to satisy his needs. Consumers have expectations that anything he is buying will satisfy his needs. (Kupiec and Revell, 2001) The basic purpose is to fulfill consumer's needs instead of product name, consequently consumer makes buying decision at the moment they encounter different objects rather making prior decisions. Consumer's purchase decision depends the way he is communicated for anything at store. The packaging becomes a major cause of his decision to buy anything because it is the first introduction of the product, which communicates the consumer that whether a product may (or may not) fulfill his requirements. The product which appears more suitable to a customer a nearest match for his needs is bought, whereas others are left. The key factor to convince a customer is to know his needs and to make him understand that a particular thing is a perfect match of his requirements.

OBJECTIVE 1. Physical Fortification

The objects enclosed in the package may require shield from many things like shock, shuddering, compression, high temperature, etc. Appropriate Packaging Material accumulates objects from all these hazards. 2. Protection

Food products can be kept safe for a long time, unless Oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc. may not affect them. Infiltration is a critical factor in designing packaging materials. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life, whereas usage of metallic sheet or poly film is quite normal in packaging of food related items to prevent oxygen. 3. Repression

Handling small objects separately is difficult than keeping them in one packet or box, hence diminutive objects are usually grouped together in one package instead of keeping them in different packages. 4. Communication

Packages are properly labeled to provide information related to usage of product that how to use, transport, reprocess, or dispose of the package or product. Food, medical, chemical and pharmaceutical products are labeled proper manufacturing and expiry dates as well as suitable way of handling for example on some packages "keep in cold and dry place" is written because moisture and heat can cause hazardous change in the product, on some cartons stacking size has also mentioned to avoid any damage.



The packaging and labels are used to influence consumers to buy something. Package graphic design and physical design are chosen after thorough survey and deep study of consumers' taste and behavior.


LITERATURE REVIEW Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. As its name suggests, mass communication uses the same message for everyone in an audience. The mass communication tools trade off the advantage of personal selling, the to tailor a message to each prospect,for the advantage of reaching many people at a lower cost per person (Etzel et al., 1997).Today, definitions of advertising abound. We might define it as communication process, a marketing process, an economic and social process, a public relations process or an information and persuasion process (Arens, 1996).Dunn et al. (1978) viewed advertising from its functional perspectives, hence they define it as a paid, non-personal communication through various media by business firms, non-profit organization, and individuals who are in someway identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience. Morden (1991) is of the opinion that advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it.Kotler (1988) sees advertising as one of the four buyers through the purchase decision process. Individual purchasers will filter out unfavourable or un-known brands and the continued purchase of the branded product will reinforce the brand loyal behaviour. Advertising and Consumer Behaviour Advertisers primary mission is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keep individuals (markets) interested in their products. To succeed, they need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do. The advertisers goals is to get enough relevant market data to develop accurate profiles of buyers-tofind the common group (and symbols) for communications this involves the study of consumers behaviour: the mental and emotional processes and the physical activities of people who purchase and use goods and services to satisfy particular need sand wants (Arens, 1996).Proctor et al. (1982) noted that the principal aim of consumer behaviour analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behavior ,especially the economic, social and psychologicall aspects which can indicate the most favoured marketing mix that management should select.


Consumers were asked directly about specific attributes of products and beliefs about brands, and this information was used to predict the preference order for the brands. Five attributes were specified for each of six product categories studied, on the basis of informal interviews. Weights for the evaluative component were determined from each respondent's forced ranking of the importance of the attributes in the selection of a brand. Beliefs about the attributes for individual brands were measured by having respondents provide a scaled value from 1 to 6 from "very satisfactory" to "very unsatisfactory" on each attribute for each brand. An alternative methodology is suggested by the emerging literature on nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Some exploratory examples of this approach have used a basic hypothesis similar to ours [5, 7]. However, we believe our direct approach provides a stronger initial test of the underlying hypothesis. Ideally, it would have been desirable to study the relationship between attitudes and brand purchasing behavior, but this posed methodological and financial difficulties. Preference clearly does not convert directly into purchasing behavior, but the two are related. Furthermore, since attitudes should be a weaker predictor of purchase than preference, the result is conclusive with respect to actual behavior if the hypothesis that attitudes predict preference is rejected


The most widespread types of packaging material are paper, glass, aluminum, fiber board, plastic and steel. Paper: Paper is one of the most extensively used packaging materials, because of being light in weight, cheap in price and easily available. The use of corrugated cardboard, instead of wooden boxes, has reduced weight of packaging materials on one hand and made safe and easy transportation on the other hand. Glass: The use of Glass, as Packaging Material has almost been given up, especially for food items e.g. for beverages because any slight jerk or shock causes it to break into pieces, which is not only material loss but also is harmful for human health; usage of glass has been replaced with Tin and Plastic. Aluminum: It iscommonly used inpackaging of food items,such asin cans of soft drinks and in tin packed provisions as foil to protect foodstuff from decomposition by preventing access of oxygen. The used aluminum as scrap is sold on high price because aluminum is recycled economically because 20 recycled aluminum cans, can be made with the energy it takes to manufacture one brand new one. Steel: Currently Steel is being used as packaging material for foods, beverages and paints as well as aerosols. Steel is recycled in great extent to minimize product cost. Plastic: The use of plastic as packaging material brings so many advantages for instance plastic is light weighted, long lasting and easily available material. The cost of plastic is a bit cheaper as compare to aluminum and steel.

FEATURES Package Size: Prior visiting market, a buyer has to decide how much quantity of his required product must be purchased to fulfill his need. Since consumers face scarcity of resources and abundance of wants, everyone tries to form symmetry between resources and wants by spending specific amount of money on various articles of goods according to need, for instance a person has Rs 100/- in his pocket and he needs potatoes and milk powder. He will have to decide how much quantity of both can fulfill his requirements. The size of Package plays essential role in consumer's decision of purchase, for example a family consisting of only two members will never buy a container of ten kg milk powder on contrary a large family will never procure half quarter of same. Shape of Package Size and shape also emerges as a crucial dimension. One way in which consumers appear to use these things is as a simplifying visual heuristic to make volume judgments. Generally, they perceive more elongated packages to be larger, even when they frequently purchase these packages and have experience using them. Increased competition is forcing brand managers of consumer goods to alter the portfolio of the package sizes they offer (Elliott 1993). In making these decisions, managers are beginning to speculate whether larger package sizes accelerate a consumer's usage volume of particular products. Indeed, a recent memo distributed within a large packaged goods company encouraged brand managers to "rethink how package sizes and shapes influence (pouring) volume" before making package-related decisions in their product line. In effect, the interest of these managers is shifting from how consumers choose brands to how they use them (Wansink 1994a). Although some managers assume that that larger package sizes encourage consumers to use more (per usage occasion) than smaller package sizes, the support is only anecdotal and these assumptions are becoming a source of controversy. Managers are interested in selling more of a product, where- as public policy officials are interested in decreasing the amount that a consumer wastes (Shapiro 1993). At the center of this issue is the relationship between package size and usage volume. The aim here is to help clarify this issue by

1. Empirically determining whether package size has an impact on the usage volume of branded products and 2. Investigating the reasons for any such impact. There is a strong impact on consumer decision making from the development of the market through marketing communications, including image building (Kupiec and Revell, 2001). This defines methodology to understand consumers' behavior towards similar existing products and provides probability of the success of any new launch. "How packaging elements can affect buying decisions?" is the basic element of running a business, for instance all articles related to children no matter toys or edible goods, are wrapped in bright colors, whereas articles for mature and grown ups have sobriety in them. Straight shape has a positive utility compared to curvy, as does classic design on the package compared to colorful. This suggests that, overall the respondents may be more attracted to a package that seems familiar and reliable, rather than exciting. Focus group work also indicated that Thai consumers strongly prefer more familiar products. Without their usual choices, another product from a well-known company would be perceived as more reliable (Silayoi and Speece, 2004) Different shapes and sizes of packaging obscure the ability of consumers to make correct judgments about the quantity of a product to purchase. Some package sizes vary because of the nature of the products (e.g., meat) but for others the basis of variation cannot be justified for example there are countless sizes, colors and shapes of shampoos, which confuse consumers. The puzzlement can be overcome by the consumers by reading labels thoroughly because most product labels provide particular information. The comparison of product volumes must be made after paying attention on product labels which provide all relevant information regarding sizes and standard units (e.g. fluid is compared in ounces and solid in kg etc.) Most of the Shoppers usually do not show consideration to read product label and consequently the variance of sizes creates ambiguity. (Cole and Balasubramanian1993; Dickson and Sawyer 1990) Although consumers shop with their eyes, yet they pay little

attention towards the volume information mentioned on labels (Cole and Balasubramanian1993) As a matter of fact there are only a few consumers who read complete label prior buying anything but providing complete information of product on labels save many problems occur due to negligence such as people with high cholesterol must avoid fatty and rich in protein products to avoid any harm. Food labels provide complete information about products and one can form his opinion whether or not to buy a certain product in light of these information. Generally, differentiating among several objects becomes more complicated as the magnitude of the dissimilarity decreases. (Banks, Mermelstein, and Yu 1982) When consumers compare the volume of two similarly sized packages, that judgment may be contaminated by a factor that typically co-varies with size differences that one container attracts more attention than the other. If one of the two containers attracts more attention, consumers may misattribute the greater attention they subjectively experience as being paid to that package to a size difference. This intrusion may occur unconsciously so that consumers do not recognize its influence. Product Safety The functions of Packaging can be distributed into three main categories representing three "Cs" i.e. Cover from loss (Protection) Comfort (user friendly) and Communication (conveys messages of manufacturers and portrays good market image of products as well as producers) The security measures or cover from loss mean to protect product from internal and external loss e.g. damages during packing at factories or while carrying from one place to another for instance from factories to the distributors or retailers later on keeping safe and prolonging shelf life till the end users have them.Comfort is also a phase of Product safety, which causes good business relations and prolongs products reputations in market, for example cooking oil once used to be packed in air tight sealed tin containers. Those containers were best according to product safety but could not be proven user friendly because users had to cut the seal with cutters, which sometimes used to cause wounded hands of housewives. Those tin packed products could not be stored longer at homes because once the tin was opened it was to be used within specific time

Designs of Packaging Suitable Packing is designed to captivate a customer's attention. The moment a consumer throws a glance towards products, his decision for whether or not to buy a product is formed on the basis of product appearance. A child will always reject product having dull colors whereas an old man will surely avoid using bright colored objects. A well marketed product is wrapped packaging, which suits the flavor of users. Mercedes can never be found in shocking pink color because people who use it, have sober taste and prefer elegance, whereas sports cars are manufactured in bright colors because the dominant users are young. Color effects human behavior such as some colors make us happy whereas others make us sad. While making purchase decision, colour scheme becomes more obvious. The effect of colour has been studied widely to know the consumer's perception. (Imram, 1999) Consumer opinions of an adequate color are associated with discernments of other quality features, such as taste, aroma, satisfaction and nourishment levels. Positive effect can be gained by using one or more packaging variables. In some product clear packaging is sued to allow consumers to view food colour, incident light, and taxonomy. While making advertisement of food items, the best colour combination is used not only for plates having food items but also the clothes of models and the surroundings are used in contrast, so that the food product may feel better. In Caf or Restaurants, the food products chosen for display and sale by caterers are selected for their color and appearance attributes (Imram, 1999)

Packaging Tools Colors, fonts, descriptions and logos are important packing tools, which are used to form opinions of consumers regarding products. Products, having similar category, are distinguished by their prominent colors, fonts and sizes. Variation of color and font size etc. illustrates consumers that a certain product is somehow dissimilar with its competitors. Although products name are kept different, yet while keeping in shelf, they all look same from a distance, unless somebody examines them closely. Stressing out essential of proper packaging Rettie & Brewer (2000) describe two elements of influencing consumers. verbal (for example, brand slogans),visual (visual apeal, picture, etc.) Company Representation Although branding and packaging are created by a company, yet as a matter of fact they are important to form company image in market and in consumers' minds. Companies become familiar when their brands are acknowledged for instance whenever IBM is mentioned it leads the image of a more traditional, deep-rooted corporate culture and despite having many other branded and unbranded goods IBM, Compaq, Dell and Acer are distinguished because of their own qualities. A well known company has to work lesser to launch a new product than a newly established unidentified company because the credibility of eminent company illustrate people to rely and use new product for instance if a new product is launched by an unknown company people hesitate to use it but I they are told that the product is launched by a famous company like Unilever, they will surely trust the product qualities. Packaging designs and logs are mark of identification of any product and acquaintance of product makes any company familiar as reliable in market such as the logo of an Italian chef explains that the product is some how related to the Italian food like pizza or logo of Pied Piper remembers people that Peak Freens products are being discussed.

DATA ANALYSIS The results of the data analysis generally achieved an appropriate parsimony model (Chi-square= 1637.304, d.f.=319, CMIN/DF= 5.289). But to some extent, the model has relatively poor goodness-of-fit measures, in particular, the indices of GFI (0.778), AGFI (0.737), NFI (0.784), and RMSEA (0.088). The GFI of 0.778 describes that the goodness of fit of the model indicates about 78 percent fit. The NFI of 0.784 describes that the fit of the proposed model is about 78 percent closer to the fit of the saturated model (the perfectly fitting model). Note that values of the GFI and AGFI can vary from 0 to 1, with values above 0.90 considered as good and values from 0.80 to 0.90 considered as moderate (Bentler & Bonett, 1980). For NFI, the closer its values to 1, the better are the fitness of the hypothesized model over the null model. Note that a value of about 0.08 or less for the RMSEA would indicate reasonable error of approximation (Browne & Cudeck, 1993). Many fit measures represent an attempt to balance between parsimonious and well fitting model, that is, two conflicting objectives - simplicity and goodness of fit. Steiger (1990) stated that "in the final analysis, it may be impossible to define one best way to combine measures of complexity and measures of badness-of-fit in a single numerical index, because the precise nature of the best numerical tradeoff between complexity and fit is a matter of personal taste. The choice of a model is a classic problem in the two dimensional analysis of preference" (p.179). This study seeks the grounds for preferring a simple, parsimonious model instead of complex ones. At the same time, a well fitting model is preferable to poorly fitting ones. Null hypothesis 1a, "the consumer personality has no relationship with the upscale concept of brand personality," was empirically tested. The results show that causality relationships between "work-hard," "positive," "adventure" of consumer personality and the upscale concept of brand personality are statistically significant (p < 0.05), as shown in Table 4 and Figure 2. This suggests that the personality of consumers has related to a selection of a brand identity that represents the self concept of oneself.

CONCLUSION Quite a number of important conclusions can be drawn from the findings of this study which have policy implications for the company under study and others in the industry. Brand preference does exist in the food drink industry. Many consumers do not buy whatever is available or affordable if a product is good value for its price, it will command brand loyalty. However, advertising helps in projecting product quality and value before the consumers. This is what is applicable to Bournvita presently. Advertising has a major influence on consumers preference for Bournvita and it has, in no small measure, contributed to its success. The same thing goes for its quality. Having been known for more than between 10 and 20 years by majority of the respondents and still remain their favorite food drink, the brand has definitely enjoyed a prolonged life cycle apparently being regenerated by advertising. The stage a productmis in its life cycle is very important to a marketer as it help in determining the type of marketing strategies to be embarked upon in respect of the said product. From this study, Bournvita is apparently a m ature product and the companys management must ensure that it does not slip to decline stage as this may mark the beginning of its demise. Towards this end, the management is advised to carry out the following: (i) research continuously into quality improvement that will make consumers enjoy good value for money paid to purchase the brand. (ii) Develop more effective advertising campaign that attracts c onsumers attention and capture their intere st. At this stage the companys advertising messages should both be persuasive and reminder-oriented. The messages must be strong and appealing enough to persuade and build brand preferences, encourage switching to the companys b rand by changing the perception of the consumers of rival brands the product.



Rita Kuvykaite, Aiste Dovaliene, Laura Navickiene "IMPACT OF PACKAGE ELEMENTS ON CONSUMER'S PURCHASE DECISION" JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT 2009. Pinya Silayoi, Mark Speece "Packaging and Purchase decision" Journal of British Food 2004. Robert L underwood, Noreen M Klien, Raymond R Burke "Packaging communication: attentional effects of product imagery" Journal of product and brand management 2001. Olga Ampuero, Natalia Vila "Consumer perceptions of product packaging" Journal of consumer Marketing 2006. Pinya Silayoi, Mark Speece "The importance of packaging attributes: a conjoint analysis approach" European Journal of Marketing 2007